|Larval harvest mite from North America|
|Genus:|| Trombicula |
| Trombicula minor |
Trombicula, known as chiggers, red bugs, scrub-itch mites, or berry bugs, are small arachnids (eight-legged arthropods) in the Trombiculidae family. In their larval stage, they attach to various animals, including humans, and feed on skin, often causing itching and trombiculosis. These relatives of ticks are nearly microscopic, measuring 0.4 mm (0.01 in) and have a chrome-orange hue. A common species of harvest mite in North America is Trombicula alfreddugesi ; in the UK, the most prevalent harvest mite is Trombicula autumnalis .[ citation needed ]
The larval mites feed on the skin cells, but not blood, of animals. The six-legged parasitic larva feeds on a large variety of creatures, including humans, rabbits, toads, box turtles, quail, and even some insects. After crawling onto their hosts, they inject digestive enzymes into the skin that break down skin cells. They do not actually "bite", but instead form a hole in the skin called a stylostome, and chew up tiny parts of the inner skin, thus causing severe irritation and swelling. The severe itching is accompanied by red pimple-like bumps (papules) or hives and skin rash or lesions on a sun-exposed area. For humans, itching usually occurs after the larvae detach from the skin.[ citation needed ]
After feeding on their hosts, the larvae drop to the ground and become nymphs, then mature into adults, which have eight legs and are harmless to humans. In the postlarval stage, they are not parasitic and feed on plant materials. The females lay three to eight eggs in a clutch, usually on a leaf or under the roots of a plant, and die by autumn.[ citation needed ]
Species in the genus Trombicula are found throughout the world. In Europe and North America, they tend to dwell in hot and humid climates. In more temperate regions, they are found only in summer. (In France, for example, they are called aoûtat, after août, August; vendangeon, after vendange, harvest; or rouget, after rouge, red.) In the United States, they are found mostly in the southeast, the south, and the Midwest. They are rarely found in far northern areas, high mountains or deserts. They live in low, damp areas within forests and grasslands, as well as in drier environments places where vegetation is low-growing but profuse, such as lawns, golf courses and parks. They are most numerous in early summer when grass, weeds and other vegetation are most prevalent. Harvest mites can also find their way into homes via human hosts who have passed through such areas[ citation needed ].
Forensic entomology is the scientific study of the colonization of a dead body by arthropods.This includes the study of insect types commonly associated with cadavers, their respective life cycles, their ecological presences in a given environment, as well as the changes in insect assemblage with the progression of decomposition. Insect succession patterns are identified based on the time a given species of insect spends in a given developmental stage, and how many generations have been produced since the insects introduction to a given food source. Insect development alongside environmental data such as temperature and vapor density, can be used to estimate the time since death, due to the fact that flying insects are attracted to a body immediately after death. The identification of postmortem interval to aid in death investigations is the primary scope of this scientific field. However, forensic entomology is not limited to homicides, it has also been used in cases of neglect and abuse, in toxicology contexts to detect the presence of drugs, and in dry shelf food contamination incidents. Equally, insect assemblages present on a body, can be used to approximate a given location, as certain insects may be unique to certain areas. Therefore, forensic entomology can be divided into three subfields: urban, stored-product and medico-legal/medico-criminal entomology.
Flea, the common name for the order Siphonaptera, includes 2,500 species of small flightless insects that survive as external parasites of mammals and birds. Fleas live by consuming blood, or hematophagy, from their hosts. Adult fleas grow to about 3 millimetres long, are usually brown, and have bodies that are "flattened" sideways or narrow, enabling them to move through their host's fur or feathers. They lack wings, but have strong claws preventing them from being dislodged, mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood, and hind legs extremely well adapted for jumping. They are able to leap a distance of some 50 times their body length, a feat second only to jumps made by another group of insects, the superfamily of froghoppers. Flea larvae are worm-like with no limbs; they have chewing mouthparts and feed on organic debris left on their host's skin.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats. These groups have in common a shell whose outline is elongated and asymmetrical compared with other edible clams, which are often more or less rounded or oval.
Ticks are parasitic arachnids that are part of the mite superorder Parasitiformes. Adult ticks are approximately 3 to 5 mm in length depending on age, sex, species, and "fullness". Ticks are external parasites, living by feeding on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians. The timing of the origin of ticks is uncertain, though the oldest known tick fossils are from the Cretaceous period, around 100 million years old. Ticks are widely distributed around the world, especially in warm, humid climates.
Mites are small arachnids. Mites span two large orders of arachnids, the Acariformes and the Parasitiformes, which were historically grouped together in the subclass Acari, but genetic evidence suggests are not closely related. The Parasitiformes include ticks, which are sometimes semantically distinguished from mites.
Scrub typhus or bush typhus is a form of typhus caused by the intracellular parasite Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative α-proteobacterium of family Rickettsiaceae first isolated and identified in 1930 in Japan.
Tunga penetrans is a species of flea also known as the jigger, jigger flea, chigoe, chigo, chigoe flea, chigo flea, nigua, sand flea, or burrowing flea. It is a parasitic insect found in most tropical and sub-tropical climates. In its parasitic phase it has significant impact on its hosts, which include humans and certain other mammalian species. A parasitical infestation of T. penetrans is called tungiasis. Jiggers are often confused with chiggers, a type of mite. Jiggers are native to Central and South America, and have been inadvertently introduced by humans to sub-Saharan Africa.
Tungiasis is an inflammatory skin disease caused by infection with the female ectoparasitic Tunga penetrans, a flea also known as the chigoe, chigo, chigoe flea, chigo flea, jigger, nigua, sand flea, or burrowing flea. The flea and the disease that it causes are found in the tropical parts of Africa, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and India. Tunga penetrans is the smallest known flea, measuring 1 mm across. It is also known in Latin America as the nigua and bicho de pie (Spanish) or bicho de pé (Portuguese), literally "foot bug". Tunga penetrans is a member of the genus Tunga, which comprises 13 species.
Oribatida, also known as oribatid mites, moss mites or beetle mites, are an order of mites, in the "chewing Acariformes" clade Sarcoptiformes. They range in size from 0.2 to 1.4 millimetres. There are currently 12,000 species that have been identified, but researchers estimate that there may be anywhere from 60,000 to 120,000 total species. Oribatid mites are by far the most prevalent of all arthropods in forest soils, and are essential for breaking down organic detritus and distributing fungi.
Orientia tsutsugamushi is a mite-borne bacterium belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae and is responsible for a disease called scrub typhus in humans. It is a natural and an obligate intracellular parasite of mites belonging to the family Trombiculidae. With a genome of only 2.0–2.7 Mb, it has the most repeated DNA sequences among bacterial genomes sequenced so far. The disease, scrub typhus, occurs when infected mite larvae accidentally bite humans. Primarily indicated by undifferentiated febrile illnesses, the infection can be complicated and often fatal.
Eutrombicula is a genus of mites in the family Trombiculidae. The species of this genus are found throughout North America, and Australia.
Leptotrombidium is a genus of mites in the family Trombiculidae, that are able to infect humans with scrub typhus through their bite. The larval form feeds on rodents, but also occasionally humans and other large mammals. They are related to the harvest mites of the North America and Europe.
Trombiculidae (; commonly referred to as chiggers, but also known as berry bugs, harvest mites, bush-mites, red bugs or scrub-itch mites, are a family of mites. Chiggers are often confused with jiggers - a type of flea. Several species of Trombiculidae in their larva stage bite their animal or human host and by embedding their mouthparts into the skin cause "intense irritation" or "a wheal, usually with severe itching and dermatitis",
Gamasoidosis, or dermanyssosis, is a frequently unrecognized ectoparasitosis and source of growing concern in human medicine, occurring after contact with avian mites which infest canaries, sparrows, starlings, pigeons and poultry and caused by two genera of mites, Ornithonyssus and Dermanyssus. Avian mite species implicated include the red mite, tropical fowl mite and northern fowl mite . Mite dermatitis is also associated with rodents infested with the tropical rat mite, spiny rat mite and house-mouse mite, where the condition is known as rodent mite dermatitis. Urban gamasoidosis is associated with window-sills, ventilation and air-conditioning intakes, roofs and eaves, which serve as shelters for nesting birds. Humans bitten by these mites experience a non-specific dermatitis with intense itching.
Mites that infest and parasitize domestic animals cause disease and loss of production. Mites are small invertebrates, most of which are free living but some are parasitic. Mites are similar to ticks and both comprise the order Acari in the phylum Arthropoda. Mites are highly varied and their classification is complex; a simple grouping is used in this introductory article. Vernacular terms to describe diseases caused by mites include scab, mange, and scabies. Mites and ticks have substantially different biology from, and are classed separately from, insects. Mites of domestic animals cause important types of skin disease, and some mites infest other organs. Diagnosis of mite infestations can be difficult because of the small size of most mites, but understanding how mites are adapted to feed within the structure of the skin is useful.
Mites are small crawling animals related to ticks and spiders. Most mites are free-living and harmless. Other mites are parasitic, and those that infest livestock animals cause many diseases that are widespread, reduce production and profit for farmers, and are expensive to control.
Many species of flies of the two-winged type, Order Diptera, such as mosquitoes, horse-flies, blow-flies and warble-flies, cause direct parasitic disease to domestic animals, and transmit organisms that cause diseases. These infestations and infections cause distress to companion animals, and in livestock industry the financial costs of these diseases are high. These problems occur wherever domestic animals are reared. This article provides an overview of parasitic flies from a veterinary perspective, with emphasis on the disease-causing relationships between these flies and their host animals. The article is organized following the taxonomic hierarchy of these flies in the phylum Arthropoda, order Insecta. Families and genera of dipteran flies are emphasized rather than many individual species. Disease caused by the feeding activity of the flies is described here under parasitic disease. Disease caused by small pathogenic organisms that pass from the flies to domestic animals is described here under transmitted organisms; prominent examples are provided from the many species.
Eutrombicula samboni is a species of mite in the family Trombiculidae, found in South Australia.
Guntheria is a genus of mites in the family Trombiculidae. The species of this genus are found in Australia and the islands to its north.
Guntheria coorongensis is a species of mite in the family Trombiculidae, found from the tip of Cape York in Queensland to South Australia.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article " Harvest-bug ".|