Tryptophanase tetramer, E.Coli
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In enzymology, a tryptophanase (EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
The Enzyme Commission number is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. As a system of enzyme nomenclature, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme.
Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Because of this, only very small amounts of catalyst are required to alter the reaction rate in principle.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei, and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur.
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-tryptophan and H2O, whereas its 3 products are indole, pyruvate, and NH3.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient temperature and pressure. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions. During a chemical reaction reactants are transformed into products after passing through a high energy transition state. This process results in the consumption of the reactants. It can be a spontaneous reaction or mediated by catalysts which lower the energy of the transition state, and by solvents which provide the chemical environment necessary for the reaction to take place. When represented in chemical equations products are by convention drawn on the right-hand side, even in the case of reversible reactions. The properties of products such as their energies help determine several characteristics of a chemical reaction such as whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic. Additionally the properties of a product can make it easier to extract and purify following a chemical reaction, especially if the product has a different state of matter than the reactants. Reactants are molecular materials used to create chemical reactions. The atoms aren't created or destroyed. The materials are reactive and reactants are rearranging during a chemical reaction. Here is an example of reactants: CH4 + O2. A non-example is CO2 + H2O or "energy".
Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with formula C8H7N. It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring. Indole is widely distributed in the natural environment and can be produced by a variety of bacteria. As an intercellular signal molecule, indole regulates various aspects of bacterial physiology, including spore formation, plasmid stability, resistance to drugs, biofilm formation, and virulence. The amino acid tryptophan is an indole derivative and the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically in the "catch-all" class of carbon-carbon lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-tryptophan indole-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use include L-tryptophanase, and L-tryptophan indole-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme participates in tryptophan metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. It has 2 cofactors: pyridoxal phosphate, and Potassium.
In biochemistry, a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure. The reverse reaction is also possible. For example, an enzyme that catalyzed this reaction would be a lyase:
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity as a catalyst, a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. Cofactors can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations. The rates at which these happen are characterized by in an area of study called enzyme kinetics.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions. The Enzyme commission has catalogued more than 140 PLP-dependent activities, corresponding to ~4% of all classified activities. The versatility of PLP arises from its ability to covalently bind the substrate, and then to act as an electrophilic catalyst, thereby stabilizing different types of carbanionic reaction intermediates.
As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1AX4, 2C44, and 2OQX.
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. The data, typically obtained by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, or, increasingly, cryo-electron microscopy, and submitted by biologists and biochemists from around the world, are freely accessible on the Internet via the websites of its member organisations. The PDB is overseen by an organization called the Worldwide Protein Data Bank, wwPDB.
In enzymology, a D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a 2,3-dihydroxyindole 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, an indole 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 220.127.116.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
Alanine dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
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In enzymology, an indolepyruvate decarboxylase (EC 22.214.171.124) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
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In enzymology, a rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
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In enzymology, a tryptophan-tRNA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
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In enzymology, a pseudouridylate synthase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a tryptophan transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.
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