USS Sailfish (SS-192)

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USS Sailfish;0819202.jpg
USS Sailfish (SS-192), off the Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, 13 April 1943
History
US flag 48 stars.svgUnited States
Name: USS Squalus
Namesake: squalus
Builder:
Laid down: 18 October 1937
Launched: 14 September 1938
Sponsored by: Mrs. Thomas C. Hart
Commissioned: 1 March 1939
Decommissioned: 15 November 1939
Fate: Sunk and salvaged
Raised:13 September 1939
Renamed: USS Sailfish, 9 February 1940
Namesake: sailfish
Commissioned: 15 May 1940
Decommissioned: 27 October 1945
Struck: 30 April 1948
Honors and
awards:
Fate: Sold for scrap
General characteristics
Class and type: Sargo-class composite diesel-hydraulic and diesel-electric submarine [1]
Displacement:
  • 1,450 long tons (1,470 t) standard, surfaced [2]
  • 2,350 long tons (2,390 t) submerged [2]
Length: 310 ft 6 in (94.64 m) [2]
Beam: 26 ft 10 in (8.18 m) [2]
Draft: 16 ft 7.5 in (5.067 m) [2]
Installed power:
  • 5,500 hp (4,100 kW) surfaced [1]
  • 2,740 hp (2,040 kW) submerged [1]
Propulsion:
Speed:
  • 21  kn (24 mph; 39 km/h) surfaced [2]
  • 8.75 kn (10.07 mph; 16.21 km/h) submerged [2]
Range: 11,000  nmi (13,000 mi; 20,000 km) at 10 kn (12 mph; 19 km/h) [2]
Endurance: 48 hours at 2 kn (2.3 mph; 3.7 km/h) submerged [2]
Test depth: 250 ft (76 m) [2]
Complement: 5 officers, 54 enlisted [2]
Armament:

USS Sailfish (SS-192), was a US Sargo-class submarine, originally named Squalus.

The Sargo-class submarines were among the first US submarines to be sent into action after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, starting war patrols the day after the attack, having been deployed to the Philippines in late 1941. Similar to the previous Salmon class, they were built between 1937 and 1939. With a top speed of 21 knots, a range of 11,000 nautical miles (20,000 km), and a reliable propulsion plant, along with the Salmons they were an important step in the development of a true fleet submarine. In some references, the Salmons and Sargos are called the "New S Class", 1st and 2nd Groups.

Submarine Watercraft capable of independent operation underwater

A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub.

Contents

As the Squalus, the submarine sunk off the coast of New Hampshire during test dives on 23 May 1939. The sinking drowned 26 crew members, but an ensuing rescue operation using the McCann Rescue Chamber saved the lives of the remaining 33 crew members. The submarine was salvaged in late 1939 and decommissioned.

New Hampshire State of the United States of America

New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 5th smallest by area and the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state. It has no general sales tax, nor is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U.S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die". The state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite formations and quarries.

McCann Rescue Chamber

The McCann Submarine Rescue Chamber is a device for rescuing submariners from a submarine that is unable to surface.

The submarine was recommissioned as the Sailfish in May 1940, and conducted numerous patrols in the Pacific War during World War II, earning nine battle stars. The submarine was decommissioned in October 1945 and later scrapped; the conning tower remains on display at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine.

Pacific War theatre of war in the Second World War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

A conning tower is a raised platform on a ship or submarine, often armored, from which an officer in charge can conn the vessel, controlling movements of the ship by giving orders to those responsible for the ship's engine, rudder, lines, and ground tackle. It is usually located as high on the ship as practical, to give the conning team good visibility of the entirety of the ship, ocean conditions, and other vessels.

Construction of Squalus

Her keel was laid on 18 October 1937 by the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine, as Squalus, the only ship of the United States Navy named for the squalus, a type of shark. She was launched on 14 September 1938 sponsored by Mrs. Thomas C. Hart (wife of the Admiral), and commissioned on 1 March 1939, with Lieutenant Oliver F. Naquin in command. Due to mechanical failure, [4] [5] Squalus sank during a test dive on 23 May 1939. She was raised, renamed, and recommissioned on 15 May 1940 as Sailfish.

Keel Lower centreline structural element of a ship or boat hull

On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in the construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event. Only the ship's launching is considered more significant in its creation.

Keel laying formal recognition of the start of a ships construction

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

Portsmouth Naval Shipyard

The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS), often called the Portsmouth Navy Yard, is a United States Navy shipyard located in Kittery on the southern boundary of Maine near the city of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. PNS is tasked with the overhaul, repair, and modernization of US Navy submarines. The facility is sometimes confused with the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth, Virginia.

Sinking of Squalus and recommissioning

On 12 May 1939, following a yard overhaul, Squalus began a series of test dives off Portsmouth, New Hampshire. After successfully completing 18 dives, she went down again off the Isles of Shoals on the morning of 23 May at 42°53′N70°37′W / 42.883°N 70.617°W / 42.883; -70.617 . Failure of the main induction valve [5] [6] caused the flooding of the aft torpedo room, both engine rooms, and the crew's quarters, drowning 26 men immediately. [7] Quick action by the crew prevented the other compartments from flooding. Squalus bottomed in 243 ft (74 m) of water. [5]

Portsmouth, New Hampshire City in New Hampshire, United States

Portsmouth is a city in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 21,233, and in 2017 the estimated population was 21,796. A historic seaport and popular summer tourist destination on the Piscataqua River bordering the state of Maine, Portsmouth was formerly the home of the Strategic Air Command's Pease Air Force Base, since converted to Portsmouth International Airport at Pease.

Isles of Shoals

The Isles of Shoals are a group of small islands and tidal ledges situated approximately 6 miles (10 km) off the east coast of the United States, straddling the border of the states of Maine and New Hampshire.

Squalus was initially located by her sister ship, Sculpin. The two submarines were able to communicate using a telephone marker buoy until the cable parted. Divers from the submarine rescue ship Falcon began rescue operations under the direction of the salvage and rescue expert Lieutenant Commander Charles B. "Swede" Momsen, using the new McCann Rescue Chamber. The Senior Medical Officer for the operations was Dr. Charles Wesley Shilling. [8] Overseen by researcher Albert R. Behnke, the divers used recently developed heliox diving schedules and successfully avoided the cognitive impairment symptoms associated with such deep dives, thereby confirming Behnke's theory of nitrogen narcosis. [9] The divers were able to rescue all 33 surviving crew members from the sunken submarine. Four enlisted divers, Chief Machinist's Mate William Badders, Chief Boatswain's Mate Orson L. Crandall, Chief Metalsmith James H. McDonald and Chief Torpedoman John Mihalowski, were awarded the Medal of Honor for their work during the rescue and subsequent salvage. (The successful rescue of Squalus survivors is in marked contrast to the loss of Thetis in Liverpool Bay just a week later. [10] )

Sister ship ship of the same class or design as another

A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of virtually identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, and roughly comparable features and equipment. They often share a common naming theme, either being named after the same type of thing or with some kind of alliteration. Often, sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment are separately altered.

USS <i>Sculpin</i> (SS-191)

USS Sculpin (SS-191), a Sargo-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the sculpin.

Rescue buoy (submarine)

A submarine rescue buoy is a floating buoy, attached to a submarine and released in the event of a serious accident or sinking. The buoy remains attached to the submarine by a cable. Once on the surface it can indicate to rescuers the position of the submarine, and may include a telephone for communication with the trapped submariners.

The navy authorities felt it important to raise her as she incorporated a succession of new design features. With a thorough investigation of why she sank, more confidence could be placed in the new construction, or alteration of existing designs could be undertaken when cheapest and most efficient to do so. Furthermore, given similar previous accidents in Sturgeon and Snapper (indeed, in S-5, as far back as 1920), it was necessary to determine a cause.

SS-192 in drydock after salvage. SS-192salvage.jpg
SS-192 in drydock after salvage.

The salvage of Squalus was commanded by Rear Admiral Cyrus W. Cole, Commander of the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, who supervised salvage officer Lieutenant Floyd A. Tusler from the Construction Corps. [11] Tusler's plan was to lift the submarine in three stages to prevent it from rising too quickly, out of control, with one end up, in which case there would be a high likelihood of it sinking again. [12] For 50 days, divers worked to pass cables underneath the submarine and attach pontoons for buoyancy. On 13 July 1939, the stern was raised successfully, but when the men attempted to free the bow from the hard blue clay, the vessel began to rise far too quickly, slipping its cables. Ascending vertically, the submarine broke the surface, and 30 feet (10 m) of the bow reached into the air for not more than ten seconds before she sank once again all the way to the bottom. [13] Momsen said of the mishap, "pontoons were smashed, hoses cut and I might add, hearts were broken." [14] After 20 more days of preparation, with a radically redesigned pontoon and cable arrangement, the next lift was successful, as were two further operations. Squalus was towed into Portsmouth on 13 September, and decommissioned on 15 November. A total of 628 dives had been made in rescue and salvage operations. [14]

Operational history of Sailfish

Renamed Sailfish on 9 February 1940, she became the first ship of the U.S. Navy named for the sailfish. After reconditioning, repair, and overhaul, she was recommissioned on 15 May 1940 with Lieutenant Commander Morton C. Mumma, Jr. (Annapolis, Class of 1930) [15] in command.

With refit completed in mid-September, Sailfish departed Portsmouth on 16 January 1941 and headed for the Pacific. Transiting the Panama Canal, she arrived at Pearl Harbor in early March, after refueling at San Diego. The submarine then sailed west to Manila where she joined the Asiatic Fleet until the attack on Pearl Harbor.

During the Pacific War, the captain of the renamed ship issued standing orders if any man on the boat said the word "Squalus", he was to be marooned at the next port of call. This led to crew members referring to their ship as "Squailfish". That went over almost as well; a court martial was threatened for anyone heard using it. [16]

World War II

First five patrols: December 1941 – August 1942

Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Sailfish departed Manila on her first war patrol, destined for the west coast of Luzon. Early on 10 December, she sighted a landing force, supported by cruisers and destroyers, but could not gain firing position. [17] On the night of 13 December, she made contact with two Japanese destroyers and began a submerged attack; the destroyers detected her, dropping several depth charges, while Sailfish fired two torpedoes. Despite a large explosion nearby, no damage was done, and the destroyers counterattacked with 18–20 depth charges. [18] She returned to Manila on 17 December.

Her second patrol (now under the command of Richard G. Voge [19] begun on 21 December, took the submarine to waters off Formosa. On the morning of 27 January 1942, off Halmahera, near Davao, she sighted a Myōkō-class cruiser, making a daylight submerged attack with four torpedoes, and reporting the target was damaged, for which she got credit. [20] However, the damage could not be assessed since the cruiser's two escorts forced Sailfish to dive deep and run silent. Running at 260 ft (79 m), the submarine eluded the destroyers and proceeded south toward Java. She arrived at Tjilatjap on 14 February for refueling and rearming.

Departing on 19 February for her third patrol, she headed through Lombok Strait to the Java Sea. After sighting the heavy cruiser Houston and two escorts heading for Sunda Strait following the Allied defeat in the Battle of the Java Sea, Sailfish intercepted an enemy destroyer on 2 March. Following an unsuccessful attack, she was forced to dive deep to escape the ensuing depth charge attack from the destroyer and patrol aircraft. That night, near the mouth of Lombok Strait, she spotted what appeared to be the 38,200 long tons (38,800 t) aircraft carrier Kaga, [20] escorted by four destroyers. Sailfish fired four torpedoes, scoring two hits. Leaving the target aflame and dead in the water, Sailfish dove, the escorts delivering forty depth charges in the next 90 minutes. [20] She eluded destroyers and aircraft and arrived at Fremantle, Western Australia, on 19 March, to great fanfare, believed to be the first U.S. sub to have sunk an enemy carrier; postwar, it was revealed Kaga had been nowhere in the area, and the target had in fact been the 6,440 long tons (6,540 t) aircraft ferry Kamogawa Maru , still a valuable target. [21]

The Java Sea and Celebes Sea were the areas of Sailfish's fourth patrol, from 22 March–21 May. After delivering 1,856 rounds of anti-aircraft ammunition to "MacArthur's guerrillas", [20] she made only one ship contact and was unable to attack the target before returning to Fremantle.

The submarine's fifth patrol—from 13 June through 1 August—was off the coast of Indochina in the South China Sea. On 4 July, she intercepted and tracked a large freighter, but discovered the intended target was a hospital ship and held her fire. On 9 July, she intercepted and torpedoed a Japanese freighter. One of a pair of torpedoes struck home and the ship took a 15° list. As Sailfish went deep, a series of explosions were heard, and no further screw noises were detected. When the submarine surfaced in the area 90 minutes later, no ship was in sight. Though she was credited during the war with a 7,000 long tons (7,100 t) ship, [22] postwar examination of Japanese records confirmed no sinking in the area on that date. [23] Sailfish observed only one other enemy vessel before the end of the patrol.

Sixth and seventh patrols: September 1942 – January 1943

Shifting her base of operations to Brisbane, Sailfish (now under the command of John R. "Dinty" Moore) [24] got underway for her sixth patrol on 13 September and headed for the western Solomon Islands. On the night of 17–18 September, she encountered eight Japanese destroyers escorting a cruiser, but she was unable to attack. On 19 September, she attacked a minelayer. The spread of three torpedoes missed, and Sailfish was forced to dive deep to escape the depth charge counterattack. Eleven well-placed charges went off near the submarine, causing much minor damage. Sailfish returned to Brisbane on 1 November.

Underway for her seventh patrol on 24 November, Sailfish proceeded to the area south of New Britain. Following an unsuccessful attack on a destroyer on 2 December, the submarine made no other contacts until 25 December, when she believed she had scored a hit on a Japanese submarine. Postwar analysis of Japanese records could not confirm a sinking in the area. During the remainder of the patrol, she made unsuccessful attacks on a cargo ship and a destroyer before ending the patrol at Pearl Harbor on 15 January 1943.

Eighth and ninth patrols: May – September 1943

After an overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard from 27 January–22 April, Sailfish returned to Pearl Harbor on 30 April. Departing Hawaii on 17 May for her eighth patrol, she stopped off to fuel at Midway Island and proceeded to her station off the east coast of Honshū. Several contacts were made but, because of bad weather, were not attacked. On 15 June, she encountered two freighters off Todo Saki, escorted by three subchasers. [25] Firing a spread of three stern torpedoes, she observed one hit which stopped the maru dead in the water. Sailfish was driven down by the escort, but listened on her sound gear as Shinju Maru broke up and sank. Ten days later, she found a second convoy, three ships with a subchaser and, unusually, an aircraft, for escort. Sailfish once more fired three stern tubes, sinking Iburi Maru; in response, the subchaser, aircraft, and three additional escorts, [25] pinned her down in a gruelling depth charge attack lasting 10 hours and 98 charges but causing only slight damage. [25] After shaking loose pursuit, she set course for Midway on 26 June, arriving there on 3 July. [26]

Her ninth patrol (commanded by William R. Lefavour) [27] lasted from 25 July–16 September and covered the Formosa Strait and waters off Okinawa. It produced only two contacts (a 2,500 long tons (2,500 t) steamer at Naha, Okinawa, and a junk), [25] but no worthwhile targets, and Sailfish thereafter returned to Pearl Harbor. [28]

Tenth patrol: November 1943 – January 1944

After refit at Pearl Harbor, she departed (under the command of Robert E. McC. Ward) [29] with newly rejuvenated spirits, on 17 November for her 10th patrol, which took her south of Honshū. Along the way, she suffered a "hot run" in tube eight (aft), and (after the skipper himself went over the side to inspect the damage) ejected the torpedo; the tube remained out of commission for the duration of the patrol. [30]

After refueling at Midway, she was alerted by ULTRA of a fast convoy of Japanese ships before she arrived on station. About 240 mi (390 km) southeast of Yokosuka, on the night of 3 December, she made radar contact at 9,000 yd (8,200 m). The group consisted of the Japanese aircraft carrier Chūyō, a cruiser, and two destroyers. Despite high seas whipped up by typhoon winds, Sailfish maneuvered into firing position shortly after midnight on 3–4 December, dived to radar depth (just the radar aerial exposed), and fired four bow torpedoes at the carrier, at a range of 2,100 yd (1,900 m), scoring two hits. She went deep to escape the escorting destroyers, which dropped 21 depth charges (only two close), reloaded, and at 02:00, surfaced to resume the pursuit. She found a mass of radar contacts, and a slow-moving target, impossible to identify in the miserable visibility. As dawn neared, she fired another spread of three bow "fish" from 3,100 yd (2,800 m), scoring two more hits on the stricken carrier. Diving to elude the Japanese counter-attack, which was hampered by the raging seas, Sailfish came to periscope depth, and at 07:58 saw the carrier lying dead in the water, listing to port and down by the stern. Preparations to abandon ship were in progress. [30]

Later in the morning, Sailfish fired another spread of three torpedoes, from only 1,700 yd (1,600 m), [31] scoring two final hits. Loud internal explosions and breaking-up noises were heard while the submarine dived to escape a depth charge attack. Abruptly, a cruiser appeared and, fearing that she would broach the surface, Sailfish went to 90 ft (27 m), losing a chance at this new target. [32] Shortly afterwards, the carrier Chūyō [32] (20,000 long tons (20,000 t)) went to the bottom, the first aircraft carrier sunk by an American submarine in the war, [32] and the only major Japanese warship sunk by enemy action in 1943. [33] In an ironic twist, Chūyō was carrying American prisoners of war from Sculpin, the same boat that had helped locate and rescue Sailfish—then Squalus—over four years before. Twenty of the 21 US crew members from Sculpin were killed. None, however, were of the original rescue crew. [32] 1,250 Japanese were also killed.

After escaping a strafing attack by a Japanese fighter on 7 December, she made contact and commenced tracking two cargo ships with two [32] escorts on the morning of 13 December, south of Kyūshū. That night, she fired a spread of four torpedoes at the two freighters. Two solid explosions were heard, including an internal secondary explosion. Sailfish heard Totai Maru (3,000 long tons (3,000 t)) [32] break up and sink as the destroyers made a vigorous but inaccurate depth charge attack. When Sailfish caught up with the other freighter she was dead in the water, but covered by a screen of five destroyers. Rather than face suicidal odds, the submarine quietly left the area. On the night of 20 December, she intercepted an enemy hospital ship, which she left unmolested.

On 21 December, in the approach to Bungo Suido (Bungo Channel), Sailfish intercepted six large freighters escorted by three [32] destroyers. With five torpedoes left, she fired a spread of three stern tubes, [32] scoring two hits on the largest target. Diving to escape the approaching destroyers, the submarine detected breaking-up noises as Uyo Maru [32] (6,400 long tons (6,500 t)) [32] went to the bottom; destroyers counterattacked with 31 depth charges, "some very close". [32] Sailfish terminated her tenth patrol at Pearl Harbor on 5 January 1944. She claimed three ships for 35,729 long tons (36,302 t), plus damage to one for 7,000 long tons (7,100 t), believed to be the most successful patrol by tonnage to date; postwar, it was reduced to two ships and (less Uyo Maru) 29,571 long tons (30,046 t). [34]

Eleventh patrol: July–September 1944

After an extensive overhaul at Mare Island—from 15–17 June—she returned to Hawaii and sailed on 9 July as part of a "wolfpack" ("Moseley's Maulers", commanded by Stan Moseley), [35] with Greenling and Billfish, to prey on shipping in the Luzon–Formosa area. On the afternoon of 7 August, Sailfish and Greenling made contact with an enemy convoy. Sailfish maneuvered into firing position and fired a spread of three torpedoes at a medium tanker. One hit caused the tanker to disintegrate into a column of water, smoke and debris. It was not recorded in the postwar account. [35]

The next target was a battleship escorted by three [35] destroyers, on which she made radar contact [35] shortly after midnight on 18–19 August. At 01:35, after getting as close as she was able, 3,500 yd (3,200 m), Sailfish fired all four bow tubes. One of the escorts ran into the path of two fish; the other two missed. [36] While the destroyer must have been severely damaged or sunk, there was nothing in JANAC. [36]

On 24 August, south of Formosa, Sailfish made radar contact with an enemy convoy consisting of four cargo ships escorted by two small patrol craft. Moving into firing position, Sailfish fired a salvo of four torpedoes, scoring two hits. The cargo ship Toan Maru (2,100 long tons (2,100 t)) [36] was enveloped in a cloud of smoke and shortly afterwards broke in two and sank. Surfacing after escaping a depth charge attack, Sailfish closed on a second cargo ship of the convoy, scoring two hits out of four torpedoes fired. The submarine's crew felt the cargo ship either had been sunk or badly damaged, but the sinking was not confirmed by JANAC postwar. [37] Sailfish terminated her 11th patrol at Midway on 6 September; her wartime credit was four ships for 13,200 long tons (13,400 t), a total reduced to just one of 2,100 long tons (2,100 t) (Toan Maru) postwar. [38]

Twelfth patrol: September–December 1944

Her 12th patrol—from 26 September through 11 December—was conducted between Luzon and Formosa, in company with Pomfret and Parche.

After passing through the edge of a typhoon, Sailfish arrived on station to perform lifeguard duty. On 12 October, staying surfaced in full view of enemy attackers, [38] she rescued 12 [38] Navy fliers who had ditched their stricken aircraft after strikes against Japanese bases on Formosa. She sank a sampan and a patrol craft [38] with her deck gun as the enemy craft tried to capture the downed aviators. The following day, she rescued another flier. The submarines pulled into Saipan, arriving on 24 October, to drop off their temporary passengers, refuel, and make minor repairs.

After returning to the patrol area with the wolf pack, she made an unsuccessful attack on a transport on 3 November. The following day, Sailfish damaged two destroyers but was slightly damaged herself by a bomb from a patrol aircraft. With battle damage under control, Sailfish eluded her pursuers and cleared the area. After riding out a typhoon on 9–10 November, she intercepted a convoy on the evening of 24 November heading for Itbayat in the Philippines. After alerting Pomfret of the convoy's location and course, Sailfish was moving into an attack position when one of the escorting destroyers headed straight for her. Sailfish fired a three-torpedo spread "down the throat" and headed toward the main convoy. At least one hit was scored on the destroyer and her pip faded from the radar screen. Suddenly, Sailfish received an unwelcome surprise when she came under fire from the destroyer that she had believed to be sunk. Sailfish ran deep after ascertaining there was no hull damage resulting from a near miss from the escort's guns. For the next 412 hours, Sailfish was forced to run silent and deep as the Japanese kept up an uncomfortably accurate depth charge attack. Finally, the submarine was able to elude the destroyers and slip away. Shortly, Sailfish headed for Hawaii, via Midway, and completed her 12th and final war patrol upon arriving at Pearl Harbor on 11 December. Sailfish had damaged the IJN destroyer Harukaze, which had previously sunk USS Shark, and also a landing ship. [23]

Return stateside

Following refit, Sailfish departed Hawaii on 26 December and arrived at New London, via the Panama Canal, on 22 January 1945. For the next four and one-half months, she aided training out of New London. Next, she operated as a training ship at Guantanamo Bay from 9 June–9 August. After a six-week stay at Philadelphia Navy Yard, she arrived at Portsmouth, New Hampshire on 2 October for deactivation.

Post war

Conning tower of SS-192 on display at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, seen during a 2013 visit by General Martin Dempsey, then Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Martin Dempsey at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 2013.jpg
Conning tower of SS-192 on display at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, seen during a 2013 visit by General Martin Dempsey, then Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Decommissioned on 27 October 1945, she was initially scheduled to be a target ship in the atomic bomb tests or sunk by conventional ordnance. However, she was placed on sale in March 1948 and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 30 April 1948. The hulk was sold for scrapping to Luria Brothers of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 18 June 1948. Her conning tower stands at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery as a memorial to her lost crewmen ( 43°04′55.4″N70°44′18.7″W / 43.082056°N 70.738528°W / 43.082056; -70.738528 ). [39]

Sailfish was awarded nine battle stars for service in the Pacific and the Presidential Unit Citation for outstanding performance on her 10th patrol.

Awards

Submerged

Submerged was a 2001 TV movie docudrama directed by James Keach, starring Sam Neill as Charles B. "Swede" Momsen and James B. Sikking as Admiral Cyrus Cole, and depicted the events surrounding the loss of USS Squalus and the recovery of the 33 survivors from the sunken submarine. The plot was written to closely follow the events of the sinking.

Models and sets were used that had been originally constructed for the film U-571 ; the floating set that was used to represent both USS Squalus and USS Sculpin is the non-diving replica built in Malta as the 'modified' S-33 for the film U-571, also shot in Malta. The replica is still afloat, moored in Marsa in the inner part of the Grand Harbour ( 35°52′46.00″N14°29′49.92″E / 35.8794444°N 14.4972000°E / 35.8794444; 14.4972000 ).

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USS Trigger (SS-237) was a Gato-class submarine, the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the triggerfish.

USS <i>Shark</i> (SS-314) submarine

USS Shark (SS-314), a Balao-class submarine, was the sixth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the shark, a large marine predator.

USS <i>Snook</i> (SS-279)

USS Snook (SS-279), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the common snook, an Atlantic marine fish that is bluish-gray above and silvery below a black lateral line.

USS <i>Grayback</i> (SS-208)

USS Grayback (SS-208), a Tambor-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the lake herring.

USS <i>Tambor</i> (SS-198)

USS Tambor (SS-198), the lead ship of her class of submarine, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the tambor.

USS Finback (SS-230), a Gato-class submarine was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the finback.

USS <i>Greenling</i> (SS-213)

USS Greenling (SS-213), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the greenling.

USS <i>Haddock</i> (SS-231)

USS Haddock (SS-231), a Gato-class submarine, was the second submarine of the United States Navy to be named for the haddock, a small edible Atlantic fish, related to the cod. A previous submarine had been named Haddock (SS-32), but was renamed K-1 prior to her launching, so Haddock (SS-231) was the first to actually bear the name.

USS <i>Pogy</i> (SS-266)

USS Pogy (SS-266), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the pogy, or menhaden.

USS <i>Ray</i> (SS-271)

USS Ray (SS/SSR-271), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the ray, a fish characterized by a flat body, large pectoral fins, and a whiplike tail.

USS <i>Sea Robin</i> (SS-407)

USS Sea Robin (SS-407), a Balao-class submarine, was a vessel of the United States Navy named for the sea robin. This is a spiny-finned fish with red or brown coloring on its body and fins. The first three rays of its pectoral fin separate from the others and are used in walking on the sea bottom.

USS <i>Pintado</i> (SS-387)

USS Pintado (SS-387/AGSS-387), a Balao-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the pintado.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775–1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 269–270. ISBN   0-313-26202-0.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 U.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 305–311
  3. U.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 202–204
  4. Blair, Clay, Jr. (1975). Silent Victory. Philadelphia: Lippincott. ISBN   978-0-397-01089-9. OCLC   821363.
  5. 1 2 3 Blair, p. 67.
  6. A repeat of incidents with Sturgeon and Snapper. After this accident, the more reliable Electric Boat design was adopted for new Navy-built subs. Blair, Clay, Jr. (1975). Silent Victory. Philadelphia: Lippincott. ISBN   978-0-397-01089-9. OCLC   821363.
  7. "Submarine Casualties Booklet". U.S. Naval Submarine School. 1966. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
  8. "Dr. Shilling steps down as UMS leader after 13 years". Pressure, newsletter of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society . 15 (2): 1, 6–8. 1992. ISSN   0889-0242.
  9. Acott, C. (1999). "A brief history of diving and decompression illness". South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal. 29 (2). ISSN   0813-1988. OCLC   16986801 . Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  10. On Thetis, 99 of 103 crew, other naval personnel and civilian technical observers died from carbon monoxide poisoning. Thetis was also recovered and recommissioned.
  11. "USS Squalus (SS-192): Salvage of, 1939". Naval History & Heritage Command. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center. 20 July 2000. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
  12. "The Rescue and Salvage of the Submarine "Squalus"". Life. Time Inc.: 29 12 June 1939. Any slip might cause the Squalus to rise too fast, get out of control, up end and slip to the bottom again.
  13. Faber, John (1978). Great news photos and the stories behind them (2 ed.). Courier Dover Publications. pp. 82–83. ISBN   0-486-23667-6.
  14. 1 2 Momsen, Charles B. (6 October 1939). "Rescue and Salvage of U.S.S. Squalus" . Retrieved 19 January 2011.
  15. Blair, p. 902.
  16. Blair, p. 143. No crewmembers are known to have been marooned, however.
  17. Blair, p. 143.
  18. The depth charge attack caused Mumma to suffer a breakdown, and he was relieved. Blair, p. 143. Holwitt, p. 157fn81, mistakenly attributes it to "sonar-equipped destroyers".
  19. Blair, p. 144. Former skipper of Sealion, he went on to become Charles A. Lockwood's Chief of Staff, and a crucial liaison with HYPO.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Blair, p. 165.
  21. Blair, p. 187.
  22. Blair, p. 910.
  23. 1 2 "Sailfish (SS-192) of the US Navy - American Submarine of the Sargo class - Allied Warships of WWII - uboat.net".
  24. Blair, p. 913
  25. 1 2 3 4 Blair, p. 463.
  26. At the time, Moore was not given credit for the sinkings, and was transferred. Blair, pp. 463 & 930.
  27. Blair, p. 932.
  28. On return, Lefavour was transferred to small craft. Blair, p. 464.
  29. Not to be confused with Norvell G. "Bub" Ward. He had an almost entirely new wardroom after the unfortunate experience with Lefavour. Blair, pp. 527 & 940.
  30. 1 2 Blair, p. 528
  31. Blair, p. 528. In that weather, these were of questionable necessity.
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Blair, p. 529.
  33. Blair, p. 553.
  34. Blair, pp. 529–530. It earned Ward a Navy Cross.
  35. 1 2 3 4 Blair, p. 701.
  36. 1 2 3 Blair, p. 702
  37. Her packmates, Greenling and Billfish, were similarly denied. Blair, p. 702.
  38. 1 2 3 4 Blair, p.953
  39. "Remembering the USS Squalus 75 years later". navalhistory.org. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2018.

Bibliography

Further reading