Vandeae

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Vandeae
Vandeae various examples.jpg
Various examples of Vandeae
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Vandeae
Subtribes

The Vandeae is a large monophyletic tribe within the family of orchids.

Contents

Scope

This tribe contains 1,700 - 2,000 species in more than 150 genera. The classification of taxa within this tribe is still largely based on floral morphology. Only a few attempts have been made to obtain a classification based on molecular evidence, usually based on sequence data from several plastid-encoded DNA regions. [1]

Bubble diagram comparing species richness among orchid genera belonging to the tribe Vandeae Comparison of species richness among genera of the tribe Vandeae.pdf
Bubble diagram comparing species richness among orchid genera belonging to the tribe Vandeae

Epiphytic

These orchids are pantropical epiphytes and occur in tropical Asia, the Pacific Islands, Australia and Africa. Many of these orchids are horticulturally important, especially Vanda and Phalaenopsis .

Subtribes

This tribe is subdivided into four subtribes: [2]

The following phylogenetic tree shows the relationships among the subtribes: [3]

Vandeae s.l.

Aeridinae

Angraecinae (including Aerangidinae)

Adrorhizinae

Polystachyinae

The subtribe Aerangidinae Summerh. is increasingly included within Angraecinae. The subtribe Angraecinae is a well supported, monophyletic group under the inclusion of Aerangidinae. Separating these groups would make them polyphyletic. [4] [5]

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Pleurothallidinae are a neotropical subtribe of plants of the orchid family (Orchidaceae) including 29 genera in more than 4000 species.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aeridinae</span> Subtribe of orchids

In the botanical classification of plants, Aeridinae is a subtribe of the tribe Vandeae whose representatives all have a monopodial growth habit and do not possess pseudobulbs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taxonomy of the Orchidaceae</span>

The taxonomy of the Orchidaceae has evolved slowly during the last 250 years, starting with Carl Linnaeus who in 1753 recognized eight genera. De Jussieu recognized the Orchidaceae as a separate family in his Genera Plantarum in 1789. Olof Swartz recognized 25 genera in 1800. Louis Claude Richard provided us in 1817 with the descriptive terminology of the orchids.. The next step was taken in 1830-1840 by John Lindley, who recognized four subfamilies. He is generally recognized as the father of orchid taxonomy. The next important step was taken by George Bentham with a new classification, recognizing subtribes for the first time. This classification was first presented in a paper that Bentham read to the Royal Society in 1881. Then it was published in 1883 in the final volume of Genera Plantarum. The next great contributors were Pfitzer (1887), Schlechter (1926), Mansfeld (1937), Dressler and Dodson (1960), Garay, Vermeulen (1966), again Dressler (1981). and Burns-Balogh and Funk (1986). Dressler's 1993 book had considerable influence on later work.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Orchidoideae</span> Subfamily of orchids

The Orchidoideae, or the orchidoid orchids, are a subfamily of the orchid family (Orchidaceae).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Epidendroideae</span> Subfamily of orchids

Epidendroideae is a subfamily of plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae. Epidendroideae is larger than all the other orchid subfamilies together, comprising more than 15,000 species in 576 genera. Most epidendroid orchids are tropical epiphytes, typically with pseudobulbs. There are, however, some terrestrials such as Epipactis and even a few myco-heterotrophs, which are parasitic upon mycorrhizal fungi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adrorhizinae</span> Subtribe of orchids

Adrorhizinae is an orchid subtribe in the tribe Vandeae.

<i>Disperis</i> Genus of flowering plants belonging to the orchid family

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<i>Dendrophylax</i> Genus of orchids

Dendrophylax is a genus of leafless neotropical orchids native to Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and Florida. The name is from Greek δένδρον ("tree") and φύλαξ. One species, Dendrophylax lindenii, featured heavily in the book The Orchid Thief.

<i>Aerangis fastuosa</i> Species of orchid

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<i>Diaphananthe</i> Genus of orchids

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<i>Polystachya neobenthamia</i> Species of orchids

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<i>Pachites</i> Genus of flowering plants belonging to the orchid family

Pachites is a genus of flowering plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae. It contains two known species, both endemic to South Africa. One of these, Pachites appressus, is very rare.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Angraecinae</span> Subtribe of orchids

Angraecinae is a subtribe in the family Orchidaceae. The subtribe consists of approximately 18 genera and about 360 species. The type genus is Angraecum. Most of the genera are endemic to Africa, Madagascar and other Indian Ocean Islands, a few genera can also be found in the Americas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aerangidinae</span> Subtribe of orchids

Aerangidinae is classified as a subtribe within the tribe Vandeae in the family Orchidaceae. However, it is likely to soon become a synonym of Angraecinae with the genera below re-allocated to this sub-tribe. As traditionally circumscribed, it consists of 36 genera and about 300 species. The type genus of this subtribe is Aerangis. Members of this group are epiphytic orchids having a monopodial habit and are endemic to tropical Africa and Madagascar. They are distinguished from the other subtribes in Vandeae by having an elongate rostellum, an elongate spur, and two pollinia. Most genera in the group indicate pollination by moths, however leaf beetles are reported as frequent visitors, but it is unknown whether they are vectors for pollination.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Polystachyinae</span> Subtribe of orchids

Polystachyinae is a subtribe within the tribe Vandeae in family Orchidaceae. It consists of 2 genera and about 228 known species. The type genus of this subtribe is Polystachya. The group is pantropical, being native to tropical Africa primarily, but also to tropical America. Members of this group are epiphytic and are distinguished from the other subtribes in the tribe Vandeae by their sympodial growth habit and the presence of four pollinia. Pollination is mostly by small species of bees, however some species exhibit auto-pollination.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dendrobieae</span> Tribe of orchids

Dendrobieae is a tribe in the subfamily Epidendroideae, in the family Orchidaceae. The Dendrobieae are mostly tropical, epiphytic orchids which contain pseudobulbs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Diseae</span> Tribe of orchids

Diseae is an orchid tribe in the subfamily Orchidoideae. It was recognized in Genera Orchidacearum volume 2, which was published in 2001. It consisted of 12 genera in five subtribes. In molecular phylogenetic studies that were published after 1999, it was shown that Diseae is paraphyletic over the tribe Orchideae. In a classification of orchids that was published in 2015, Diseae was not recognized, but was instead placed in synonymy under Orchideae.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coryciinae</span> A subtribe of flowering plants belonging to the orchid family

Coryciinae is a subtribe of orchids that has been differently defined and placed in the two classification systems that are currently in use for orchids. Genera Orchidacearum, which is currently the definitive work on orchid taxonomy, delimits Coryciinae as consisting of five genera: Disperis, Evotella, Ceratandra, Pterygodium, and Corycium, and it places Coryciinae in the mostly African tribe Diseae, along with four other subtribes: Brownleeinae, Huttonaeinae, Disinae, and Satyriinae. The genera of Coryciinae are small to medium in size and the number of species in each genus is as follows: Disperis (78), Pterygodium (19), Corycium (15), Ceratandra (6), and Evotella (1).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maxillariinae</span> Subtribe of orchids

Maxillariinae is an orchid subtribe in the tribe Cymbidieae. It was formerly treated as the tribe Maxillarieae, and divided into a number of subtribes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Disinae</span> A subtribe of flowering plants belonging to the orchid family

Disinae is a subtribe of orchids that has been differently defined and placed in the two classification systems that are currently in use for orchids. Genera Orchidacearum, which is currently the definitive work on orchid taxonomy, delimits Disinae as consisting of two closely related genera, Disa and Schizodium, and it places Disinae in the mostly African tribe Diseae, along with four other subtribes: Brownleeinae, Huttonaeinae, Coryciinae, and Satyriinae. In the classification for orchids that was published by Chase et alii in 2015, Schizodium was placed in synonymy under Disa, while Pachites and Huttonaea were transferred to Disinae. In Genera Orchidacearum, Pachites and Satyrium form the subtribe Satyriinae, and Huttonaea is the sole genus in the subtribe Huttonaeinae. The transfer of Pachites and Huttonaea to Disinae by Chase et alii (2015) was done with considerable doubt, and was based upon uncertainty about the relationships of these two genera. In 2009, a molecular phylogenetic study found only weak statistical support for a sister relationship between Huttonaea and Disa.

References

  1. Chase M. W. Freudenstein J. V. Cameron K. M. Barrett R. L. (2003). "DNA data and Orchidaceae systematics: a new phylogenetic classification". Orchid Conservation: 69–89.
  2. Simo-Droissart, M., Plunkett, G. M., Droissart, V., Edwards, M. B., Farminhão, J. N., Ječmenica, V., ... & Stévart, T. (2018). "New phylogenetic insights toward developing a natural generic classification of African angraecoid orchids (Vandeae, Orchidaceae)." Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 126, 241-249.
  3. Freudenstein, J. V., & Chase, M. W. (2015). "Phylogenetic relationships in Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae), one of the great flowering plant radiations: progressive specialization and diversification." Annals of botany, 115(4), 665-681.
  4. Szlachetko, D. L., Tukallo, P., Mytnik-Ejsmont, J., & Grochocka, E. (2013). "Reclassification of the Angraecum-alliance (Orchidaceae, Vandoideae) based on molecular and morphological data." Biodiversity Research and Conservation, 29, 1.
  5. Carlsward, B. S., Whitten, W. M., Williams, N. H., & Bytebier, B. (2006). "Molecular phylogenetics of Vandeae (Orchidaceae) and the evolution of leaflessness." American Journal of Botany, 93(5), 770-786.