Waterval Boven

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Waterval Boven
Emgwenya
South Africa Mpumalanga location map.svg
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Waterval Boven
South Africa adm location map.svg
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Waterval Boven
Coordinates: 25°39′S30°20′E / 25.650°S 30.333°E / -25.650; 30.333 Coordinates: 25°39′S30°20′E / 25.650°S 30.333°E / -25.650; 30.333
Country South Africa
Province Mpumalanga
District Nkangala
Municipality Emakhazeni
Area
[1]
  Total38.88 km2 (15.01 sq mi)
Population
(2011) [1]
  Total6,178
  Density160/km2 (410/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)
[1]
   Black African 83.3%
   Coloured 1.7%
   Indian/Asian 0.8%
   White 14.0%
  Other0.2%
First languages (2011)
[1]
   Swazi 70.9%
   Afrikaans 13.8%
   English 3.4%
   Zulu 3.0%
  Other9.0%
Time zone UTC+2 (SAST)
Postal code (street)
1195
Area code 013
Website www.watervalboven.com

Waterval Boven (officially known as Emgwenya [2] ) is a small town situated on the edge of the Escarpment on the banks of the Elands River above the 75m Elands Falls on the railway line from Pretoria to Maputo in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Hence the name, which is Dutch for "above the waterfall".

Elands River (Mpumalanga) river in Mpumalanga, South Africa

Elands River is a river of the Komati River basin in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

Pretoria National administrative capital of South Africa, located in Gauteng province

Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng province in South Africa. It straddles the Apies River and has spread eastwards into the foothills of the Magaliesberg mountains. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the administrative branch of government, and of foreign embassies to South Africa. Pretoria has a reputation for being an academic city with three universities, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Human Sciences Research Council. The city also hosts the National Research Foundation and the South African Bureau of Standards making the city a hub for research. Pretoria is the central part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality which was formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion and Soshanguve. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane, and the proposed name change has caused some public controversy.

Maputo City and Province in Mozambique

Maputo, officially named Lourenço Marques until 1976, is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique. Located near the southern end of the country, it is positioned within 120 km of the Eswatini and South Africa borders. The city has a population of 1,101,170 distributed over a land area of 347 km2. The Maputo metropolitan area includes the neighbouring city of Matola, and has a total population of 2,717,437. Maputo is a port city, with an economy centered around commerce. It is also noted for its vibrant cultural scene and distinctive, eclectic architecture.

Contents

It is the sister town of Waterval Onder which is at the base of the Escarpment below the waterfall. Both settlements were established in 1895 because of the building of the Pretoria - Delagoa Bay railway line, [3] built by the Netherlands-South African Railway Company (NZASM).

Waterval Onder Place in Mpumalanga, South Africa

Waterval Onder is a small village situated at the base of the escarpment on the banks of the Elands River in Emakhazeni Local Municipality, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

History

The railway from Komatipoort to Pretoria reached Waterval Boven in March 1894. In order to establish a supply depot, The Transvaal Republic acquired about 78 ha of the farm Doornhoek, lying on either side of the line. Between Waterval Onder and Waterval Boven, the line rises from the Elands River valley and the Lowveld to the eastern edge of the Highveld – 208 metres over a distance of 7.5 km – which necessitated a rack-railway and a steep, curving tunnel over this stretch. This route was later changed to a less severe gradient over a 14 km stretch with two tunnels. After this diversion, the old tunnel was used for road traffic until 1936, when the Elands Pass was built. The original tunnel, and also the bridge just below the tunnel, were proclaimed historical monuments.

Komatipoort Place in Mpumalanga, South Africa

Komatipoort is a town situated at the confluence of the Crocodile and Komati Rivers in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. The town is 8 km from the Crocodile Bridge Gate into the Kruger Park, and just 5 km from the Mozambique border and 65 km from the Eswatini border.

Highveld Natural region in South Africa

The Highveld is the portion of the South African inland plateau which has an altitude above roughly 1500 m, but below 2100 m, thus excluding the Lesotho mountain regions to the south-east of the Highveld. It is home to some of the country's most important commercial farming areas, as well as its largest concentration of metropolitan centres, especially the Gauteng conurbation, which accommodates one-third of South Africa's population.

Elands Pass is situated in the Mpumalanga province on the National N4 road, the road between Waterval Boven and Nelspruit.

The original tunnel WatervalBovenTunnel.JPG
The original tunnel

The area is a major rock climbing attraction, with some 650 sport climbing and 150 traditional routes. A lodge with mountain chalets provides accommodation for climbers and visitors, and a comprehensive guide exists to climbs in the area.

Rock climbing sport in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls

Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Professional rock climbing competitions have the objectives of either completing the route in the quickest possible time or attaining the farthest point on an increasingly difficult route.

Sport climbing form of free climbing

Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that relies on permanent anchors fixed to the rock for protection. This is in contrast to traditional climbing where climbers must place removable protection as they climb.

Traditional climbing

Traditionalclimbing, is a style of rock climbing in which a climber or group of climbers place all gear required to protect against falls, and remove it when a pitch is complete. Traditional bolted face climbing means the bolts were placed on lead and/or with hand drills. The bolts tend to be much farther apart than sport climbs. For example, a trad bolted route may have bolts from 15–75 feet apart. A sport route may have bolts from 3–10 feet apart, similar to a rock climbing gym. The term seems to be coined by Tom Higgins in the piece "Tricksters and Traditionalists" in 1984. A trad climber is called a traditionalist.

Oosterlijn Steam Company, maintained this dramatic piece of history in operation of SAR Class 15F and SAR Class 25NC steam locomotives, as well as the "JAN WINTERVOGEL" the last remaining NZASM steam locomotive. Vintage rail safaris run through the lush tropical lowveld accompanying the course of the Elands River up through the Mpumalanga highlands through trout country enveloping the most scenic and adventuresome steam locomotive routes in Africa. As of 2012 the train is no longer running.

South African Class 15F 4-8-2 class of 255 South African 4-8-2 locomotives

The South African Railways Class 15F 4-8-2 of 1938 was a steam locomotive.

South African Class 25NC 4-8-4 class of 137 South African 4-8-4 locomotives with non-condensing tenders (50 new, 87 rebuilt from Class 25)

The South African Railways Class 25NC 4-8-4 of 1953 was a steam locomotive.

It was reported that the last remaining steam locomotives, 25NC 3476, 19D 2526, GMA/M 4056, 15F 2909, 15F 2985, GCA 2621 were attacked by scrap thieves over the weekend of November 7/8 2015 and all their copper and brass fittings stolen.

In October 2009 Waterval Boven (along with other Mpumalanga towns) underwent a name change. In Waterval Boven's case, the town was renamed after its township, Emgwenya.

Related Research Articles

The Netherlands–South African Railway Company or NZASM was a railway company established in 1887. The company was based in Amsterdam and Pretoria, and operated in the South African Republic (ZAR) during the late 19th century. At the request of ZAR president Paul Kruger, the NZASM constructed a railway line between Pretoria and Lourenço Marques in Portuguese East Africa.

Machadodorp Place in Mpumalanga, South Africa

Machadodorp, also known by its official name eNtokozweni, is a small town situated near the edge of the escarpment in the Mpumalanga province, South Africa. The Elands River runs through the town. There is a natural radioactive spring here that is reputed to have powerful healing qualities.

The following lists events that happened during 1894 in South Africa.

0-4-2 locomotive wheel arrangement

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-4-2 represents the wheel arrangement with no leading wheels, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles and two trailing wheels on one axle. While the first locomotives of this wheel arrangement were tender engines, the configuration was later often used for tank engines, which is noted by adding letter suffixes to the configuration, such as 0-4-2T for a conventional side-tank locomotive, 0-4-2ST for a saddle-tank locomotive, 0-4-2WT for a well-tank locomotive and 0-4-2RT for a rack-equipped tank locomotive. The arrangement is sometimes known as Olomana after a Hawaiian 0-4-2 locomotive of 1883.

South African Class 9 4-6-2 class of 5 South African 4-6-2 locomotives

The South African Railways Class 9 4-6-2 of 1904 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal Colony.

South African Class 8A 4-8-0 class of 40 South African 4-8-0 locomotives

The South African Railways Class 8A 4-8-0 of 1902 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

South African Class 8B 4-8-0 class of 30 South African 4-8-0 locomotives

The South African Railways Class 8B 4-8-0 of 1903 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal Colony.

South African Class 7B 4-8-0 class of 29 South African 4-8-0 locomotives

The South African Railways Class 7B 4-8-0 of 1900 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

South African Class B 0-6-4T class of 195 South African 0-6-4T locomotives

The South African Railways Class B 0-6-4T of 1893 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

The South African Railways Class ME 2-6-6-2 of 1912 was a steam locomotive.

South African Class GCA 2-6-2+2-6-2

The South African Railways Class GCA 2-6-2+2-6-2 of 1927 was an articulated steam locomotive.

South African Class GMA 4-8-2+2-8-4

The South African Railways Class GMA 4-8-2+2-8-4 of 1954 was an articulated steam locomotive.

NZASM 18 Tonner 0-6-0ST class of 6 South African 0-6-0ST locomotives from the pre-Union era

The NZASM 18 Tonner 0-6-0ST of 1890 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

NZASM 32 Tonner 0-4-2RT rack and pinion steam locomotive used in pre-Union era in South Africa

The NZASM 32 Tonner 0-4-2RT of 1894 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

NZASM 40 Tonner 0-6-2T Class of 20 Ninteenth century South African 0-6-2T locomotives

The NZASM 40 Tonner 0-6-2T of 1892 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

PPR 26 Tonner 0-6-0ST class of 3 South African 0-6-0ST locomotives

The Pretoria-Pietersburg Railway 26 Tonner 0-6-0ST of 1896 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

CSAR Rack 4-6-4RT class of South African rack 4-6-4T locomotives

The Central South African Railways Rack 4-6-4RT of 1905 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal Colony.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Main Place Waterval Boven". Census 2011.
  2. "AfriForum petitions against name changes". Mail & Guardian Online. Nov 2, 2009.
  3. "Waterval Onder Information". Where to Stay. Retrieved 21 January 2014.