Wing Commander (video game)

Last updated

Wing Commander
Developer(s) Origin Systems
Publisher(s) Origin Systems
Director(s) Chris Roberts
Producer(s) Chris Roberts
Warren Spector
Designer(s) Chris Roberts
Stephen Beeman
Erin D. Roberts
Writer(s) Jeff George (screenplay)
Philip Brogden
Steve Cantrell
Composer(s) George Alistair Sanger
David Govett
Mark Knight (Amiga)
Series Wing Commander   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Platform(s) MS-DOS, Amiga, Amiga CD32, Sega CD, SNES, 3DO, PlayStation, PlayStation Portable, FM Towns, Macintosh, Windows 95
ReleaseSeptember 26, 1990 (MS-DOS)
March 1, 1992 (SNES)
June 1, 1993 (Amiga CD32)
February 6, 1994 (Sega CD)
November 30, 1996 (Windows 95)
Genre(s) Space flight simulation
Mode(s) Single-player

Wing Commander is the eponymous first game in Chris Roberts' science fiction space flight simulation franchise Wing Commander by Origin Systems. The game was first released for MS-DOS on September 26, 1990 and was later ported to the Amiga, CD32 (256-color), Sega CD and the Super Nintendo, and re-released for the PC as Wing Commander I in 1994. An enhanced remake Super Wing Commander was made for the 3DO in 1994, later ported to the Macintosh.


The game was a marked departure from the standard formula, bringing space combat to a level approaching the Star Wars films. Set in the year 2654 and characterized by Chris Roberts as "World War II in space", it features a multinational cast of pilots from the "Terran Confederation" flying missions against the predatory, aggressive Kilrathi, a feline warrior race (heavily inspired by the Kzinti of Larry Niven's Known Space universe). [1]


Screenshot showing the cockpit of the player's ship and a targeted enemy in an outer space setting. Wing Commander screenshot.png
Screenshot showing the cockpit of the player's ship and a targeted enemy in an outer space setting.

Gameplay consists of completing successive missions and overall cockpit performance affects gameplay: going above and beyond the call of duty results in medals, promotions in rank are awarded at regular intervals, and success or failure on certain critical missions decides the player's plot progress, "winning" or "losing".


Wing Commander

The player takes the role of a nameless pilot aboard the TCS Tiger's Claw, a Bengal-class Strike Carrier. The player gets to name the pilot and choose his call sign. The pilot (known in-production to Origin personnel as "Bluehair", after his most notable feature) quickly rises through the ranks of the flight wing and (presuming the player performs ideally in the cockpit) eventually leads a strike on the Kilrathi High Command starbase in the Venice system. On the other hand, if the player does not perform optimally, missions become increasingly defensive in nature, and eventually the Claw is forced to retreat. Of the two endings, the "winning" path is established as canon by the game's two expansion packs, as well as the sequel, Wing Commander II: Vengeance of the Kilrathi .

Wing Commander: The Secret Missions

In the add-on's plot, the Tiger's Claw, on maneuvers in the Goddard System, receives an abortive distress call from Goddard colony. When the Claw arrives, though, nothing is left but wreckage and corpses; a quarter of a million colonists have been killed. Confed realizes that this is the work of a new Kilrathi weapon, the "Graviton weapon", which is able to increase the power of gravity by over a hundred times. Clever work by the Claw's crew and pilots allows them to capture a Kilrathi courier ship, which reveals that this weapon is mounted on an entirely new class of ship; CNC codenames it the Sivar-class dreadnought, after the Kilrathi god of war. Bluehair leads the strike against the Sivar and destroys it in the Vigrid system; for unexplained reasons, ships of that class and armament are never seen again.

Wing Commander: The Secret Missions 2: Crusade

In the add-on's plot, the Tiger's Claw is in the Firekka System, whose native intelligent lifeforms — the bird-like Firekkans — are negotiating to join the Terran Confederation. Tensions are high, and will only get higher. There is an unusual Kilrathi presence in the area, including their upgraded Dralthi II and ships that have never been seen before: the Hhriss-class heavy fighter and the Snakeir-class heavy carrier. This presence develops into a massive battle group, and though the Firekkans sign the Articles of the Confederation, the outnumbered Terrans have no choice but to retreat. Adding to the mess, a Kilrathi lord, Ralgha nar Hhallas, defects, bringing his Fralthi-class cruiser, the Ras Nik'hra, and word of a rebellion against the Empire on the Kilrathi colony of Ghorah Khar.

Finally, almost overlooked in all the chaos, Major Kien "Bossman" Chen is lost while flying on Jeannette Devereaux's wing; the nearby TCS Austin transfers over two pilots, Lieutenants Zachary "Jazz" Colson and Etienne "Doomsday" Montclair. All this happens in the first six missions of the game. The Kilrathi presence in the Firekka sector is eventually explained by an all-channels transmission from the Crown Prince of the Kilrathi Empire, Thrakhath nar Kiranka: Firekka has been chosen as the site of this year's Rite of Sivar, a religious festival that involves live sacrifices. Seeing the chance to strike a heady blow to Kilrathi morale, the Confederation assigns its Firekka-sector resources the task of disrupting the ceremony.

The Dralthi medium fighters from the Ras Nik'hra are put to work on reconnaissance missions (conveniently, the Confederation Scimitar medium fighter is retired at the beginning of the expansion pack, opening a space in the database of Confederation fighters for the Dralthi), and Terran troops begin landing in secret. Between these, the Firekkans' warrior spirit and some of the Confederation's best pilots and tacticians, the Sivar ceremony is utterly wrecked and the Kilrathi forced to retreat, though they take a number of important Firekkans with them as hostages. Ralgha and the rebellion at Ghorah Khar, though promising, are taken over by Confed Intelligence and do not see mention until the first expansion pack for Wing Commander II. At the end of Crusade, Jeannette Devereaux is detailed off to the TCS Austin, where she will serve as Wing Commander.

Interested in the other half of the crusade, Mercedes Lackey and Ellen Guon penned the first Wing Commander novel, Wing Commander: Freedom Flight . It tells the Firekkan side of the story, from several points of view: Ralgha nar Hhallas, Ian "Hunter" St. John, James "Paladin" Taggart, and K'kai, a Firekkan flock leader. [2]

Super Wing Commander

Super Wing Commander was a drastic new look at the events of the original Wing Commander. That mission led the Tiger's Claw to track down and destroy the shipyards responsible for creating the Sivar Dreadnought. Additional background elements rumors about stealth fighters and Admiral Tolwyn were added to improve the continuity with Wing Commander II. [3]

Next Generation reviewed the 3DO version of the game, rating it four stars out of five, and stated that "Super Wing Commander succeeds at being what it was intended to be - a straightforward space simulator with an arcade spin." [4]



Wing Commander was originally titled Squadron [5] and later renamed Wingleader. [6] As development for Wing Commander came to a close, the EMM386 memory manager the game used would give an exception when the user exited the game. It would print out a message similar to "EMM386 Memory manager error..." with additional information. The team could not isolate and fix the error and they needed to ship it as soon as possible. As a work-around, one of the game's programmers, Ken Demarest, hex-edited the memory manager so it displayed a different message. Instead of the error message, it printed "Thank you for playing Wing Commander." [7] However, due to a different bug the game went through another revision and the bug was fixed, meaning this hack did not ship with the final release.


Wing Commander shipped in 1990 for PC/DOS as the initial platform [8] and came with an instruction booklet styled as a shipboard magazine, Claw Marks. [9] It provided tactical suggestions, statistics on fighters and weapons both Kilrathi and Terran, capsule biographies of notable pilots on both sides of the line, and general shipboard news (such as the discontinuation of the popular comic strip Hornet's Nest, due to the recent death of its artist, Lt. Larry "Tooner" Dibbles). Notable contributors to the Claw Marks magazine include Captain Aaron Allston, Major Warren Spector, and Col. Chris Roberts. [10] The game also shipped with a set of blueprints for the game's four playable fighters, the Hornet, Scimitar, Rapier, and Raptor. [11]

Mission packs

In 1990, an add-on campaign, named Wing Commander: The Secret Missions, was released, adding new missions, new ships, a new storyline, and an increase in difficulty. Unlike the original game, The Secret Missions does not feature a branching mission tree; every player plays the same missions in the same order. However, if the player does not fulfill the mission requirements at any system, he immediately plays the two losing "retreat" missions that are not on the winning path. The Secret Missions was also released for the SNES as a stand-alone cartridge.

The second expansion pack for Wing Commander, Wing Commander: The Secret Missions 2: Crusade adds a new narrative, new ships, more difficult missions, and two new wingmen. It was released in 1991.

Ports and re-release

Wing Commander was ported to the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) [12] and Amiga in 1992, to the Amiga CD32 in 1993, [13] and to the Sega CD system in 1994. [14]

In 1994, Wing Commander was retroactively renamed Wing Commander I in a bundled re-release together with Wing Commander II, in preparation for the release of Wing Commander III: Heart of the Tiger . The rebundled remakes do not contain and do not support the Secret Missions addons.[ original research? ]

In 1996 Wing Commander was ported to Windows 95 in a bundled re-release together with Wing Commander II, and Wing Commander III: Heart of the Tiger known as Wing Commander: The Kilrathi Saga. All three games were ported to Windows 95 and the Secret Missions Addons whilst not shipped on the CDs could be downloaded from Origin's website.

Super Wing Commander

Screenshot showing vastly improved graphics. Super Wing Commander screenshot.jpeg
Screenshot showing vastly improved graphics.

Super Wing Commander; released on March 23, 1994, for 3DO and Macintosh; was a drastic new look at the events of the original Wing Commander game with enhanced graphics and full speech. The game also contained both Secret Missions and a special third campaign [15] was also created between them (called "Secret Mission 1.5" by fans). [3]


Chris Crawford said of Wing Commander that it "raised the bar for the whole industry," as the game was five times more expensive to create than most of its contemporaries. Because the game was highly successful, other publishers had to match its production value in order to compete. This forced a large portion of the video game industry to become more conservative, as larger budgets required greater sales to be profitable and the possibility of large losses dictated a decrease in the chance of that outcome, an aspect of classic risk-and-return dynamics. Crawford opined that Wing Commander in particular affected the marketing and economics of computer games and reestablished the "action game" as the most lucrative type of computer game. [16]

In 2006 Electronic Arts ported the SNES version of Wing Commander to the PlayStation Portable as part of EA Replay , released in the United States on November 14, 2006. [17] In August 2011, after many years of unavailability, the Wing Commander I PC version was re-released into the digital distribution on [18] The long lost source code of Wing Commander I was given to the fan-community in August 2011 by a former developer for the purpose of long-time preservation. [19]


Review scores
CGW Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar half.svg [20]
Dragon Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [21]
Computer Gaming World1991 Game of the Year [22]
Computer Gaming WorldHall of Fame [23]
Computer Gaming World#7 Best PC Game of All Time [24]
Computer Gaming World15 Best Ways to Die [25]
Time 100 Best Video Games of All Time [26]
PC Format 50 Best Computer Games of All Time [27]
PC Gamer US #23 Best Game of All Time [28]

Wing Commander became a best seller and caused the development of competing space combat games, such as LucasArts' X-Wing . [29] It was very well received by critics. Dragon gave Wing Commander six stars, out of a five-star system, [21] the Secret Missions Expansion Disk receiving five stars. [30] Computer Gaming World in 1990 described the game as a "stellar warfare adventure in every sense of the word", praising its graphics, story, and music. [31] The magazine described the first expansion as "more of the same", albeit more difficult, but the second as improving computer pilots' intelligence. [32] In a 1992 survey of science fiction games, the magazine gave the title five of five stars, stating that "the richness of the entire package makes this a 'must-have'". [33] A 1994 survey of strategic space games set in the year 2000 and later gave the game four-plus stars out of five. [20] Its readers gave Wing Commander a score of 10.91, the highest rating in the history of the magazine until 1992, when it was superseded by the sequel Wing Commander II; that year the magazine added Wing Commander to its Hall of Fame for games that readers highly rated over time. [34] [23]

GamePro gave the Sega CD version a positive review, commenting that "A great story line with cinematic animation and digitized speech gives this game the feel of a big screen space opera." [35] They regarded the Super Wing Commander remake for the 3DO to be "a tedious disappointment", citing missions that are "either too short or too repetitive", dramatic slowdown which interferes with the gameplay, poorly animated character faces, and low quality voice tracks. [36]

In 1991, Wing Commander won Computer Gaming World's Overall Game of the Year award. [22] In 1996 the magazine ranked it as the seventh best PC video game of all time, [24] also listing the game's Game Over funeral cutscene among the 15 best ways to die in computer gaming. [25] In 2011, Maximum PC included it on the list 16 classic games that need to be remade today, stating: "Chris Roberts and Origin really nailed the space opera with this series, which blended fast action and a fairly engaging (if hokey) story. Way ahead of its time." [37] In 2012, Time named Wing Commander one of the 100 greatest video games of all time, remembering its "unprecedented detail" of graphics and calling it "a revelation in 1990 for PC space-sim buffs looking for a little less Star Trek and a little more Star Wars from the genre." [26]

In 1991, PC Format placed Wing Commander on its list of the 50 best computer games of all time. The editors praised its "superb graphics, atmospheric storyline and [the] sheer hectic pace of the dogfighting." [27] In 1994, PC Gamer US named the game's CD-ROM release the 23rd best computer game ever. The editors wrote, "If Wing Commander were just a dog-fighting arcade game, it would still be great. But it's a lot more than that, as it combines animated sequences, voice acting, and a great story to create the first example of that now-overused phrase, 'Interactive Cinema.' " [28]

In 1991 it won the Origins Award for Best Fantasy or Science Fiction Computer Game of 1990. [38]

Related Research Articles

<i>Descent: FreeSpace – The Great War</i> video game

Descent: FreeSpace – The Great War, known as Conflict: FreeSpace – The Great War in Europe, is a 1998 space combat simulation IBM PC compatible computer game developed by Volition, when it was split off from Parallax Software, and published by Interplay Productions. In 2001, it was ported to the Amiga platform as FreeSpace: The Great War by Hyperion Entertainment. The game places players in the role of a human pilot, who operates in several classes of starfighter and combats against opposing forces, either human or alien, in various space-faring environments, such as in orbit above a planet or within an asteroid belt. The story of the game's single player campaign focuses on a war in the 24th century between two factions, one human and the other alien, that is interrupted in its fourteenth year by the arrival of an enigmatic and militant alien race, whose genocidal advance forces the two sides into a ceasefire in order to work together to halt the threat.

<i>Wing Commander</i> (franchise) video game series

Wing Commander is a media franchise consisting of space combat simulation video games from Origin Systems, Inc., an animated television series, a feature film, a collectible card game, a series of novels, and action figures. The franchise originated in 1990 with the release of video game Wing Commander.

Christopher Blair fictional character in the science fiction franchise Wing Commander

Christopher "Maverick" Blair is a fictional character in the science fiction franchise Wing Commander, first appearing in the video game Wing Commander in 1990, although he was only given a canonical name years later. He is a protagonist player character throughout much of the Wing Commander game series and also appears in several Wing Commander novels, notably the novelizations of Wing Commander III: Heart of the Tiger and Wing Commander IV: The Price of Freedom, and in the film Wing Commander.

<i>Wing Commander Academy</i> television series

Wing Commander Academy is a 1996 American animated television series created and produced by Universal Cartoon Studios, along with a team led by Larry Latham. The show was based on the Wing Commander franchise and loosely served as a prequel to Wing Commander. The show's aired from September 21 to December 21, 1996 on the USA Network's "USA Action Extreme Team" block.

<i>Wing Commander</i> (film) 1999 science fiction film directed by Chris Roberts

Wing Commander is a 1999 science fiction film loosely based on the video game series of the same name. It was directed by Chris Roberts, the creator of the game series, and stars Freddie Prinze Jr., Matthew Lillard, Saffron Burrows, Tchéky Karyo, Jürgen Prochnow, David Suchet, and David Warner.

<i>Crusader: No Remorse</i> 1995 video game

Crusader: No Remorse is an action game developed by Origin Systems and published by Electronic Arts. It was first released in 1995 for MS-DOS, with the Sony PlayStation and Sega Saturn ports following in 1997. Set in a dystopian future 22nd century, the game centers on an elite supersoldier who defects from the tyrannical world government, the World Economic Consortium (WEC), and joins the Resistance rebels.

<i>Strike Commander</i> video game

Strike Commander is a combat flight simulator video game designed by Chris Roberts and released by Origin Systems for the PC DOS in 1993. Its 3D graphics-engine used both gouraud shading and texture-mapping on both aircraft-models and terrain, an impressive feat at the time. Significant plot elements were presented through in-game cut-scene animations, a hallmark storytelling vehicle from Chris Robert's previous Wing Commander games. Strike Commander has been called "Privateer on Earth," due to the mercenary role-playing in the game.

<i>FreeSpace 2</i> Space Combat Simulator

FreeSpace 2 is a 1999 space combat simulation computer game developed by Volition as the sequel to Descent: FreeSpace – The Great War. It was completed ahead of schedule in less than a year, and released to very positive reviews. However, the game became a commercial failure, and was described by certain critics as one of 1999's most unfairly overlooked titles.

<i>Wing Commander II: Vengeance of the Kilrathi</i> 1991 computer game; 2nd installment of Wing Commander series

Wing Commander II: Vengeance of the Kilrathi is the first sequel in Chris Roberts' Wing Commander science fiction space combat simulator franchise of computer games, produced by Origin Systems.

<i>Wing Commander III: Heart of the Tiger</i> computer game; 3rd installment of Wing Commander series

Wing Commander III: Heart of the Tiger is the third main game in Chris Roberts' Wing Commander science fiction space combat simulation video game series, developed and released by Origin Systems in December 1994. It was a departure from previous games in the series in that it uses extensive live action full motion video to add an interactive movie-style presentation to the space combat gameplay, emphasized by its advertising slogan, "Don't watch the game, play the movie!". The game's more than two hours of video featured a number of prominent movie stars including Mark Hamill as Colonel Christopher "Maverick" Blair, Malcolm McDowell as Admiral Tolwyn, John Rhys-Davies as James "Paladin" Taggart and Thrakhath nar Kiranka, and Tom Wilson as Todd "Maniac" Marshall.

<i>Wing Commander IV: The Price of Freedom</i> 1996 video game

Wing Commander IV: The Price of Freedom is the fourth main game in the Wing Commander science fiction space combat simulator video game series, produced by Origin Systems and released by Electronic Arts for the PC in 1996 and the Sony PlayStation in 1997.

<i>Wing Commander: Prophecy</i> 1997 computer game; 5th installment of Wing Commander series

Wing Commander: Prophecy is the fifth installment in the Wing Commander science fiction space combat simulator franchise of computer games. The game was released in 1997, produced by Origin Systems and Italy-based Raylight Studios for the GBA, and distributed by Electronic Arts.

<i>Wing Commander: Armada</i> 1994 video game

Wing Commander: Armada is a computer game set in the universe of Chris Roberts' Wing Commander franchise. Created by Origin Systems and distributed by Electronic Arts in 1994, Armada was the first official game of the Wing Commander series to feature multiplayer mode. This game was released shortly before Wing Commander III: Heart of the Tiger and features a new graphics engine, capable of rendering fully three dimensional ship models, which is more powerful than the sprite-based engine used in Wing Commander II: Vengeance of the Kilrathi.

<i>Wing Commander: Privateer</i> 1993 computer game

Wing Commander: Privateer is an adventure Space trading and combat simulator computer game released by Origin Systems in September 1993. Privateer and its storyline is part of the Wing Commander series. The player takes the role of Grayson Burrows, a "privateer" who travels through the Gemini Sector, one of many sectors in the Wing Commander universe. Unlike Wing Commander, the player is no longer a navy pilot, but a freelancer who can choose to be a pirate, a merchant, a mercenary or any of the above in some combination. The player may follow the built-in plot but is free to adventure on his own, even after the plot has been completed.

<i>Wing Commander Arena</i> 2007 video game

Wing Commander Arena is a space combat video game developed by independent software developer Gaia Industries for the Xbox 360's Xbox Live Arcade service. It is a spin-off of the popular Wing Commander series of games. The game was released on July 25, 2007.

Several novels based on the Wing Commander games have been released by Baen Books.

<i>Star Wars: TIE Fighter</i> video game

Star Wars: TIE Fighter is a 1994 Star Wars space flight simulator and space combat video game, a sequel in the Star Wars: X-Wing series. It places the player in the role of an Imperial starfighter pilot during events that occur between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi.

Wing Commander Academy is a spin-off of Wing Commander II: Vengeance of the Kilrathi, published in 1993.

A space flight simulation game is a genre of flight simulator video games that lets players experience space flight to varying degrees of realism. Many games feature space combat, and some games feature commerce and trading in addition to combat.

Joe Basquez is an American songwriter, composer and musician from Austin, Texas. He is best known for his work at Origin Systems Inc, specifically, his compositions for Ultima Online in collaboration with Kirk Winterrowd.


  1. Hamilton, Geoff; Jones, Brian (May 12, 2010). Encyclopedia of American Popular Fiction. Facts On File. p. 254. ISBN   978-0-8160-7157-9 . Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  2. Lackey, Mercedes; Guon, Ellon (1992). Wing Commander: Freedom Flight. Google Books . Baen Books . Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  3. 1 2 "Super Wing Commander". Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  4. "Finals". Next Generation . No. 1. Imagine Media. January 1995. pp. 91–92.
  5. "Press Release: "Squadron"" . Retrieved July 4, 2007.
  6. Reid, Christopher (April 10, 2005). "Come For The Wingleader, Stay For The Intense Ad". WCNews. Retrieved July 4, 2007.
  7. Sheffield, Brandon (March 2010). "Dirty Coding Tricks II". Game Developer . Vol. 17 no. 3. p. 8.
    Republished online: Sheffield, Brandon (July 24, 2015). "More dirty coding tricks from game developers". Gamasutra . Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  8. "Wing Commander - PC". IGN . Ziff Davis . Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  9. "PC Mag". Google Books . Ziff Davis. March 26, 1991. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  10. Allston, Aaron (1990). "Claw Marks" (PDF). Origin Systems . Retrieved August 19, 2016.Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  11. "Get Them While They're Blue - Wing Commander CIC". Retrieved April 9, 2020.
  12. "Wing Commander - SNES". IGN . Ziff Davis . Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  13. "Wing Commander - Amiga CD32". IGN . Ziff Davis . Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  14. "Wing Commander - Sega CD". IGN . Ziff Davis . Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  15. Wing Commander CIC SWC Script
  16. Rouse III, Richard (2005). Game Design Theory & Practice. Second Edition. Wordware Publishing, Inc. p. 264. ISBN   1-55622-912-7.
  17. "Release Information for EA Replay" . Retrieved July 2, 2007.
  18. Dutton, Fred (August 25, 2011). "Wing Commander touches down on GOG". Eurogamer . Retrieved September 20, 2014. Retro download specialist Good Old Games has added a couple of vintage EA classics to its library: Wing Commander 1+2 and Dungeon Keeper 2.
  19. "BIG NEWS: Wing Commander I Source Code Archived!". August 26, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2013. Thanks to an extremely kind donation from an anonymous former EA/Origin developer, the source code to the PC version of Wing Commander I is now preserved in our offline archive! Because of our agreement with Electronic Arts, we're not allowed to post recovered source code for download--but rest easy knowing that the C files that started it all are being kept safe for future reference. Our offline archive contains material that has been preserved but which can't be posted, including other source code and budget data from several of the games.
  20. 1 2 Brooks, M. Evan (May 1994). "Never Trust A Gazfluvian Flingschnogger!". Computer Gaming World. pp. 42–58.
  21. 1 2 Lesser, Hartley; Lesser, Patricia; Lesser, Kirk (February 1991). "The Role of Computers". Dragon (166): 31–36.
  22. 1 2 "Computer Gaming World's 1991 Games of the Year Awards". Computer Gaming World. No. 88. Golden Empire Publications. November 1991. pp. 38–40, 58.
  23. 1 2 Sipe, Russell (November 1992). "3900 Games Later..." Computer Gaming World. p. 8. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
  24. 1 2 "150 Best Games of All Time". Computer Gaming World. November 1996. pp. 64–80. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  25. 1 2 "The 15 Best Ways To Die In Computer Gaming". Computer Gaming World. November 1996. p. 107. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  26. 1 2 "All-TIME 100 Video Games". Time. Time Inc. November 15, 2012. Archived from the original on November 16, 2012. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  27. 1 2 Staff (October 1991). "The 50 best games EVER!". PC Format (1): 109–111.
  28. 1 2 Staff (August 1994). "PC Gamer Top 40: The Best Games of All Time". PC Gamer US (3): 32–42.
  29. Emrich, Alan (October 1992). "Flying the Rebel Alphabet in an X-Wing". Computer Gaming World. p. 80. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
  30. Lesser, Hartley; Lesser, Patricia; Lesser, Kirk (May 1991). "The Role of Computers". Dragon (169): 61–65.
  31. Owens, Dennis (December 1990). "The Claws of the Tiger". Computer Gaming World. p. 18. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
  32. Emrich, Alan; Weksler, Mike (July 1991). "There's a Saga". Computer Gaming World. p. 56. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
  33. Brooks, M. Evan (November 1992). "Strategy & Wargames: The Future (2000-....)". Computer Gaming World. p. 99. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
  34. "The CGW Poll". Computer Gaming World. April 1992. p. 48. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
  35. "ProReview: Wing Commander". GamePro (60). IDG. July 1994. p. 64.
  36. "ProReview: Super Wing Commander". GamePro (60). IDG. July 1994. p. 108.
  37. Maximum PC | Facebook, Android, or Windows? 16 Gaming Classics That Need to Be Remade Today
  38. "The 1990 Origins Awards". The Origin Awards. The Game Manufacturers Association. 1990. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2013.