1919 in science

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List of years in science (table)

The year 1919 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Science systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Technology making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization

Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.

Contents

Astronomy

International Astronomical Union Association of professional astronomers

The International Astronomical Union is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. Among other activities, it acts as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations and names to celestial bodies and any surface features on them.

Chemistry

Chemical bond lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bonds" such as covalent, ionic and metallic bonds, and "weak bonds" or "secondary bonds" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding.

Irving Langmuir American chemist and physicist

Irving Langmuir was an American chemist and physicist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932 for his work in surface chemistry.

History of science

Leonard Eugene Dickson was an American mathematician. He was one of the first American researchers in abstract algebra, in particular the theory of finite fields and classical groups, and is also remembered for a three-volume history of number theory, History of the Theory of Numbers.

<i>History of the Theory of Numbers</i> book by Leonard Eugene Dickson

History of the Theory of Numbers is a three-volume work by L. E. Dickson summarizing work in number theory up to about 1920. The style is unusual in that Dickson mostly just lists results by various authors, with little further discussion. The central topic of quadratic reciprocity and higher reciprocity laws is barely mentioned; this was apparently going to be the topic of a fourth volume that was never written.

Mathematics

Viggo Brun Norwegian mathematician

Viggo Brun was a Norwegian professor, mathematician and number theorist.

Bruns theorem theorem

In number theory, Brun's theorem states that the sum of the reciprocals of the twin primes converges to a finite value known as Brun's constant, usually denoted by B2. Brun's theorem was proved by Viggo Brun in 1919, and it has historical importance in the introduction of sieve methods.

A twin prime is a prime number that is either 2 less or 2 more than another prime number—for example, either member of the twin prime pair. In other words, a twin prime is a prime that has a prime gap of two. Sometimes the term twin prime is used for a pair of twin primes; an alternative name for this is prime twin or prime pair.

Medicine

George Newman (doctor) British doctor

Sir George Newman GBE, KCB FRSE was an English public health physician, Quaker, the first Chief Medical Officer to the Ministry of Health in England, and wrote a seminal treatise on the social problems causing infant mortality.

The Chief Medical Officer (CMO) is the most senior advisor on health matters in a government. There are four CMOs in the United Kingdom who are appointed to advise their respective governments: Her Majesty's Government, the Northern Ireland Executive, the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government. Each CMO is assisted by one or more Deputy Chief Medical Officers, and are complimented by a Chief Nursing Officer.

England and Wales Administrative jurisdiction within the United Kingdom

England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four nations of the United Kingdom. "England and Wales" forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law.

Physics

Psychology

Technology

Awards

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

Arthur Eddington British astrophysicist

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics. He was also a philosopher of science and a populariser of science. The Eddington limit, the natural limit to the luminosity of stars, or the radiation generated by accretion onto a compact object, is named in his honour.

Max Born physicist

Max Born was a German-Jewish physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 1930s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function".

Arnold Sommerfeld German theoretical physicist

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics. He served as doctoral supervisor for many Nobel Prize winners in physics and chemistry.

The year 1867 in science and technology involved many significant events, listed below.

The year 1915 involved numerous significant events in science and technology, some of which are listed below.

The year 1916 involved a number of significant events in science and technology, some of which are listed below.

The year 1918 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1920 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1923 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Deutsche Physik or Aryan Physics was a nationalist movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s. A pseudoscientific movement, it nonetheless won the support of many eminent physicists in Germany. The term was taken from the title of a 4-volume physics textbook by Nobel Laureate Philipp Lenard in the 1930s.

History of general relativity

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, with contributions by many others after 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses.

"Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen" is the 1905 journal article, by Albert Einstein, that proved the reality of atoms, which were first proposed in 1808 by John Dalton. It is one of the four groundbreaking papers Einstein published in 1905, in Annalen der Physik, in his miracle year.

Events from the year 1919 in the United Kingdom.

The 1851 Research Fellowship is a scheme conducted by the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 to annually award a three-year research scholarship to approximately eight "young scientists or engineers of exceptional promise". The fellowship is open to all nationalities and fields of science, including physical or biological sciences, mathematics, applied science, and any branch of engineering. The fellowship can be held anywhere in the United Kingdom.

<i>Einstein and Eddington</i> 2008 television film directed by Philip Martin

Einstein and Eddington is a British single drama produced by Company Pictures and the BBC, in association with HBO. It featured David Tennant as British scientist Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, and Andy Serkis as Albert Einstein. This is the story of Einstein's general theory of relativity, his relationship with Eddington and the introduction of this theory to the world, against the backdrop of the Great War.

Science and technology in Ukraine

Science and technology in Ukraine has its modern development and historical origins in the 18th and 19th centuries and is associated, first of all, with the Kyiv Mohyla Academy, University of Kyiv and University of Kharkiv. The founding of Ukraine's main research institution, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, in 1918 by Volodymyr Vernadsky marked an important milestone in the country's subsequent scientific and technological development.

References

  1. Langmuir, Irving (1919). "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules". Journal of the American Chemical Society . 41 (6): 868–934. doi:10.1021/ja02227a002.
  2. Dyson, F. W.; Eddington, A. S.; Davidson, C. R. (1920). "A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences . 220 (571–581): 291–333. Bibcode:1920RSPTA.220..291D. doi:10.1098/rsta.1920.0009.
  3. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft.; Mehra, Jagdish; Rechenberg, Helmut (1982). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Vol. 1, Part 1: The Quantum Theory of Planck, Einstein, Bohr and Sommerfeld 1900–1925: its Foundation and the Rise of Its Difficulties. Springer. p. 330. ISBN   978-0-387-95174-4.
  4. hirschfeld.in-berlin.de, The first Institute for Sexual Science.
  5. Famous GLBT & GLBTI People – Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld stonewallsociety.
  6. Grossmann, Atina. Reforming Sex. Oxford University Press, 1995.
  7. In Memory of Arthur Kronfeld.