Acacia paradoxa

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Kangaroo Thorn
Acacia armata C.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Clade: Mimosoideae
Genus: Acacia
Species:
A. paradoxa
Binomial name
Acacia paradoxa
DC.
Acacia paradoxaDistMap672.png
Occurrence data from AVH
Synonyms

Acacia armata R.Br.

Acacia paradoxa habit Acacia paradoxa kz3.jpg
Acacia paradoxa habit
Acacia paradoxa foliage, stipules and flowers Acacia paradoxa (Hedge Wattle) (24631313579).jpg
Acacia paradoxa foliage, stipules and flowers
Kangaroo Thorn flower Kangaroo Thorn flower (6257402372).jpg
Kangaroo Thorn flower

Acacia paradoxa [1] is a plant in the family Fabaceae. Its common names include kangaroo acacia, [2] kangaroo thorn, prickly wattle, hedge wattle [3] and paradox acacia.

Contents

Description

The large shrub or tree up to 2 to 4 metres (7 to 13 ft) tall [4] and has a similar width, [3] it has ribbed branchlets that are often arched downward. It is dense with foliage; the leaves are actually enlarged petioles known as phyllodes. They are crinkly and the new ones are covered in hairs. The erect phyllodes are asymettric and have a lanceolate shape and are around 30 millimetres (1.18 in) in length and 7 mm (0.276 in) wide. [4] The bush is also full of long spines. It usually flowers between August and November [3] producing an axillary flower-spike with small, bright yellow spherical flower heads and the fruits are brown pods 4 to 7 centimetres (1.6 to 2.8 in) long. The hard black seeds within have an oblong shape and are about 6 mm (0.236 in) in length and half as wide. [4]

The spiny stipules that grow at the base of the phyllodes deter livestock from feeding on or too close to the plant.

Taxonomy

The species was first formally described by the botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1813 as part of the work Catalogus Plantarum Horti Botanici Monspeliensis. [2] The species name is from the Greek words para which means near and doxa meaning glory. This probably refers the unattractive and thorny shrub being quite showy when it is in bloom. [4]

Many synonyms are known for the plant including; Acacia ornithophora, Acacia undulata, Mimosa paradoxa, Racosperma paradoxum, Acacia armata and Acacia hybrida. [2]

Distribution

Kangaroo thorn is widely spread across Australia, regenerating from seed after disturbances, such as bush fire. Small birds, including wrens, use this plant as shelter and dwelling, while it is relied upon as a food source for moths, butterflies and other insects, birds also feed on its seeds.

It is endemic to south eastern parts of South Australia, much of Victoria, eastern New South Wales and south eastern parts of Queensland. [2] It has become naturalised in parts of Western Australia and Tasmania. [4]

The plant has also been introduced to other continents. In the United States, kangaroo thorn is a well-known noxious weed in California. [5]

Cultivation

The plant is used as an ornamental or as a dense screening plant. It make an excellent habitat and food source for birds. It grows well in full sun or in a partly shaded position. It can be planted in dry to moist well-drained areas. [3] Seeds require pre-treatment such as scarification prior to planting. [4]

Related Research Articles

<i>Acacia sensu lato</i> polyphyletic genus of shrubs and trees

Acacia s.l., known commonly as mimosa, acacia, thorntree or wattle, is a polyphyletic genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae. It was described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1773 based on the African species Acacia nilotica. Many non-Australian species tend to be thorny, whereas the majority of Australian acacias are not. All species are pod-bearing, with sap and leaves often bearing large amounts of tannins and condensed tannins that historically found use as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

<i>Acacia pycnantha</i> Golden wattle, a tree of the family Fabaceae native to southeastern Australia

Acacia pycnantha, most commonly known as the golden wattle, is a tree of the family Fabaceae native to southeastern Australia. It grows to a height of 8 m (26 ft) and has phyllodes instead of true leaves. Sickle-shaped, these are between 9 and 15 cm long, and 1–3.5 cm wide. The profuse fragrant, golden flowers appear in late winter and spring, followed by long seed pods. Plants are cross-pollinated by several species of honeyeater and thornbill, which visit nectaries on the phyllodes and brush against flowers, transferring pollen between them. An understorey plant in eucalyptus forest, it is found from southern New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, through Victoria and into southeastern South Australia.

<i>Acacia cyclops</i> Species of plant

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<i>Acacia saligna</i> Species of plant in the family Fabaceae native to Australia

Acacia saligna, commonly known by various names including coojong, golden wreath wattle, orange wattle, blue-leafed wattle, Western Australian golden wattle, and, in Africa, Port Jackson willow, is a small tree in the family Fabaceae. Native to Australia, it is widely distributed throughout the south west corner of Western Australia, extending north as far as the Murchison River, and east to Israelite Bay. The Noongar peoples know the tree as Cujong.

<i>Acacia kempeana</i> Species of plant

Acacia kempeana, commonly known as wanderrie wattle, witchetty bush or granite wattle, is a shrub in subfamily Mimosoideae of family Fabaceae that is endemic to arid parts of central and western Australia.

<i>Acacia ligulata</i> Species of plant

Acacia ligulata is a species of Acacia, a dense shrub widespread in all states of mainland Australia. It is not considered rare or endangered.

<i>Acacia denticulosa</i> species of plant

Acacia denticulosa, commonly known as sandpaper wattle, is a species of Acacia native to the south-west of Western Australia. A spindly shrub 1–4 m high, it flowers from September to October, producing dense, curved, yellow flower spikes.

<i>Acacia acanthoclada</i> Species of plant

Acacia acanthoclada, commonly known as harrow wattle, is a low, divaricate, highly branched and spinescent shrub that is endemic to Australia.

<i>Acacia decurrens</i> species of plant

Acacia decurrens, commonly known as black wattle or early green wattle, is a perennial tree or shrub native to eastern New South Wales, including Sydney, the Greater Blue Mountains Area, the Hunter Region, and south west to the Australian Capital Territory. It grows to a height of 2–15 m (7–50 ft) and it flowers from July to September.

<i>Acacia longifolia</i> Species of plant

Acacia longifolia is a species of Acacia native to southeastern Australia, from the extreme southeast of Queensland, eastern New South Wales, eastern and southern Victoria, and southeastern South Australia. Common names for it include long-leaved wattle, acacia trinervis, aroma doble, golden wattle, coast wattle, sallow wattle and Sydney golden wattle. It is not listed as being a threatened species, and is considered invasive in Portugal and South Africa. In the southern region of Western Australia, it has become naturalised and has been classed as a weed by out-competing indigenous species. It is a tree that grows very quickly reaching 7–10 m in five to six years.

<i>Acacia enterocarpa</i> Species of plant

Acacia enterocarpa, commonly known as jumping jack wattle, is a shrub species that is endemic to eastern Australia.

<i>Acacia verticillata</i> species of plant

Acacia verticillata is a perennial shrub to small tree native to south eastern Australia.

<i>Acacia ausfeldii</i> species of plant

Acacia ausfeldii, commonly known as Ausfeld's wattle or whipstick cinnamon wattle, is a shrub species that is endemic to south-eastern Australia. It grows to between 1 and 4 metres high and has phyllodes that are 2 to 7 cm long and 2 to 6 mm wide. The yellow globular flowerheads appear in groups of two or three in the axils of the phyllodes in August to October, followed by straight seed pods which are 4 to 9 cm long and 2 to 4 mm wide.

<i>Acacia macradenia</i> species of plant

Acacia macradenia is also known as the zig-zag wattle, which derives from its zig-zag stem growth pattern. Another name used to identify A. macradenia is the 'bed of rivers'. Distinguishing features include alternating phyllodes, yellow globular clusters growing at the forks of the branches and a 'zig-zag' stem.

<i>Acacia tenuissima</i> Species of plant

Acacia tenuissima, commonly known as narrow-leaved wattle, broom wattle, minyana, slender mulga or slender wattle, is a shrub belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Juliflorae endemic to temperate and tropical areas of Australia. Indigenous Australians the Kurrama peoples know the plant as Janangungu and the Banyjima know it as Murruthurru.

<i>Acacia brachybotrya</i> Species of plant

Acacia brachybotrya, commonly known as grey mulga or grey wattle, is a shrub belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Phyllodineae that is endemic to Australia.

<i>Acacia pickardii</i> Species of plant

Acacia pickardii, commonly known as Pickard's wattle or birds nest wattle, is a tree or shrub belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Phyllodineae native to eastern Australia. It is listed as a vulnerable species according to Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

<i>Acacia wilhelmiana</i> Species of plant

Acacia wilhelmiana, commonly known as dwarf nealie, Wilhelmi’s wattle and mist wattle, is a shrub belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Plurinerves native to the mallee region of central and eastern Australia.

<i>Acacia doratoxylon</i> Species of plant

Acacia doratoxylon, commonly known as currawang, lancewood, spearwood or coast myall, is a shrub or tree belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Juliflorae that is native to eastern and south eastern Australia.

<i>Acacia leptostachya</i> species of plant

Acacia leptostachya, commonly known as Townsville wattle or slender wattle, is a shrub or small tree belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Juliflorae that is native to north eastern Australia.

References

  1. "Acacia paradoxa". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 2008-04-03.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Acacia paradoxa DC. Kangaroo Acacia". Atals of Living Australia. Global Biodiversity Information Facility . Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Acacia paradoxa". Yarra Ranges. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Acacia paradoxa (Leguminosae) Kangaroo Thorn". Seeds of South Australia. Government of South Australia . Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  5. "Acacia paradoxa". Plants Profile. United States Department of Agriculture . Retrieved 2 April 2012.

Further reading