Airbus A321

Last updated
A321
Airbus A321-231(w) 'N915US' American Airlines (28442733186).jpg
An American Airlines A321
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National originMultinational [lower-alpha 1]
Manufacturer Airbus
First flight11 March 1993
Introduction1994 with Lufthansa
StatusIn service
Primary users American Airlines
China Southern Airlines
China Eastern Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Produced1992–present
Number built1,850 as of January 2019 [1]
Unit cost
US$114.9 million [2]
Developed from Airbus A320
Developed into Airbus A320neo family

The Airbus A321 is a member of the Airbus A320 family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners. [lower-alpha 2] The first derivative of the baseline A320, it has a stretched fuselage and entered service in 1994 with Lufthansa, around six years after the original A320. The aircraft shares a common type rating with all other Airbus A320 family variants, allowing existing A320 family pilots to fly the aircraft without the need for further training.

Airbus A320 family Airliner family

The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners by Airbus. The family includes the A318, A319, A320 and A321, as well as the ACJ business jet. The A320s are also named A320ceo following the introduction of the A320neo. The aircraft family can accommodate up to 236 passengers and has a range of 3,100 to 12,000 km, depending on model.

Narrow-body aircraft single-aisle full-size jet airliner classification

A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle permitting up to 6-abreast seating in a cabin below 4 metres (13 ft) of width. In contrast, a wide-body aircraft is a larger airliner usually configured with multiple aisles and a fuselage diameter of more than 5 metres (16 ft) allowing at least seven-abreast seating and often more travel classes.

Twinjet aircraft propelled by two jet engines

A twinjet or twin-engine jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines. A twinjet is able to fly well enough to land with a single working engine, making it safer than a single-engine aircraft in the event of failure of an engine. Fuel efficiency of a twinjet is better than that of aircraft with more engines. These considerations have led to the widespread use of aircraft of all types with twin engines, including airliners, fixed-wing military aircraft, and others.

Contents

In December 2010, Airbus announced a new generation of the A320 family, the A320neo (new engine option). [3] The similarly lengthened fuselage A321neo variant offers new, more efficient, engines, combined with airframe improvements and the addition of winglets (called Sharklets by Airbus). The aircraft delivers fuel savings of up to 15%. The A321neo carries up to 236 passengers, with a maximum range of 4,000 nmi (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) for the long-range version when carrying no more than 206 passengers. [4]

Airbus A320neo family Airliner, series of improvements across the A320 family

The Airbus A320neo family is a development of the A320 family of narrow-body airliners produced by Airbus. The original family has been renamed A320ceo, for current engine option. Launched on 1 December 2010, it made its first flight on 25 September 2014 and it was introduced by Lufthansa on 25 January 2016. Re-engined with CFM International LEAP-1A or Pratt & Whitney PW1000G engines and with large sharklets, it should be 15% more fuel efficient. The A320neo family is based on the previous A319, A320 and A321. As of June 2019, Airbus has received 6,635 orders and delivered 869 aircraft.

Final assembly of the aircraft takes place in Hamburg, Germany, or Mobile, Alabama. As of 31 January 2019, a total of 1,850 Airbus A321 aircraft have been delivered, of which 1,827 are in service. In addition, another 2,241 airliners are on firm order (comprising 81 A321ceo and 2,160 A321neo). As of January 2019, American Airlines was the largest operator of the Airbus A321, operating 220 aircraft. [1]

Hamburg City in Germany

Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.8 million, after the capital Berlin.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Mobile, Alabama City in Alabama, United States

Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 as of the 2010 United States Census, making it the third most populous city in Alabama, the most populous in Mobile County, and the largest municipality on the Gulf Coast between New Orleans, Louisiana, and St. Petersburg, Florida.

Development

The A321 entered service in January 1994 with Lufthansa Lufthansa.a321-100.d-aire.arp.jpg
The A321 entered service in January 1994 with Lufthansa

The Airbus A321 was the first derivative of the A320, also known as the Stretched A320, A320-500 and A325. [5] [6] Its launch came on 24 November 1988, around the same time as the A320 entered service, after commitments for 183 aircraft from 10 customers were secured. [5] [7]

An Airbus A321 on final assembly line 3 in the Airbus plant at Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport A321 final assembly (9351765668).jpg
An Airbus A321 on final assembly line 3 in the Airbus plant at Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport

The maiden flight of the Airbus A321 came on 11 March 1993, when the prototype, registration F-WWIA, flew with IAE V2500 engines; the second prototype, equipped with CFM56-5B turbofans, flew in May 1993. Lufthansa and Alitalia were the first to order the stretched Airbuses, with 20 and 40 aircraft requested, respectively. The first of Lufthansa's V2500-A5-powered A321s arrived on 27 January 1994, while Alitalia received its first CFM56-5B-powered aircraft on 22 March 1994. [8] The A321-100 entered service in January 1994 with Lufthansa.

The maiden flight, also known as first flight, of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground under its own power. The same term is also used for the first launch of rockets.

Prototype early sample or model built to test a concept or process

A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and software programming. A prototype is generally used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea.

IAE V2500 Turbofan engine

The IAE V2500 is a two-shaft high-bypass turbofan engine which powers the Airbus A320 family, the McDonnell Douglas MD-90, and the Embraer KC-390.

Final assembly for the A321 was carried out in Germany (then West Germany), a first for any Airbus. [9] This came after a dispute between the French, who claimed that the move would incur $150 million (€135 million) in unnecessary expenditure associated with the new plant, [10] and the Germans, who claimed that it would be more productive for Airbus in the long run. The second production line was located in Hamburg, which later produced the smaller Airbus A319 and A318. For the first time, Airbus entered the bond market, through which it raised $480 million (€475 million) to finance development costs. [11] An additional $180 million (€175 million) was borrowed from European Investment Bank and private investors. [12]

Airbus A319 Airliner, shortened series of the A320 family

The Airbus A319 is a member of the Airbus A320 family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus. The A319 carries up to 160 passengers and has a maximum range of 3,700 nmi. Final assembly of the aircraft takes place in Hamburg, Germany and Tianjin, China.

Airbus A318 Airliner, smallest series of the A320 family

The Airbus A318 is the smallest member of the Airbus A320 family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus. The A318 carries up to 132 passengers and has a maximum range of 3,100 nmi. Final assembly of the aircraft took place in Hamburg, Germany. It is intended primarily for short-range service, although British Airways uses the aircraft on a London City Airport to New York-JFK Airport transatlantic route.

Bond market financial market where participants can issue new debt or buy and sell debt securities

The bond market is a financial market where participants can issue new debt, known as the primary market, or buy and sell debt securities, known as the secondary market. This is usually in the form of bonds, but it may include notes, bills, and so on.

The A321 is the largest variant of the A320 family. [13] [4] The A321-200's length exceeds 44.5m, increasing maximum takeoff weight to 93,000 kg (205,000 lb). [14] Wingspan remained unchanged, supplementing various wingtip devices. Two suppliers provided turbofan engines for the A321: CFM International with its CFM56 and International Aero Engines with the V2500 engine, both in the thrust range of 133–147 kN (30,000–33,000 lbf).

Over 30 years since launch, the A321 MTOW grew by 20% from the 83t -100 until the 101t A321XLR, seating is 10% more dense with 244 seats, up by 24, and range doubled from 2,300 nmi to 4,700 nmi. [15] By 2019, 4,200 have been ordered—one-quarter of all Airbus single-aisles—including 2,400 neos, one-third of all A320neo orders. [15]

Design

The A321 has double-slotted flaps Airbus A321-..., Lufthansa AN0620267.jpg
The A321 has double-slotted flaps

The Airbus A321 is a narrow-body (single-aisle) aircraft with a retractable tricycle landing gear and is powered by two wing pylon-mounted turbofan engines. It is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit having a single vertical stabilizer and rudder. Changes from the A320 include a fuselage stretch and some modifications to the wing. The fuselage was lengthened by a 4.27 m (14 ft 0 in) plug ahead of the wing and a 2.67 m (8 ft 9 in) plug behind it, so that the A321 is 6.94 metres (22 ft 9 in) longer than the A320. [4] [13] [14] [16] The length increase required the overwing window exits of the A320 to be converted into door exits and repositioned in front of and behind the wings. [8] To maintain performance, double-slotted flaps and minor trailing edge modifications were included, [14] increasing the wing area from 124 m2 (1,330 sq ft) to 128 m2 (1,380 sq ft). [17] The centre fuselage and undercarriage were reinforced to accommodate the increase in maximum takeoff weight of 9,600 kg (21,200 lb), taking it to 83,000 kg (183,000 lb). [14]

Variants

Airbus A32X family A32XFAMILYv1.0.png
Airbus A32X family

A321-100

The original derivative of the A321, the A321-100, featured a reduction in range compared to the A320 as extra fuel tankage was not added to the initial design to compensate for the extra weight. The maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of the A321-100 was increased to 83,000 kg (183,000 lb). The A321-100 entered service with Lufthansa in 1994. Only about 90 were produced. [18]

A321-200

Airbus launched the heavier and longer range A321-200 development in 1995 which has a full-passenger transcontinental US range. This is achieved through higher thrust engines (V2533-A5 or CFM56-5B3), minor structural strengthening, and an increase in fuel capacity with the installation of one or two optional 2,990 L (790 US gal) tanks in the rear underfloor hold. [19] The additional fuel tankage increases the total capacity of this model to 30,030 L (7,930 US gal). These modifications also increased the maximum takeoff weight of the A321-200 to 93,000 kg (205,000 lb). This variant first flew in December 1996, and entered service with Monarch Airlines in April 1997. Its direct competitors include the 757–200 and the 737-900/900ER.

A321neo

The A321neo has larger CFM LEAP or PW1000G turbofans Tc-lsa (42253295235).jpg
The A321neo has larger CFM LEAP or PW1000G turbofans

On 1 December 2010, Airbus launched the A320neo family (neo for New Engine Option ) with 500 nmi (930 km) more range and 15% better fuel efficiency thanks to new CFM International LEAP-1A or Pratt & Whitney PW1000G engines and large sharklets. [20] The lengthened A321neo prototype made its first flight on 9 February 2016. [21] It received its type certification on 15 December 2016. [22] The first entered service in May 2017 with Virgin America. [23]

A321LR

First delivered to Arkia, the A321LR has a black windshield frame 4X-AGK Micha.jpg
First delivered to Arkia, the A321LR has a black windshield frame

In October 2014, Airbus started marketing a longer range 97 t (214,000 lb) maximum takeoff weight variant with three auxiliary fuel tanks with 100 nmi (190 km) more operational range than a Boeing 757-200. [24] Airbus launched the A321LR (Long Range) on 13 January 2015 with a Range of 4,000 nmi (7,400 km) with 206 seats in two classes. [25] [26] On 31 January 2018, it completed its first flight. [27] Airbus announced its certification on 2 October 2018. [28] On 13 November 2018, Arkia received the first A321LR. [29]

A321XLR

In January 2018, Airbus was studying an A321LR variant with a further increased MTOW. [30] The proposed A321XLR with a range extended to 4,500 nmi (8,300 km) would be launched in 2019 to enter service in 2021 or 2022 to compete with the Boeing NMA. [31] In November, Airbus indicated that the A321XLR would have an MTOW over 100 t (220,000 lb) and 700 nmi (1,300 km) more range than the A321LR. [32] The A321XLR was launched at the June 2019 Paris Air Show, with 4,700nm of range from 2023, including a new permanent Rear Centre Tank (RCT) for more fuel, a strengthened landing gear for a 101 t (223,000 lb) MTOW; and an optimised wing trailing-edge flap to preserve take-off performance. [33]

Operators

As of 31 January 2019, 1,827 Airbus A321 aircraft were in service with more than 100 operators. [1]

American Airlines and China Southern Airlines operate the largest A321 fleets of 220 and 116 aircraft respectively. [1]

Orders and deliveries

TypeOrdersDeliveries
TotalBacklogTotal201920182017201620152014201320122011201020092008
A3211,799611,73823991832221841501028366518766
A321neo2,6862,4931937110220
Total4,4852,5541,931942012032221841501028366518766
TypeDeliveries
20072006200520042003200220012000199919981997199619951994
A3215130173533354928333522162216
A321neo
Total5130173533354928333522162216

Data through end of June 2019 [1] [34]

Accidents and incidents

For the Airbus A321, 31 aviation accidents and incidents have occurred, [35] including four hull-loss accidents / criminal occurrences with a total of 377 fatalities as of October 2017. [36] [37]

Specifications

The A320's overwing exits were replaced by doors in front of and behind the wings N162UW (45250787704).jpg
The A320's overwing exits were replaced by doors in front of and behind the wings
VariantA321 [4] A321neo [38]
Cockpit crew2
2-class seats 185 (16F @ 36 in, 169Y @ 32 in) [39] 206: 16J @36 in + 190Y @30 in [40]
1-class max.236 at 28 in (71 cm) pitch [41] 240 @ 28 in [42]
Cargo capacity51.70 m3 (1,826 cu ft) / 10×LD3-45s [lower-alpha 3]
Length44.51 m (146.0 ft)
Wingspan35.80 m (117 ft 5 in) [lower-alpha 4]
Wing122.4 m2 (1,318 sq ft) area, 25° sweep [43]
Height11.76 m (38.6 ft)
Fuselage3.95 by 4.14 m (13.0 by 13.6 ft) width × height, 3.70 m (12.1 ft) wide cabin
Max. takeoff weight 93.5 t (206,000 lb)97 t (213,800 lb)
Max. payload 25.3 t (56,000 lb)25.5 t (56,200 lb) [44] :3-2-1
Op. empty weight 48.5 t (107,000 lb) [39] 50.1 t (110,500 lb)
Fuel capacity24,050–30,030 L (6,350–7,930 US gal)23,700 - 32,940 l (6,261 - 8,700 US gal) [lower-alpha 5]
Engines (×2) CFM56-5B, 68.3 in (1.73 m) fan
IAE V2500A5, 63.5 in (1.61 m) fan
CFM International LEAP-1A, 78 in (1.98 m) fan
Pratt & Whitney PW1100G, 81 in (2.06 m) fan
Max. Thrust (×2) [45] 133–147 kN (30,000–33,000 lbf)147.3 kN (33,110 lbf)
SpeedCruise: Mach 0.78 (450 kn; 833 km/h) [46] Max.: Mach 0.82 (473 kn; 876 km/h) [45]
Ceiling 39,100–39,800 ft (11,900–12,100 m) [45]
Typical range3,200 nmi (5,930 km) [lower-alpha 6] 4,000 nmi (7,410 km) [lower-alpha 7]

Engines

Aircraft modelCertification dateEngines [45]
A321-11127 May 1995 CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P
A321-11215 February 1995 CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P
A321-13117 December 1993 IAE Model V2530-A5
A321-21120 March 1997 CFM56-5B3 or 5B3/P or 5B3/2P
A321-21231 August 2001 CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P
A321-21331 August 2001 CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P
A321-23120 March 1997 IAE Model V2533-A5
A321-23231 August 2001 IAE Model V2530-A5

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

Related Research Articles

Airbus A310 Short-fuselage derivative of the A300 airliner

The Airbus A310 is a medium- to long-range twin-engined wide-body jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus, then a consortium of European aerospace manufacturers. It was the second airliner to be produced by the company, the first being the A300. The A310 is a smaller derivative of the A300, which held the distinction of being the first twin-engined widebody airliner.

Airbus A340 Four engine wide-body jet airliner

The Airbus A340 is a long-range, four-engine, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner that was developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus. The A340 was assembled in Toulouse, France. It seats up to 375 passengers in the standard variants and 440 in the stretched -600 series. Depending on the model, it has a range of 6,700 to 9,000 nautical miles. Its distinguishing features are four high-bypass turbofan engines and three-leg main landing gear.

Airbus A330 Wide-body twin-engine jet airliner

The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus. Versions of the A330 have a range of 5,000 to 13,430 kilometres and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry 70 tonnes of cargo.

Airbus A350 XWB Family of long-range, wide-body jet airliners made primarily of composite materials

The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by the European aerospace manufacturer Airbus. The A350 is the first Airbus aircraft with both fuselage and wing structures made primarily of carbon fibre reinforced polymer. Its variants seat 315 to 369 passengers in typical seating layouts. The A350 is positioned to succeed the A340 and to compete with the Boeing 787 and 777.

Pratt & Whitney PW1000G

The Pratt & Whitney PW1000G is a high-bypass geared turbofan engine family, currently selected as the exclusive engine for the Airbus A220, Mitsubishi SpaceJet, and Embraer's second generation E-Jets, and as an option on the Irkut MC-21 and Airbus A320neo. The project was previously known as the Geared Turbofan (GTF), and originally the Advanced Technology Fan Integrator (ATFI). The engine is expected to deliver reductions in fuel use and ground noise when used in next-generation aircraft. The PW1000G engine first entered commercial use in January 2016 with Lufthansa's first commercial Airbus A320neo flight.

Airbus Corporate Jets Business unit of Airbus that sells corporate jet variants of parents airliner range

Airbus Corporate Jets, a business unit of Airbus SAS and part of Airbus, markets and completes corporate jet variants from the parent's airliner range. Types include the A318 Elite to the double/triple-decked Airbus A380 Prestige. Following the entry of the 737 based Boeing Business Jet, Airbus joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997. Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was initially used only for the A319CJ, it is now often used for all models, including the VIP widebodies. As of December 2008, 121 corporate and private jets are operating, 164 aircraft have been ordered, including an A380 Prestige and 107 A320 family Corporate Jet.

Boeing 737 Next Generation Airliner family by Boeing

The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as 737NG, or 737 Next Gen, is the −600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 airliner. It is the third generation derivative of the 737, and follows the 737 Classic (−300/-400/-500) series, which began production in the 1980s. They are short- to medium-range, narrow-body jet airliners powered by two engines. Produced since 1996 by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, the 737NG series includes four variants and can seat between 110 and 210 passengers.

Boeing 737 MAX Airliner family by Boeing

The Boeing 737 MAX is a narrow-body aircraft series designed and produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes as the fourth generation of the Boeing 737, succeeding the Boeing 737 Next Generation (NG).

Fuel economy in aircraft Fuel economy in aircraft

Fuel economy in aircraft is a measure of how much fuel an aircraft, or a fleet of aircraft of mixed types, needs to operate in relation to a service provided and the distance between points of travel. It can be expressed in several ways, for example by the liters of fuel consumed per passenger per kilometer.

Boeing 777X Next generation of the Boeing 777

The Boeing 777X is the latest series of the long-range, wide-body, twin-engine Boeing 777 family from Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The 777X will feature new GE9X engines, new composite wings with folding wingtips, greater cabin width and seating capacity, and technologies from the Boeing 787. The 777X was launched in November 2013 with two variants: the 777-8 and the 777-9. The 777-8 provides seating for 365 passengers and has a range of 8,690 nmi (16,090 km) while the 777-9 has seating for 414 passengers and a range of over 7,525 nmi (13,936 km). The -9 is expected to fly in October-November 2019 with deliveries to begin one year later.

Airbus A330neo Wide-body jet airliner developed from Airbus A330

The Airbus A330neo is a wide-body jet airliner developed by Airbus from the Airbus A330. A new version with modern engines comparable to those developed for the Boeing 787 was called for by owners of the current A330. It was launched on 14 July 2014 at the Farnborough Airshow, promising 14% better fuel economy per seat. It will exclusively use the larger Rolls-Royce Trent 7000. Its two versions are based on the A330-200 and -300: the -800 has a range of 8,150 nmi (15,090 km) with 257 passengers while the -900 covers 7,200 nmi (13,330 km) with 287 passengers. The -900 made its maiden flight on 19 October 2017 and received its EASA type certificate on 26 September 2018. It was first delivered to TAP Air Portugal on 26 November and had its maiden commercial flight on 15 December. The -800 made its first flight on 6 November 2018, aiming for type certification in mid-2019 and first delivery in the first half of 2020.

The Philippine Airlines fleet is composed of wide-body and narrow-body aircraft from five families : Airbus A320, Airbus A321ceo, Airbus A321neo, Airbus A330, their flagship Airbus A350, and Boeing 777. As of July 2019, there were 72 aircraft registered in the PAL fleet.

Middle of the market segment of airline market

The middle of the market, often abbreviated MoM, is the airliner market between the narrowbody and the widebody aircraft, a market segmentation used by Boeing Commercial Airplanes since at least 2003. Both Airbus and Boeing produce aircraft that serve this segment.

Boeing New Midsize Airplane Proposed aircraft to fill the middle of the market segment

The New Midsize Airplane (NMA), or New Midsize Aircraft, is a concept airliner designed by Boeing to fill the middle of the market segment.

References

Footnotes

  1. The Airbus A321 is built in Hamburg, Germany or Mobile, Alabama, United States
  2. Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies named, Airbus Industrie, and is now fully owned by Airbus, originally named EADS. Airbus' name has been Airbus SAS since 2001.
  3. no Additional Centre Tank
  4. with sharklets
  5. 0 - 3 Additional Centre Tank [44]
  6. sharklets, typical Passengers and bags
  7. with 206 passengers

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Airbus Orders & Deliveries". Airbus. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  2. "New Airbus aircraft list prices for 2015". Airbus (Press release). 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  3. "Airbus offers new fuel saving engine options for A320 Family". Airbus. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "A321 specifications". Airbus.
  5. 1 2 Norris & Wagner 1999 , p. 50
  6. Laming & Hewson 2000 , p. 23
  7. Reed 1992 , p. 84
  8. 1 2 Eden 2008 , p. 25
  9. Sebdon, Gilbert (7 February 1990). "A321 victory for West Germany". Flight International. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  10. Norris & Wagner 1999 , p. 53
  11. Reed 1992 , p. 84
  12. Norris & Wagner 1999 , p. 52
  13. 1 2 "Specifications Airbus A320". Airbus. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Norris & Wagner 1999 , p. 51
  15. 1 2 Max Kingsley Jones (15 July 2019). "The incredible evolution of Airbus's biggest single-aisle". Flightglobal.
  16. Gunston 2009 , pp. 213–214
  17. Moxon; Julian (17 March 1993). "A321: Taking on the 757". Flight International. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  18. "Airbus A321-100 Production List". www.planespotters.net. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  19. Gunston 2009 , pp. 214–215
  20. "Airbus offers new fuel saving engine options for A320 Family" (Press release). Airbus. 1 December 2010.
  21. "Airbus A321neo completes first flight after engine switch". Reuters. 9 February 2016.
  22. "Airbus A321neo with P&W engines receives Type Certification" (Press release). Airbus. 15 December 2015.
  23. Aaron Karp (20 April 2017). "Virgin America receives first A321neo as Alaska mulls future fleet". Air Transport World. Aviation Week.
  24. "Exclusive: Airbus launches "A321neoLR" long range to replace 757-200W". Leeham News. 21 October 2014.
  25. "Airbus Launches Long-Range A321neo". Aviation International News. 13 January 2015.
  26. "Airbus Launches Long-Range A321neo Version". Aviation Week . 13 January 2015.
  27. "Airbus A321LR long-range jet completes maiden flight". Reuters. 31 January 2018.
  28. "EASA and FAA certify long-range capability for A321neo" (Press release). Airbus. 2 October 2018.
  29. David Kaminski Morrow (13 November 2018). "Arkia chief: A321LR first single-aisle to beat 757-300 economics". Flightglobal.
  30. Jens Flottau (31 January 2018). "Airbus Studying Higher-Capacity A321neo". Aviation Week Network.
  31. Jens Flottau and Guy Norris (20 July 2018). "Airbus Moves Ahead With A321XLR Definition". Aviation Week & Space Technology.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  32. "Airbus indicates A321XLR would have over 100t MTOW". Flightglobal. 13 November 2018.
  33. "Airbus launches longest range single-aisle airliner: the A321XLR" (Press release). Airbus. 17 June 2019.
  34. "Historical Orders and Deliveries 1974–2009". Airbus S.A.S. January 2010. Archived from the original (Microsoft Excel) on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  35. Airbus A321 occurrences. Aviation Safety, 3 October 2017.
  36. Airbus A321 hull-loss occurrences. Aviation Safety, 3 October 2017.
  37. A321 accident statistics. Aviation Safety, 3 October 2017.
  38. "Airbus Family figures" (PDF). Airbus. July 2017.
  39. 1 2 "All About the Airbus A320 Family". Airbus. 2009.
  40. "Airbus Launches Long-Range A321neo Version". Aviation Week. 13 January 2015.
  41. "Airbus Studies 236-Seat A321". Aviation Week. 10 December 2012.
  42. "Airbus reveals new A321neo layout: New 'Cabin-Flex' and larger doors". Australian business traveller. 13 June 2014.
  43. "Airbus Aircraft Data File". Civil Jet Aircraft Design. Elsevier. July 1999.
  44. 1 2 "A321 aircraft characteristics - airport and maintenance planning" (PDF). Airbus. 1 February 2019.
  45. 1 2 3 4 "Type Certificate Data Sheet" (PDF). EASA. 22 February 2019.
  46. "Airbus A320neo Technology". Airbus.