Calothamnus

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Calothamnus
Calothamnus quadrifidus fg01.JPG
Calothamnus quadrifidus
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Tribe: Melaleuceae
Genus: Calothamnus
Labill.
Synonyms [1]
  • BillottiaColla
  • BaudiniaLesch. ex DC.

Calothamnus is a genus of shrubs in the family Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. The common names one-sided bottlebrush or claw flower are given to some species due to their having the flowers clustered on one side of the stem or because of the claw-like appearance of their flowers. Calothamnus species are generally medium to tall woody shrubs with crowded leaves. In most species the leaves are crowded and linear in shape, and the flowers are usually arranged in dense clusters. The petals are small and fall off the flower soon after it opens but the stamens are long, numerous and usually bright red.

Contents

Description

Plants in the genus Calothamnus are medium to tall shrubs, sometimes low-growing ground covers. The leaves are linear or narrow lance-shaped with the narrower end towards the base, usually glabrous and have distinct oil glands. The flowers are in small groups or dense spikes on leafless, older stems or between the leaves on younger ones. The sepals are fused to form a bell-shaped cup which is often immersed in the branch and there are four or five petals which usually fall off after the flower has opened. There are many stamens, joined for a large proportion of their length into four or five "claws". In some species the upper two claws are fused together and the lower ones are shorter. The stamens are brightly coloured, crimson to a deep purple or rarely yellow. The fruit is a woody capsule. [2] [3] [4]

Calothamnus graniticus subsp. graniticus Calothamnus graniticus subsp. graniticus.jpg
Calothamnus graniticus subsp. graniticus
Calothamnus pinifolius Calothamnus pinifolius.jpg
Calothamnus pinifolius

Taxonomy and naming

The first species in the genus to be described was Calothamnus sanguineus . It was first formally described in 1806 by the French biologist Jacques Labillardière in Novae Hollandiae Plantarum Specimen, Volume 2. [5] [6] The name Calothamnus is derived from the Greek words kalos meaning "beautiful" [7] :131 and thamnos meaning "a shrub" or "a bush". [7] :174 [8]

In 2014, Lyndley Craven and others proposed, mainly on the basis of DNA evidence, that species in the genus Calothamnus, along with those in Beaufortia , Conothamnus , Eremaea , Lamarchea , Petraeomyrtus , Phymatocarpus and Regelia be transferred to Melaleuca . [9]

Distribution and habitat

All Calothamnus species are found in the south west botanical province of Western Australia. Some (such as Calothamnus aridus ) are adapted to a dry environment whilst others (such as Calothamnus hirsutus ) are often found near swamps. [2]

Use in horticulture

Most species of Calothamnus have been grown in gardens but need full sun and good drainage. Propagation is usually from seeds which are retained in the hard fruits throughout the life of the plant but cuttings can be used to retain the colour of yellow forms. [10]

Species list

The following is a list of species recognised by the Western Australian Herbarium: [3] [11]

Related Research Articles

<i>Beaufortia</i> (plant) Genus of flowering plants

Beaufortia is a genus of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. The genus Beaufortia is closely related to Melaleuca, Calothamnus, Regelia and several others, differing mainly in the way the anthers are attached to the stalks of the stamens, and in the way they open to release their pollen. Beaufortia anthers are attached at one end and open by splitting at the other.

<i>Calothamnus quadrifidus</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus quadrifidus, commonly known as one-sided bottlebrush, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. The common name alludes to the arrangement of the flowers in the inflorescence which line up on one side of the stem. It is a shrub with grey-green, pine-like foliage covered with soft hairs and red, four-part flowers in spring. Widely cultivated because of its attractive foliage, colourful, unusual and prolific flowers, it grows in a variety of habitats and soils. In 2010, Alex George published a review of the species based on recent research and described a number of new subspecies.

<i>Calothamnus chrysanthereus</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus chrysanthereus , commonly known as claw flower is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is an erect shrub with needle-shaped leaves crowded on the ends of the branches and bright red flowers in spring.

<i>Calothamnus sanguineus</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus sanguineus, commonly known as silky-leaved blood flower, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. The Noongar peoples know the plant as Boolgalla. It is an erect to spreading shrub with short, cylindrical leaves and red or white flowers with an unusual arrangement of stamens, often flowering in autumn, winter or spring. It was the first of its genus to be formally described.

<i>Calothamnus graniticus</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus graniticus, commonly known as granite claw flower, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. There are two subspecies, both of which have been classified as "near threatened". It is an erect, rounded shrub with pine-like, dark, grey-green foliage and usually bright red flowers. Calothamnus graniticus subsp. graniticus occurs in the Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park and is the floral emblem of the nearby city of Busselton.

<i>Calothamnus villosus</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus villosus, commonly known as woolly net-bush or silky net-bush, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a tall shrub, often forming thickets. It has thin, cylindrical leaves and blood red flowers for many months of the year. It is superficially similar to Calothamnus quadrifidus but can be distinguished from that species by its flowers which have five stamen claws compared to the four of C. quadrifidus.

<i>Calothamnus brevifolius</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus brevifolius is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a small, highly branched shrub with almost cylindrical, pointed leaves and red flowers in summer. In 2014 Craven, Edwards and Cowley proposed that the species be renamed Melaleuca hawkeswoodii.

Calothamnus affinis is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is an erect, compact, or spreading shrub with red to purple flowers in spring.

<i>Calothamnus aridus</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus aridus is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to central parts of Western Australia. It is an erect, densely branched shrub with many stems, needle-like leaves and orange-red to pinkish flowers, growing in arid areas with spinifex.

Calothamnus borealis is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a small, erect shrub with crowded, cylindrical leaves and red flowers. It grows in sand surrounded by spinifex or heath. In 2014 Craven, Edwards and Cowley proposed that the species be renamed Melaleuca aquilonia.

Calothamnus formosus is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a large, spreading, densely foliaged shrub with almost cylindrical, pointed leaves and red flowers in spring or summer. There are two subspecies, differing mainly in the length of their leaves.

<i>Calothamnus hirsutus</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus hirsutus is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a small, spreading shrub with prominent hairs on the leaves giving them a smoky appearance. The flowers are deep red and are usually in dense clusters between the older leaves.

Calothamnus lehmannii, commonly known as dwarf claw flower, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a low-lying, sometimes ground-hugging shrub with long, thin, cylindrical leaves and clusters of red flowers that are smaller than any others in the genus Calothamnus.

Calothamnus macrocarpus is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is an erect shrub with bright red flowers in spring and large, almost spherical fruit. It has a limited distribution near Hopetoun.

<i>Calothamnus preissii</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus preissii is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a low-lying, sometimes ground-hugging shrub with needle-like leaves and reddish-purple flowers in spring.

Calothamnus schaueri is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a small, spreading, sometimes prostrate shrub, growing to a height of about 0.6 metres (2 ft) with cylindrical leaves 100–200 millimetres (4–8 in) long. It has brownish red flowers from August to December. The flowers have 4 petals and 4 narrow bundles of stamens.

Calothamnus superbus is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is an erect, often spreading, straggly shrub similar to Calothamnus aridus with its red flowers having 5 stamen bundles, but its leaves are longer and wider. It has a limited distribution near Pigeon Rocks south of Lake Barlee.

<i>Calothamnus torulosus</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus torulosus is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is sometimes an erect, sometimes prostrate shrub which has pine-like leaves and usually red, 4-part flowers. It is similar to Calothamnus sanguineus except that it has larger fruiting capsules.

<i>Calothamnus tuberosus</i> Species of flowering plant

Calothamnus tuberosus is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a stiff, prickly plant with cylindrical leaves and red flowers, growing near or often on granite boulders. It has a lignotuber and tuberous roots.

References

  1. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. 1 2 Hawkeswood, Trevor J. (1984). "Nine new species of Calothamnus Labill. (Myrtaceae: Leptospermoideae) from Western Australia" (PDF). Nuytsia. 5 (1): 123–124. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  3. 1 2 "Calothamnus Labill.". FloraBase . Western Australian Government Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions.
  4. Corrick, Margaret G.; Fuhrer, Bruce A. (2009). Wildflowers of southern Western Australia (3rd ed.). Kenthurst, N.S.W.: Rosenberg Publishing P/L. p. 114. ISBN   9781877058844.
  5. "Calothamnus sangineus". APNI. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  6. La Billardière, Jacques-Julien Houtou de (1806). Novae Hollandiae plantarum specimen Volume 2. Paris. pp. 25–26. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  7. 1 2 Brown, Roland Wilbur (1956). The Composition of Scientific Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  8. Booth, Carol. "Calothamnus quadrifidus". Australian National Botanic Garden. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  9. Craven, Lyn A.; Edwards, Robert D.; Cowley, Kirsten J. (30 June 2014). "New combinations and names in Melaleuca (Myrtaceae)". Taxon. 63 (3): 663–670. doi:10.12705/633.38.
  10. Wrigley, John W.; Fagg, Murray (1983). Australian native plants : a manual for their propagation, cultivation and use in landscaping (2nd ed.). Sydney: Collins. pp. 194–195. ISBN   0002165759.
  11. "Calothamnus". Western Australian Herbarium. Retrieved 25 July 2015.