This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines . (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article needs additional citations for verification . (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Clerics Regular Minor, commonly known as the Adorno Fathers, is a Roman Catholic religious order of priests and brothers founded by Saint Francis Caracciolo, Augustine Adorno, and Fabrizio Caracciolo in 1588 at Villa Santa Maria, Abruzzo. Belonging to the family of Clerics Regular, its members desired to sanctify themselves and the People of God by imitating in their lives the Paschal Mystery of Christ. Its motto is Ad Maiorem Dei Resurgentis Gloriam, "For the Greater Glory of the Risen God". The post-nominal letters are C.R.M.
Francis Caracciolo, born Ascanio Pisquizio, was an Italian Catholic priest who co-founded the Congregation of the Clerics Regular Minor with John Augustine Adorno. He decided to adopt a religious life at the age of 22.
Villa Santa Maria is a town and comune in the province of Chieti, in the region of Abruzzo of southern Italy.
The Paschal mystery is one of the central concepts of Catholic faith relating to the history of salvation. Its main subject is the passion, death, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ – the work God the Father sent His Son to accomplish on earth. According to the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The Paschal Mystery accomplished once for all by the redemptive death of His Son Jesus Christ." The Catechism states that in the liturgy of the Church which revolves around the seven sacraments, "it is principally his own Paschal mystery that Christ signifies and makes present."
Venerable Augustine Adorno, born John Augustine Adorno, is considered the first founder and the first father of the Clerics Regular Minor. He was born in Genoa in 1551 to Michele and Nicoletta dei Campanari Adorno. His father's family was very much involved in the political affairs of Genoa. His father was a senator of Genoa and was a respected personage of the city. His mother was a woman of virtue and religious piety.
Augustine received his education in diplomacy, and commerce as well as classical studies. In 1573 his father sent him to the court of Philip II, where he stayed for several years. Augustine was a kind of envoy of Genoa to the King of Spain while at the same time he attended to the financial affairs of the family in Spain. He was a banker in the court of Philip II, lending money to the King and his associates. It was in Valencia, Spain that Augustine met St. Louis Bertrand who prophesied that he would establish a religious order. Two events could be said to have contributed to Augustine's decision to abandon his career as a banker and financial manager of the family's business: he lost a large amount of money gambling, and the death of his father in 1578. These events led Augustine to the realization of the importance of the 'things in heaven' and that everything on earth soon 'comes to an end.'
St. Louis Bertrand, O.P. was a Spanish Dominican friar who preached in South America during the 16th century, and is known as the "Apostle to the Americas". He is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church.
Upon his return to Genoa, Augustine had time to reflected on his vocation in life and studied theology and the petrology of the Church Fathers in the seminary of Genoa. It was also in Genoa that Augustine thought of establishing a religious order. At 36 years of age, Augustine was ordained a priest on September 19, 1587 in the Church of Saint Restituta. He continued to exercise his pastoral ministry as a member of the Confraternity of the While Robes of Mercy in Naples, reaching out to the prisoners. Augustine also frequented the Hospital of the Incurabili, where he ministered to the sick and the dying. It was in the course of Augustine's pastoral work in this hospital that he met Fabrizio Caracciolo, a relative of Francis Caracciolo.
Francis Caracciolo was born Ascanio Caracciolo on October 13, 1563 in Villa Santa Maria, Abruzzi, Italy. At twenty-two, Ascanio Caracciolo was a young man enjoying the exceedingly comfortable life available to an Italian nobleman of the sixteenth century, when he contracted a terrible skin disease. Facing death, he vowed that if he recovered he would give the rest of his life to God, and after his miraculous recovery he immediately began studying for the priesthood and was ordained in 1587 at the age of twenty-five.Ascanio's first work was in Naples, with a confraternity that looked after the spiritual welfare of prisoners and those condemned to death.
In 1587, when he mistakenly received a letter addressed to a relative, Father Fabrizio Caracciolo, the Abbot of St. Mary Major in Naples. In it he learned that the writer, a priest call Augustine Adorno, was planning to found an association of priests whose work would combine both active and contemplative life. The project appealed to Ascanio, and he soon joined forces with Augustine Adorno.
The three priests retreated to the Camaldolese hermitage in Naples to write the first Constitutions of the Order. In addition to the three evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience, they contemplated a fourth vow: the renunciation of any ecclesiastical dignity.They recruited ten companions and began their foundation. On July 1 of the same year Pope Sixtus V approved the new group, and on April 9, 1589, the co-founders made their solemn vows, Ascanio taking the name Francis, the name by which he was subsequently known.
The Camaldolese monks and nuns are two different, but related, monastic communities that trace their lineage to the monastic movement begun by Saint Romuald.
Members of the congregation, called the Clerics Regular Minor, took the usual vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, plus a fourth: not to seek any ecclesiastical office either within or outside the order. The priests kept perpetual adoration before the Blessed Sacrament and conducted missions, helped the inmates of hospitals and prisons, and established hermitages for those who felt called to a life of contemplation. Francis was elected the order's first general, and although a very self-effacing man accomplished a great deal for it. He made three trips to Spain, where he founded houses in Madrid, Valladolid, and Alcala. He was popular among people as a confessor and preacher, his fervent sermons making him known as "the Preacher of the Love of God."
In 1607 Francis sensed the approach of death and went into retirement to prepare for it. Since most of his adult life head been directed to God, he now had little to do except to await God's call with confidence. His health declined rapidly, and on June 4, 1608, the end came. Those who watched at his bedside that evening heard him murmur, "Let us Go! Let us Go!" When asked where he wanted to go, Francis replied, "To heaven, to heaven!" Scarcely had the saint uttered these words when the wish was fulfilled. Francis' body was taken to Naples, where it is now venerated.
On July 1, 1588 Pope Sixtus V approved the new Order of the Clerics Regular Minor as outlined by Augustine Adorno, Fabrizio Caracciolo and Francis Caracciolo.
Augustine Adorno and Francis Caracciolo made their Religious Profession in the chapel of the White Servants of Mercy, I Bianchi in Naples on April 9, 1589. A few days later, April 17, 1589, they undertook a journey to Spain with the intent of establishing the Order there. They were unsuccessful in establishing the Institute, but they made contacts with other religious orders and leaders.
On September 29, 1591, Agostino Adorno died prematurely at the age of 40. Most of the responsibilities and concerns of the new religious family fell upon Francis Caracciolo, who became the first Superior General and the focal point of reference for everyone.
Pope Clement VIII in 1592 confirmed the Order and officially approves the Fourth Vow of the Order: Not to seek ecclesiastical honors. He also assigned, with appropriate documentation, the church of St. Mary Major in Naples to the Order.
At the turn of the century, 1600, St. Francis Caracciolo was very busy in opening and establishing houses in Spain and in Italy. St. Lawrence in Lucina in Rome, which was to be the General Mother House of the Order for more than three centuries, was opened by St. Francis June 11, 1606.
St. Francis Caracciolo died on June 4, 1608, at the age of 45 in Agnone on the Vigil of Corpus Christi.
The revised text of the Constitutions was presented to the Holy See by the third Founder, Fabrizio Caracciolo. It was approved by Pope Paul V with apostolic letter on October 8, 1612.
Fabrizio Caracciolo died on May 25, 1615 at age 60.
Turning this century, 1700, the Order was particularly engaged in the process of beatification and canonization of Francis Caracciolo. The final proclamation of Francis as a Saint is made by Pope Pius VII on May 24, 1807. By the end of this century, the Order has grown to five Provinces(three in Italy and two in Spain) and has about 50 communities with a total membership between 700 and 800 religious. The Order is involved in parish work, teaching in colleges and universities. It has consultors in various congregations of the Holy See, and some religious are given special and delicate assignments, such as that of Father Ceru' and Father Soffietti who are sent to the far East to investigate and report on the difficult controversy of the Rites.
This century, 1800, begins in the wake of great upheavals, which would deal a serious blow to all religious Orders and to this one in particular. The French Revolution, the suppression of religious Orders, the nationalistic spirit of the times, and other factor contribute to the general disarray and deterioration. Many houses were suppressed, a number of religious are secularized and entire Provinces disappear.
At the beginning of this century, 1900, the Order has been reduced to a handful of religious houses and members. There are doubts as the future of the Institute. But with the encouragement of the Popes, especially Pope Benedict XV, the Order starts to show new signs of life. Gradually, the Order expands again, in Italy first, then in the United States, in Germany and Africa.
Following an invitation of Archbishop Thomas J. Walsh, Father Michael De Angelis came to America in 1930. He resided for some time in Morristown, New Jersey as a chaplain of the Filippini Sisters. After a few years, the Archbishop assigned Father Michael as Pastor of St. Joseph's Church in Lodi, New Jersey.
On April 1, 1962, a House of Studies was opened in Ramsey, New Jersey. Later, the Adorno Center was built to prepare candidates for the priesthood and the religious life. Five priests have studied and been ordained from there.
In 1989, after the ordination of two American priests, the Order saw the need to expand. Contacts were made with various dioceses, and the order accepted an offer from the Bishop of Charleston, Ernest L. Unterkoefler, to open a new apostolic work at Immaculate Conception Parish, Goose Creek, South Carolina.
The First Missionary foundation of the Adorno Fathers was on February 19, 1984 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Ex Zaire) with Parochial Ministry in Binja in Nyamilima followed by the opening of the Seminary of St. Joseph in Goma. Adorno Ashram in Mallikassery started on 1993 in Kerala followed by the seminary in Bangalore, Karnataka and seminary in Kiliyanthara in Kerala.
March 1, 2002 marked the official beginning of the Adorno Fathers’ presence in the Philippines. Following an invitation by Bishop Benjamin J. Almoneda, a group of Adorno priests went to the Diocese of Daet with the understanding of using the academic diocesan facilities of Holy Trinity College Seminary. The first group of students together with the Adorno priests took up residence temporarily on the campus of Holy Trinity, while the House of Formation was being built in Vinzons, Camarines Norte. Today the seminary is in full operation.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis. They adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.
Canons regular are priests in the Latin Church living in community under a rule, and sharing their property in common.
The Order of Poor Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools or, in short, Piarists, is the oldest Catholic educational order, also known as the Scolopi, Escolapios or Poor Clerics of the Mother of God. Founded in 1617 by Saint Joseph Calasanctius, the main occupation of the Piarist fathers is teaching children and youth, the primary goal being to provide free education for poor children. The Piarist practice was taken as a model by numerous later Catholic societies devoted to teaching, while the state-supported public school system in certain parts of Europe also followed their example. The Piarists have had a considerable success in the education of physically or mentally disabled persons. Some famous individuals of the last few centuries, including Pope Pius IX, Goya, Schubert, Gregor Mendel, and Victor Hugo, were taught at Piarist schools.
The Oblates of St. Francis de Sales are a congregation of Roman Catholic priests and brothers who follow the teachings of St. Francis de Sales and St. Jane de Chantal. The community was founded in Troyes, France in 1875 by Louis Brisson and are affiliated with the Oblate Sisters of St. Francis de Sales.)
The term Clerics Regular designates a number of Roman Catholic priests (clerics), and clergy of other traditions, who are members of a religious order (regular) of clergy, but are not Canons Regular. Clerics regular differ from canons regular in that they do not possess cathedral or collegiate churches; they devote themselves more completely to pastoral care, in place of an obligation to the Liturgy of the Hours in common, and have fewer penitential observances in their Rule of Life.
The Somascan Fathers are a charitable religious congregation of priests and brothers, founded in Italy in the 16th century by Saint Jerome Emiliani and named after the motherhouse at Somasca. They are often called Somascans for short. Their formal name is Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somascha, abbreviated as C.R.S. after members' names. There are currently about 500 Somascans serving around the world. They provide staff for boys' homes, serve in 95 parishes, and engage in other ministries.
The Congregation of Jesus and Mary, commonly referred to as the Eudists, is a Society of Apostolic Life in the Roman Catholic Church.
The Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception are members of an institute of consecrated life founded in France in 1871, which follows the Augustinian Rule, and is part of the Order of Canons Regular of St. Augustine. They use the postnominal initials of C.R.I.C.
The Camillians or Clerics Regular, Ministers to the Sick are a Roman Catholic religious order, founded in 1582 by St. Camillus de Lellis (1550-1614). A large red cross was chosen by the founder as the distinguishing badge for the members of the Order to wear upon their black cassocks, which was later adopted as the international symbol of medical care. As of 2018, 1080 Camillians serve in 35 countries. They use the postnominal initials of M.I..
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa is an archdiocese in the Philippines comprising the civil province of Batangas and with its cathedral located in the city of Lipa. First created in 1910 from the Archdiocese of Manila, the diocese was elevated into its present status in 1972. Today, the Ecclesiastical Province of Lipa covers Batangas and suffragan territories in the civil provinces of Quezon, Marinduque, Oriental Mindoro, Occidental Mindoro and Aurora. The archdiocese itself is divided into 7 vicariates further comprising a total of 64 parishes.
The priesthood is one of the three holy orders of the Catholic Church, comprising the ordained priests or presbyters. The other two orders are the bishops and the deacons. Only men are allowed to receive holy orders, and the church does not allow any transgender people to do so. Church doctrine also sometimes refers to all baptised Catholics as the "common priesthood".
The Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit, known also simply as Pauline Fathers, is a monastic order of the Roman Catholic Church, founded in Hungary during the 13th century. Its post-nominal letters are O.S.P.P.E.
The Order of Saint Augustine, generally called Augustinians or Austin Friars, is a Catholic religious order. It was founded in 1254 by bringing together several eremetical orders in the Tuscany region who were following the Rule of St. Augustine, written by St. Augustine of Hippo in the 5th Century.
Augustine Francis Hewit was an American Redemptorist priest, and second Superior General of the Paulist Fathers.
A religious brother is a member of a Christian religious institute or religious order who commits himself to following Christ in consecrated life of the Church, usually by the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. He is a layman, in the sense of not being ordained as a deacon or priest, and usually lives in a religious community and works in a ministry appropriate to his capabilities. A brother might practice any secular occupation. The term "brother" is used as he is expected to be as a brother to others. Brothers are members of a variety of religious communities, which may be contemplative, monastic, or apostolic in character. Some religious institutes are composed only of brothers; others are so-called "mixed" communities that are made up of brothers and clerics.
Francis Xavier Mary Bianchi, C.R.S.P., was an Italian Barnabite priest and noted scholar, who also gained a reputation for sanctity during his lifetime from both his commitment to his students and to the poor of Naples. He has been proclaimed a saint by the Catholic Church and declared the Apostle of the city.
Saint Egidio Maria of Saint Joseph - born Francesco Postillo - was an Italian professed religious of the Order of Friars Minor. Postillo became a Franciscan brother rather than an ordained priest due to his lack of a proper education and so dedicated himself to the care of the poor and ill in southern Italian cities such as Taranto and Naples where he earned the moniker of the "Consoler of Naples".
The House of Caracciolo is a prominent aristocratic family from the Kingdom of Naples. Its members include:
Blessed Pietro Casani was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a professed member of the Piarists. He became an assistant and a close personal friend of Saint Giuseppe Calasanz. Casani had assumed the religious name of "Pietro della Natività di Maria" upon his solemn profession and had once been part of the Congregazione della Beata Vergine Maria that Saint Giovanni Leonardi founded.