Congregatio Passionis Iesu Christi
|Founder||Saint Paul of the Cross|
|Type||Clerical Religious Congregation of Pontifical Right (for Men)|
|Headquarters||Piazza SS. Giovanni e Paolo, 13, 00184 Roma, Italy|
|1,964 members (1,540 priests)|
|Fr. Joachim Xavier Rego, C.P.|
|The Poor of Jesus|
The Passionists, formally known as the Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ (Latin : Congregatio Passionis Iesu Christi, C.P.), are a Catholic religious congregation founded by Saint Paul of the Cross with a special emphasis on and devotion to the Passion of Jesus Christ. Professed members use the initials C.P. after their names. A known symbol of the congregation is the labeled emblem of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, surmounted by a cross and is often sewn into the clothing attire of its congregants. The present superior general is Father Joachim Rego C.P.
St. Paul of the Cross wrote the rules of the Congregation in December 1720,and in June 1725 Pope Benedict XIII granted Paul the permission to form his congregation. Paul and his brother, Jean-Baptiste, were ordained by the pope on the same occasion (7 June). The full canonical title of the congregation, following the revision of their Constitutions approved by the Holy See in 1984, is The Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ.
After serving for a time in the hospital of St. Gallicano, in 1737 they left Rome with permission of the Pope and went to Mount Argentario,where they established the first house of the institute. They took up their abode in a small hermitage near the summit of the mount, to which was attached a chapel dedicated to St. Anthony. They were soon joined by three companions, one of whom was a priest, and the observance of community life according to the rules began there and is continued there to the present day. St. Paul of the Cross and his companions – they now totalled six priests and two brothers – began a retreat. On 11 June 1741 they first affixed the emblem or "sign" of the Passion (Jesu XPI Passio) on their black tunics. The professed renewed their vows, and the new members pronounced their first vows.
In 1769, Clement XIV granted full rights to the Passionists as enjoyed by the other religious institutes, making them not an order but a congregation. The congregation historically has had two primary goals: Preaching Missions and contemplative life, with an attempt to blend the two. Its founder had attempted to combine aspects of the contemplative orders, such as the Trappist monks, together with the dynamic orders, such as the Jesuits.
Saint Michael the Archangel has historically been known as the heavenly protector of the Congregation while Saint Mary Magdalene is deemed the patroness of the Congregation. The principal patron of the Congregation is the Blessed Virgin Mary, particularly under her titles as Mother of Sorrows and Our Lady of Holy Hope.
"We seek the unity of our lives and our apostolate in the Passion of Jesus." The Passionate express their participation in the Passion by a special vow, by which they bind themselves to keep alive the memory of the Passion of Christ. They love strive to foster awareness of its meaning and value for each person and for the life of the world. They seek to incorporate this vow into our daily lives by living the evangelical counsels.
Traditionally, their main apostolate has been preaching missions and retreats. According to Saint Paul of the Cross, they were founded in order to "teach people how to pray", which they do through activities such as retreats and missions, spiritual direction, and prayer groups. Today they often also assist local churches in pastoral works, including saying masses, hearing confessions, and visiting the sick. Due to the continuing shortage of priests throughout the world, the Passionists today are sometimes designated as parish priests and curates of various parishes. The Passionists hold many retreat and conference centers around the world.
Unlike the La Sallians or the Gabrielites, Passionists do not usually open schools and universities, except seminaries for their own students wishing to become brothers and priests. There are some schools sponsored and run by the Passionists, like the St. Gemma Galgani School, (which includes primary, junior high and high school-level education) in Santiago (Chile), but these are more the exception than the rule. The Passionists are involved in social welfare projects and education mainly in the various mission territories assigned to them.
Though Passionists are not required to work in non-Christian areas as missionaries, their Rule allows its members to be posted to missionary work, such as mainland China (before the Communists took over in 1949), India, and Japan, and in many other nations in Africa, Asia, Latin America and elsewhere as dictated by the pope or at the invitation of a local Bishop.
There are 2,179 Passionists in 61 countrieson the five continents, led by a superior general who is elected every six years. He is assisted by six consultors in governing the congregation. The congregation is divided into provinces, vice-provinces and missions. The Congregation is also divided into groups of provinces, vice-provinces and missions called configurations. The presidents of the six configurations constitute the Extended General Council which meets with the Superior General and his consultors annually.
There are six configurations in the world:
The official name of the institute is "The Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ". The superior general resides in Rome (Piazza Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, 13, 00184 Roma; tel. 06 772711). The founder is buried in a chapel attached to the Basilica of Saints John and Paul, and the General Headquarters also hosts an international house of studies for Passionists from around the world.
Passionist monasteries are referred to as “retreats”.The members of the congregation are not allowed to possess land, and the congregation collectively can only own the community house and a bit of land attached to it. They rely completely on their own labor and on contributions from the faithful in order to maintain themselves financially. The habit worn by members is a rough wool tunic bearing the words "Jesu XPI Passio", meaning "Passion of Jesus Christ" and the congregation was historically discalced, wearing sandals rather than shoes.
With regard to Popular Piety, the Congregation is also known for promoting devotion to the Passion among the faithful by the use of Black Scapulars usually worn by aspirants to the Passionist way of life. Different devotional practices such as Confraternities of the Passion, Devotion to the Five Wounds of Christ, The Seven Sorrows of The Blessed Virgin Mary, Stations of the Cross and various forms of the Office in honour of the Passion are still widely promoted among its members.
Canonised members of the Congregation
Beatified members of the Congregation
In addition, the causes for the canonisation of Father Carl Schmitz, Father Ignatius Spencer, Father Theodore Foley and Elizabeth Prout have been opened.
The Passionist Sisters (the Sisters of the Cross and Passion) is an institute founded in 1852 by Father Gaudentius Rossi, an early Passionist priest, in collaboration with Elizabeth Prout. In its beginnings, it was called "Sisters of the Holy Family", and was later included under the Passionist family.
Due to their separate raisings guided by members of the congregation, Saints Maria Goretti and Gemma Galgani are traditionally counted in the ranks of the Passionist Sisters, even though they died before they could formally enter the institute (Maria was murdered, Gemma died of tuberculosis).
The Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate (OMI) is a missionary religious congregation in the Catholic Church. It was founded on January 25, 1816, by Saint Eugène de Mazenod, a French priest born in Aix-en-Provence in the south of France on August 1, 1782. The congregation was given recognition by Pope Leo XII on February 17, 1826. The congregation is composed of priests and brothers usually living in community. Their traditional salutation is Laudetur Iesus Christus, to which the response is Et Maria Immaculata. In 2016, there were 3,924 members.
The Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, commonly known as the Redemptorists, is a religious congregation of the Catholic Church, dedicated to missionary work and founded by Alphonsus Liguori at Scala, near Amalfi, Italy, for the purpose of labouring among the neglected country people around Naples. Members of the congregation are Catholic priests and consecrated religious brothers and minister in more than 100 countries.
The "Fourth vow" is a religious solemn vow that is taken by members of various religious institutes of the Catholic Church, after the three traditional vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. It usually is an expression of the congregation's charism and particular insertion in the apostolic field of the Church.
A society of apostolic life is a group of men or women within the Catholic Church who have come together for a specific purpose and live fraternally. There are a number of apostolic societies, such as the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, who make vows or other bonds defined in their constitutions to undertake to live the evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity, and obedience. However, unlike members of an institute of consecrated life, members of apostolic societies do not make religious vows—that is, "public vows."
Maria Gemma Umberta Galgani was an Italian mystic, venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church since 1940. She has been called the "Daughter of the Passion" because of her profound imitation of the Passion of Christ. She is especially venerated in the Congregation of the Passion (Passionists).
The Congregation of Jesus and Mary, commonly referred to as the Eudists, is a Society of Apostolic Life in the Roman Catholic Church.
Paul of the Cross was an Italian mystic, and founder of the Passionists.
Dominic Barberi was an Italian theologian and a member of the Passionist Congregation prominent in spreading Catholicism in England. He contributed to the conversion of John Henry Newman. In 1963, he was beatified by Pope Paul VI.
Since the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ on Calvary, a number of people have claimed to have had visions of Jesus Christ and personal conversations with him. Some people make similar claims regarding his mother, the Blessed Virgin Mary. Discussions about the authenticity of these visions have often invited controversy. The Catholic Church endorses a fraction of these claims, and various visionaries it accepts have achieved beatification, or even sainthood.
Sisters of the Cross and Passion is a Roman Catholic religious institute founded in 19th-century Manchester, England, by Elizabeth Prout, later called Mother Mary Joseph. It is part of the larger Passionist movement.
Blessed Eugene Bossilkov, born Vincent Bossilkov, was a member of the Passionist Congregation, Roman Catholic bishop of Nicopolis and martyr in the Communist campaign in Bulgaria against religion. He had studied in Rome for his doctorate at the Pontifical Oriental Institute and became a parish priest in the Danube Valley. After becoming bishop, in 1952 he was arrested, together with many other religious, and executed for ostensible crimes against the state. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1998.
Blessed Lorenzo Maria of Saint Francis Xavier – born Lorenzo Salvi – was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a professed member of the Passionists. Salvi became friends with Saint Gaspare del Bufalo and Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari – future pope – during the course of his studies prior to his ordination. He was forced out of the Passionist house due to anti-clerical laws from Napoleon Bonaparte but later returned when safe to do so in order to preach and spread the charism of the Child Jesus.
Elizabeth Prout, also known as Mother Mary Joseph of Jesus, was the founder of the Roman Catholic religious institute originally called the Institute of the Holy Family, but known later as the Passionist Sisters or the Sisters of the Cross and Passion.
The Passionist nuns are an order of nuns in the Roman Catholic Church. It was the second Passionist order to be established, founded by St. Paul of the Cross and venerable Mother Mary Crucified. in 1771.
Daniel Bible Foley, also known by his religious name Theodore Foley, was a Roman Catholic priest and the superior general of the Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ from 1964–1974. On May 9, 2008, the cause for beatification and canonization of Foley was opened in Rome.
The Red Scapular of the Passion of Our Lord and the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary is a Roman Catholic sacramental scapular associated with the Lazarists. It is often just called the Scapular of the Passion or simply the Red Scapular but it should not be confused with other similarly-termed scapulars described below.
The Black Scapular of the Passion is a Roman Catholic devotional scapular associated with the Passionists. The tradition of the Passionists holds that before St. Paul of the Cross founded the Congregation of the Passionists he had a Marian apparition during which he received the black habit of the order with the badge on chest. Thereafter, the Passionist Fathers gave the faithful who wished to associate themselves more closely with their order a black scapular in honor of the Passion of Christ.
This is a glossary of terms used within the Catholic Church.
Blessed Edvige Carboni was an Italian Roman Catholic from Sardinia who relocated to Rome and became well-known among the faithful and religious alike for her ecstasies and angelic visions. She recorded an extensive spiritual journal in which she recorded appearances from Jesus Christ as well as saints such as Gemma Galgani and John Bosco. Carboni also experienced demonic experiences and was said to possess the stigmata.
The St. Gemma Galgani Cathedral also called Ketapang Cathedral Is the name that receives a religious building affiliated to the Catholic Church that is located just at the mouth of the Pawan River in the city of Ketapang, in the regency of the same name in the province of West Kalimantan on the island of Borneo in the north of the country Asian of Indonesia.
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