Discalced Carmelites

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Order of the Discalced Carmelite brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel
Ordo Fratrum Carmelitarum Discalceatorum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo
AbbreviationOCD
Formation1562;460 years ago (1562)
Founder Teresa of Ávila
John of the Cross
Type Mendicant Order of Pontifical Right (for Men)
Legal status Institute of Consecrated Life
HeadquartersCasa Generalizia dei Carmelitani Scalzi, Corso d’Italia 38, 00198 Rome, Italy
Superior General
Fr. Miguel Márquez, OCD
Affiliations Catholic Church
Website carmelitaniscalzi.com

The Discalced Carmelites, known officially as the Order of the Discalced Carmelites of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel (Latin : Ordo Fratrum Carmelitarum Discalceatorum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) or the Order of Discalced Carmelites (Latin: Ordo Carmelitarum Discalceatorum; abbrev.: OCD), is a Catholic mendicant order with roots in the eremitic tradition of the Desert Fathers and Mothers. The order was established in the 16th century, pursuant to the reform of the Carmelite Order by two Spanish saints, Saint Teresa of Ávila (foundress) and Saint John of the Cross (co-founder). Discalced is derived from Latin, meaning "without shoes".

Contents

The Carmelite Order, from which the Discalced Carmelites branched off, is also referred to as the Carmelites of the Ancient Observance to distinguish them from their discalced offshoot. The third order affiliated to the Discalced Carmelites is the Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites.

Background

The Discalced Carmelites are friars and nuns who dedicate themselves to a life of prayer. The Carmelite nuns live in cloistered (enclosed) monasteries and follow a completely contemplative life. The Carmelite friars, while following a contemplative life, also engage in the promotion of spirituality through their retreat centres, parishes and churches. Lay people, known as the Secular Order, follow their contemplative call in their everyday activities. Devotion to the Virgin Mary is a characteristic of Carmelites and is symbolised by wearing the brown scapular. [1]

Carmelites trace their roots and their name to Mount Carmel in the Holy Land. There, in the 13th century, a band of European men gathered together to live a simple life of prayer. Their first chapel was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary and they called themselves the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel. [2]

The Muhraka monastery on the top of Mount Carmel near Haifa in Israel is a historic Carmelite monastery. The monastery stands on the place where the prophet Elijah is said to have lived and fought the prophets of Baal. [3]

The first Carmelites were pilgrims to Mount Carmel who settled there in solitude. These early hermits were mostly laity, who lived a life of poverty, penance and prayer. Between 1206 and 1214, St. Albert, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, brought the hermits on Mount Carmel together into community. At their request he wrote them a rule, which expressed their own intention and reflected the spirit of the pilgrimage to the Holy Land and of the early community of Jerusalem. They were also inspired by the prophet Elijah, who had been associated with Mount Carmel. The words of Elijah, "With zeal have I been zealous for the Lord God of hosts" (IKg 19:10) appear on the Carmelite crest. Around 1238, within fifty years of receiving their rule, the Carmelite hermits were forced by the Saracens to leave Mount Carmel and to settle in Europe. [4]

Founding

Saint Teresa of Avila (1515-1582), Doctor of the Church and co-founder of the Discalced Carmelites Teresa of Avila dsc01644.jpg
Saint Teresa of Ávila (1515–1582), Doctor of the Church and co-founder of the Discalced Carmelites

A combination of political and social conditions that prevailed in Europe in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries – the Hundred Years' War, Black Plague, the Reformation and the Humanist revival – adversely affected the Order. Many Carmelites and even whole communities succumbed to contemporary attitudes and conditions diametrically opposed to their original vocation. To meet this situation the rule was "mitigated" several times. Consequently, the Carmelites bore less and less resemblance to the first hermits of Mount Carmel. [5]

St. Teresa of Avila considered the surest way to prayer to be a return to Carmel's authentic vocation. A group of nuns assembled in her cell one September evening in 1560, taking their inspiration from the primitive tradition of Carmel and the discalced reform of St. Peter of Alcantara, a controversial movement within Spanish Franciscanism, proposed to found a monastery of an eremitical kind.

With few resources and often bitter opposition, St. Teresa succeeded in 1562 in establishing a small monastery with the austerity of desert solitude within the heart of the city of Ávila, Spain, combining eremitical and community life. On 24 August 1562, the new Convent of St. Joseph was founded. St. Teresa's rule, which retained a distinctively Marian character, contained exacting prescriptions for a life of continual prayer, safeguarded by strict enclosure and sustained by the asceticism of solitude, manual labor, perpetual abstinence, fasting, and fraternal charity. In addition to this, St. Teresa envisioned an order fully dedicated to poverty. [5]

Working in close collaboration with St. Teresa was St. John of the Cross, who with Anthony of Jesus founded the first convent of Discalced Carmelite friars in Duruelo, Spain on 28 November 1568. [6]

The Discalced Carmelites were established as a separate province of the Carmelite Order by the decree Pia consideratione [7] of Pope Gregory XIII on 22 June 1580. By this decree the Discalced Carmelites were still subject to the Prior General of the Carmelite Order in Rome, but were otherwise distinct from the Carmelites in that they could elect their own superiors and author their own constitutions for their common life. The following Discalced Carmelite Chapter at Alcala de Henares, Spain in March 1581 established the constitutions of the Discalced Carmelites and elected the first provincial of the Discalced Carmelites, Fr. Jerome Gratian, OCD. This office was later translated into that of Superior General of the Discalced Carmelites. [8]

The Carmelite charism

Discalced Carmelites from Argentina Carmelitas de la comunidad de Nogoya.jpg
Discalced Carmelites from Argentina
Discalced Carmelite and novice outside their convent in Zarautz, the Basque Country E4951-Zarautz-Carmelitas.JPG
Discalced Carmelite and novice outside their convent in Zarautz, the Basque Country
Monastery of Discalced Carmelites in Czerna, Poland Czerna Monastery of Discalced Carmelites, Poland.jpg
Monastery of Discalced Carmelites in Czerna, Poland
Stella Maris Monastery in Mount Carmel, Haifa KHzyt mnzr stlh mArys.jpg
Stella Maris Monastery in Mount Carmel, Haifa

The heart of the Carmelite charism is prayer and contemplation. The quality of prayer determines the quality of the community life and the quality of the service which is offered to others. Prayer and contemplation for the Carmelite are not private matters between the individual and God but are to be shared with others since the charism is given for the whole world. Therefore, there is an emphasis in the order on the ministry of teaching prayer and giving spiritual direction. [9]

For a Carmelite, prayer is guided by the teachings and experience of St. Teresa of Ávila and St. John of the Cross, as well as the saints who have followed in their steps, such as Thérèse of the Child Jesus and of the Holy Face, Elizabeth of the Trinity, Teresa of the Andes, and martyrs such as Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, Père Jacques and the sixteen Martyrs of Compiegne. Fraternity, service, and contemplation are essential values for all Carmelites.

When the Carmelites were forced to leave Mount Carmel, they changed their practice from being hermits to friars. The major difference is that friars are called to serve the People of God in some active apostolate. Some congregations were founded for a specific work, but the Carmelite Order tries to respond to what it sees as the needs of the Church and the world - which differ according to time and place. Many friars work in such institutions as parishes, schools, universities, retreat centres, prisons and hospitals. Each individual friar will serve in roles depending on the perceived needs of the people with whom he lives and his own particular talents. [9]

Each day is marked by silence for prayer. In addition to the daily celebration of the full Liturgy of the Hours, two hours (one in the morning, one in the evening) are set aside for silent prayer. Communities should not have more than 21 members. The friars practice a broadly-based discipline of study.

Bishops

Living bishops (4 archbishops, 18 bishops)

Escocd.gif Current bishops Composition eveque.svg Former and actual episcopal see or assignmentCurrent residencyDate of birth
(current age)
Appointed to episcopacy
Anders Arborelius Flag of Sweden.svg Bishop of Stockholm
(1998–Incumbent)

Flag of Sweden.svg Flag of Denmark.svg Flag of Finland.svg Flag of Iceland.svg Flag of Norway.svg President of Scandinavian Bishops Conference (2005–2015)
Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria degli Angeli
(2017-Incumbent)

Flag of Sweden.svg Stockholm, Sweden September 24, 1949 (age 73)November 17, 1998
Pope John Paul II
Cástor Oswaldo Azuaje Pérez Flag of Venezuela.svg Bishop of Trujillo
(2012–Incumbent)

Flag of Venezuela.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Maracaibo
(2007–2012)

Flag of Venezuela.svg Trujillo, Venezuela October 19, 1951 (age 71)June 30, 2007
Pope Benedict XVI
Silvio José Báez Ortega Flag of Nicaragua.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Managua
(2009–Incumbent)
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Managua, Nicaragua April 28, 1958 (age 64)April 9, 2009
Pope Benedict XVI
Philip Boyce Flag of Ireland.svg Bishop of Raphoe
(1995–2017)
Flag of Ireland.svg Letterkenny, Ireland January 25, 1940 (age 82)June 29, 1995
Pope John Paul II
Peter Chung Soon-taick Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Seoul
(2013–Incumbent)
Flag of South Korea.svg Seoul, South Korea August 2, 1961 (age 61)December 30, 2013
Pope Francis
Paul Dahdah Flag of Lebanon.svg Archbishop-Vicar Apostolic of Beirut
(1999–Incumbent)

Flag of Iraq.svg Archbishop of Baghdad
(1983–1999)

Flag of Lebanon.svg Beirut, Lebanon June 8, 1941 (age 81)May 30, 1983
Pope John Paul II
Brig. Gen. Gonzalo de Jesús María del Castillo Crespo Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg Military Bishop Emeritus of Bolivia
(2012–Incumbent)

Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg Military Bishop of Bolivia
(2000–2012)

Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg Auxiliary Bishop of La Paz
(1983–2000)

Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg La Paz, Bolivia September 20, 1936 (age 86)November 3, 1983
Pope John Paul II
Amancio Escapa Aparicio Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Santo Domingo
(1996–Incumbent)
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic March 30, 1938 (age 84)May 31, 1996
Pope John Paul II
Guy Étienne Germain Gaucher Flag of France.svg Auxiliary Bishop Emeritus of Bayeux-Lisieux
(2005–Incumbent)

Flag of France.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Bayeux-Lisieux
(1987–2005)
Flag of France.svg Bishop of Meaux
(1986–1987)

Flag of France.svg Venasque, France March 5, 1930 (age 92)August 27, 1986
Pope John Paul II
Gustavo Girón Higuita Flag of Colombia.svg Bishop of Tumaco
(1999–Incumbent)

Flag of Colombia.svg Vicar Apostolic of Tumaco
(1990–1999)

Flag of Colombia.svg Tumaco, Colombia May 20, 1940 (age 82)February 8, 1990
Pope John Paul II
Greg Homeming Flag of Australia (converted).svg Bishop of Lismore
(2017-Incumbent)
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia May 30, 1958 (age 64)February 22, 2017
Pope Francis
Zdenko Križić Flag of Croatia.svg Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Gospić-Senj
(2016-Incumbent)
Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia February 2, 1953 (age 69)May 25, 2016
Pope Francis
Gonzalo López Marañon Flag of Ecuador.svg Vicar Apostolic Emeritus of San Miguel de Sucumbíos
(2010–Incumbent)

Flag of Ecuador.svg Vicar Apostolic of San Miguel de Sucumbíos
(1984–2010)

Flag of Ecuador.svg Apostolic prefect of San Miguel de Sucumbíos
(1970–1984)

Flag of Ecuador.svg Nueva Loja, Ecuador October 3, 1933 (age 89)July 2, 1984
Pope John Paul II
Luis Alberto Luna Tobar Flag of Ecuador.svg Archbishop Emeritus of Cuenca
(2000–Incumbent)

Flag of Ecuador.svg Metropolitan Archbishop of Cuenca
(1981–2000)
Flag of Ecuador.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Quito
(1977–1981)

Flag of Ecuador.svg Cuenca, Ecuador December 15, 1923 (age 98)August 17, 1977
Pope Paul VI
Aníbal Nieto Guerra Flag of Ecuador.svg Bishop of San Jacinto de Yaguachi
(2009–Incumbent)

Flag of Ecuador.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Guayaquil
(2006–2009)

Flag of Ecuador.svg Yaguachi, Ecuador February 23, 1949 (age 73)June 10, 2006
Pope Benedict XVI
Marie Fabien Raharilamboniaina Flag of Madagascar.svg Bishop of Morondava
(2010–Incumbent)
Flag of Madagascar.svg Morondava, Madagascar January 20, 1968 (age 54)February 26, 2010
Pope Benedict XVI
Braulio Sáez Garcia Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg Auxiliary Bishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra
(2003–Incumbent)

Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg Bishop of Oruro
(1991–2003)
Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg Auxiliary Bishop of Oruro
(1987–1991)

Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia March 23, 1942 (age 80)February 18, 1987
Pope John Paul II
Rubens Sevilha Flag of Brazil.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Vitória
(2011–Incumbent)
Flag of Brazil.svg Vitória, Brazil September 29, 1959 (age 63)December 21, 1987
Pope Benedict XVI
Jean Benjamin Sleiman Flag of Iraq.svg Archbishop of Baghdad
(2001–Incumbent)
Flag of Iraq.svg Baghdad, Iraq June 30, 1946 (age 76)November 29, 2000
Pope John Paul II
Jusztin Nándor Takács Flag of Hungary.svg Bishop Emeritus of Székesfehérvár
(2003–Incumbent)

Flag of Hungary.svg Bishop of Székesfehérvár
(1991–2003)
Flag of Hungary.svg Coadjutor Bishop of Székesfehérvár
(1990–1991)
Flag of Hungary.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Székesfehérvár
(1988–1990)

Flag of Hungary.svg Székesfehérvár, Hungary January 15, 1927 (age 95)December 23, 1988
Pope John Paul II
Rolando Joven Tria Tirona Flag of the Philippines.svg Metropolitan Archbishop of Caceres
(2012–Incumbent)

Flag of the Philippines.svg Territorial Prelate of Infanta
(2003–2012)

Flag of the Philippines.svg Bishop of Malolos
(1996–2003)
Flag of the Philippines.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Manila
(1994–1996)

Flag of the Philippines.svg Naga, Philippines July 22, 1946 (age 76)November 15, 1994
Pope John Paul II

Deceased Bishops (7 cardinals, 14 archbishops, 52 bishops)

Template-Cardinal.svg Name Episcopal see or assignmentDate of birth and deathAppointed to bishopric
Francis George Adeodatus Micallef Flag of Kuwait.svg Vicar Apostolic Emeritus of Kuwait
(2005–Incumbent)

Flag of Kuwait.svg Vicar Apostolic of Kuwait
(1981–2005)

December 17, 1928 (age 93) January 3, 2018(2018-01-03) (aged 89)November 5, 1981
Pope John Paul II
Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero Flag of Italy.svg Metropolitan Archbishop Emeritus of Turin
(1989–1998)

Flag of Italy.svg Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria sopra Minerva
(1979–1998)
Flag of Italy.svg Flag of the Vatican City.svg Flag of San Marino.svg President of Italian Episcopal Conference
(1979–1985)
Flag of Italy.svg Metropolitan Archbishop of Turin
(1977–1989)
Flag of Italy.svg Metropolitan Archbishop of Bari-Canosa
(1973–1977)

October 3, 1913 June 21, 1998(1998-06-21) (aged 84)December 21, 1973
Pope Paul VI
Girolamo Maria Gotti Flag of the Vatican City.svg Prefect of Sacred Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith
(1902–1916)

Flag of Italy.svg Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria della Scala pro hac vice Title
(1895–1916)
Flag of the Vatican City.svg Prefect of Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars
(1899–1902)
Flag of the Vatican City.svg Prefect of Sacred Congregation of Indulgences and Sacred Relics
(1896–1899)
Flag of the Vatican City.svg Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
(1896–1897)
Flag of Brazil.svg Apostolic Internuncio of Brazil
(1892–1895)

March 29, 1834 March 19, 1916(1916-03-19) (aged 81)March 22, 1892
Pope Leo XIII
Giovanni Antonio Guadagni
(Nephew of pope Pope Clement XII)
Flag of Italy.svg Vicar General of His Holiness for the Diocese of Rome
(1732–1759)

Flag of the Vatican City.svg Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
(1743–1759)
Flag of the Vatican City.svg Cardinal Vice-Dean of Sacred College of Cardinals
(1756–1759)
Flag of Italy.svg Cardinal-Bishop of Porto-Santa Rufina
(1756–1759)
Flag of Italy.svg Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati
(1750–1756)
Flag of Italy.svg Cardinal-Priest of San Martino ai Monti
(1731–1750)
Flag of Italy.svg Bishop of Arezzo
(1896–1897)

September 14, 1674 January 15, 1759(1759-01-15) (aged 84)December 20, 1724
Pope Benedict XIII
Daniel Acharuparambil Flag of India.svg Metropolitan Archbishop of Verapoly
(1996–2009)

Flag of India.svg Apostolic Administrator sede plena of Cochin
(2008–2009)

May 12, 1939 October 26, 2009(2009-10-26) (aged 70)June 14, 1996
Pope John Paul II
Antônio do Carmo Cheuiche Flag of Brazil.svg Auxiliary Bishop Emeritus of Porto Alegre
(2001–2009)

Flag of Brazil.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Porto Alegre
(1971–2001)
Flag of Brazil.svg Auxiliary Bishop of Santa Maria
(1969–1971)

June 13, 1927 October 14, 2009(2009-10-14) (aged 82)April 2, 1969
Pope Paul VI
Paul Bassim Flag of Lebanon.svg Vicar Apostolic Emeritus of Beirut
(1999–2012)

Flag of Lebanon.svg Vicar Apostolic of Beirut
(1974–1999)

November 14, 1922 August 21, 2012(2012-08-21) (aged 89)September 8, 1974
Pope Paul VI

Communities of Carmelite tradition

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ana de Jesús</span> Spanish Discalced Carmelite nun and writer

Ana de Jesús, translated into English as Anne of Jesus, was a Spanish Discalced Carmelite nun and writer. She was a close companion of Teresa of Avila, foundress of the Carmelite reform and served to establish new monasteries of the Order throughout Europe. Known as a mystic and for her writings on prayer, she has been declared Venerable by the Catholic Church.

References

  1. "Who are the Discalced Carmelites?". Discalcedcarmelites.ie. Archived from the original on September 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
  2. "History", Discalced Carmelite Friars of the Carmelite-Arizona Province
  3. "40 Major Holy Sites in Israel: Jerusalem Holy Sites & Beyond". 2018-11-10. Retrieved 2021-03-06.
  4. "Hermits on Mount Carmel". Carmelite.com. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
  5. 1 2 ocd. "Carmelite History -from the OCD General House in Rome". Ocd.pcn.net. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
  6. "History of Discalced Carmelites", Generalate of the Teresian Carmel
  7. Otilio Rodriguez, OCD, Appendix I: "The Third Order of the Teresian Carmel; Its Origin and History", page 129, in Michael D. Griffin, OCD, Commentary on the Rule of Life (superseded) (The Growth in Carmel Series; Hubertus, Wisconsin: Teresian Charism Press, 1981), pages 127-36
  8. Peter-Thomas Rohrbach, OCD Journey to Carith: The Sources and Story of the Discalced Carmelites, Chapter 6: "The Struggle for Existence", pages 200-1 (Washington, DC: ICS Publications)
  9. 1 2 The Carmelite Charism -from the Irish Province Archived July 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine