|Other names||CDD or Lionitis|
|Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance|
Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia (CDD), also known as lionitis, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive bone disorder that causes calcium to build up in the skull, disfiguring the facial features and reducing life expectancy.
These calcium deposits decrease the size of cranial foramina, and can decrease the circumference of the cervical spinal canal. In the few cases recorded, most of the sufferers died in childhood.
The underlying genetics are uncertain.
Among the medical signs are dacryocystitis, seizures, intellectual disability, and paralysis, each of which is a complication resulting from the diminutive foramina. A common sign reported as a result of the disease has been widely spaced eyes.
Peter Bogdanovich's 1985 drama film Mask drew public attention to the case of Roy L. "Rocky" Dennis, an American boy who died of the disorder in 1978.
In the American medical drama Grey's Anatomy episode "Yesterday", Jesse Plemons plays a teenage boy suffering from lionitis. The main character of the two-issue comic book miniseries Friday the 13th: How I Spent My Summer Vacation by Wildstorm Productions is a 13-year-old boy suffering from the disorder. In the anthology television series American Horror Story season 1, Beauregard, the brother of Tate and Adelaide, suffered from lionitis.[ citation needed ]
Macrocephaly is a condition in which circumference of the human head is abnormally large. It may be pathological or harmless, and can be a familial genetic characteristic. People diagnosed with macrocephaly will receive further medical tests to determine whether the syndrome is accompanied by particular disorders. Those with benign or familial macrocephaly are considered to have megalencephaly.
Atelosteogenesis, type II is a severe disorder of cartilage and bone development. It is rare, and infants with the disorder are usually stillborn; however, those who survive birth die soon after
Thanatophoric dysplasia is a severe skeletal disorder characterized by a disproportionately small ribcage, extremely short limbs and folds of extra skin on the arms and legs.
Roy Lee "Rocky" Dennis was an American teenager who had craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, an extremely rare sclerotic bone disorder. The condition usually results in neurological disorders and death during childhood or teenage years. His life was the basis for the 1985 drama film Mask.
Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder of bone growth. The condition is characterized by flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly) and unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly). Some affected individuals also have other skeletal abnormalities, short stature, nearsightedness (myopia), hearing loss, and mental retardation. Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is a subtype of collagenopathy, types II and XI.
Autosomal recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (ARMED), also called epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 4 (EDM4), multiple epiphyseal dysplasia with clubfoot or –with bilayered patellae, is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder affecting cartilage and bone development. The disorder has relatively mild signs and symptoms, including joint pain, scoliosis, and malformations of the hands, feet, and knees.
Cutis laxa or pachydermatocele is a group of rare connective tissue disorders in which the skin becomes inelastic and hangs loosely in folds.
Papillorenal syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder marked by underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the kidney and colobomas of the optic nerve.
Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis(DPR) is a rare, autosomal dominant congenital disorder that is a form of ectodermal dysplasia. Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis is composed of the triad of generalized reticulate hyperpigmentation, noncicatricial alopecia, and onychodystrophy. DPR is a non life-threatening disease that largely affects the skin, hair, and nails. It has also been identified as a keratin disorder. Historically, as of 1992, only 10 cases had been described in world literature; however, due to recent advances in genetic analysis, five additional families studied in 2006 have been added to the short list of confirmed cases.
Uncombable hair syndrome is a rare structural anomaly of the hair with a variable degree of effect. It is characterized by hair that is silvery, dry, frizzy, wiry, and impossible to comb. It was first reported in the early 20th century. It typically becomes apparent between the ages of 3 months and 12 years. Uncombable Hair Syndrome has several names, including “pili trianguli et canaliculi,” “cheveux incoiffables,” and “spun-glass hair.” This disorder is believed to be autosomal recessive in most instances, but there are a few documented cases where multiple family members display the trait in an autosomal dominant fashion. Based on the current scientific studies related to the disorder, the three genes that have been causally linked to UHS are PADI3, TGM3, and TCHH. These genes encode proteins important for hair shaft formation. Clinical symptoms of the disorder arise between 3 months and 12 years of age. The quantity of hair on the head does not change, but hair starts to grow more slowly and becomes increasingly “uncombable.” To be clinically apparent, 50% of all scalp hair shafts must be affected by UHS. This syndrome only affects the hair shaft of the scalp and does not influence hair growth in terms of quantity, textural feel, or appearance on the rest of the body.
Spondylocostal dysostosis, also known as Jarcho-Levin syndrome (JLS), is a rare, heritable axial skeleton growth disorder. It is characterized by widespread and sometimes severe malformations of the vertebral column and ribs, shortened thorax, and moderate to severe scoliosis and kyphosis. Individuals with Jarcho-Levin typically appear to have a short trunk and neck, with arms appearing relatively long in comparison, and a slightly protuberant abdomen. Severely affected individuals may have life-threatening pulmonary complications due to deformities of the thorax. The syndrome was first described by Saul Jarcho and Paul M. Levin at Johns Hopkins University in 1938.
Camurati–Engelmann disease (CED) is a very rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder that causes characteristic anomalies in the skeleton. It is also known as progressive diaphyseal dysplasia. It is a form of dysplasia. Patients typically have heavily thickened bones, especially along the shafts of the long bones. The skull bones may be thickened so that the passages through the skull that carry nerves and blood vessels become narrowed, possibly leading to sensory deficits, blindness, or deafness.
Fibrochondrogenesis is a rare autosomal recessive form of osteochondrodysplasia, causing abnormal fibrous development of cartilage and related tissues.
Gillespie syndrome, also called aniridia, cerebellar ataxia and mental deficiency. is a rare genetic disorder. The disorder is characterized by partial aniridia, ataxia, and, in most cases, intellectual disability. It is heterogeneous, inherited in either an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive manner. Gillespie syndrome was first described by American ophthalmologist Fredrick Gillespie in 1965.
Potocki–Shaffer syndrome (PSS), also known as DEFECT11 syndrome or chromosome 11p11.2 deletion syndrome, is a rare contiguous gene syndrome that results from the microdeletion of section 11.2 on the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p11.2). The syndrome has its name from Dr. Lorraine (Lori) Potocki and Dr. Lisa Shaffer who discovered the deletion on the 11th chromosome and studied the impacts.
Opsismodysplasia is a type of skeletal dysplasia first described by Zonana and associates in 1977, and designated under its current name by Maroteaux (1984). Derived from the Greek opsismos ("late"), the name "opsismodysplasia" describes a delay in bone maturation. In addition to this delay, the disorder is characterized by micromelia, particularly of the hands and feet, delay of ossification, platyspondyly, irregular metaphyses, an array of facial aberrations and respiratory distress related to chronic infection. Opsismodysplasia is congenital, being apparent at birth. It has a variable mortality, with some affected individuals living to adulthood. The disorder is rare, with an incidence of less than 1 per 1,000,000 worldwide. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means the defective (mutated) gene that causes the disorder is located on an autosome, and the disorder occurs when two copies of this defective gene are inherited. No specific gene has been found to be associated with the disorder. It is similar to spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Sedaghatian type.
Parastremmatic dwarfism is a rare bone disease that features severe dwarfism, thoracic kyphosis, a distortion and twisting of the limbs, contractures of the large joints, malformations of the vertebrae and pelvis, and incontinence. The disease was first reported in 1970 by Leonard Langer and associates; they used the term parastremmatic from the Greek parastremma, or distorted limbs, to describe it. On X-rays, the disease is distinguished by a "flocky" or lace-like appearance to the bones. The disease is congenital, which means it is apparent at birth. It is caused by a mutation in the TRPV4 gene, located on chromosome 12 in humans. The disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
Acromesomelic dysplasia is a rare skeletal disorder that causes abnormal bone and cartilage development, leading to shortening of the forearms, lower legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes. Five different genetic mutations have been implicated in the disorder. Treatment is individualized but is generally aimed at palliating symptoms, for example, treatment of kyphosis and lumbar hyperlordosis.
Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), also known as autosomal recessive dysosteosclerosis or X-linked recessive dysosteosclerosis, is a rare osteoclast-poor form of osteosclerosis that is presented during infancy and early childhood, characterized by progressive osteosclerosis and platyspondyly. Platyspondyly and other skeletal abnormalities are radiographic features of the disease which distinguish DSS from other osteosclerotic disorders. Patients usually suffer from neurological and psychological deterioration, therefore patients are commonly associated with delayed milestones.