Globodera pallida

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Globodera pallida
Globodera pallida at Solanum tuberosum (01).jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Nematoda
Class: Secernentea
Order: Tylenchida
Family: Heteroderidae
Genus: Globodera
G. pallida
Binomial name
Globodera pallida
(Stone, 1973)

Globodera pallida is a species of nematode in the family Heteroderidae. It is well known as a plant pathogen, especially of potatoes. It is "one of the most economically important plant parasitic nematodes," causing major crop losses, and is a model organism used to study the biology of cyst nematodes. [1] Its common names include potato cyst nematode, white potato cyst nematode, pale potato cyst nematode, potato root eelworm, [2] golden nematode, [3] and pale cyst nematode. [4]

The female has a globe-shaped body with a thick, lacy cuticle. It retains its eggs inside its body rather than releasing them, and becomes a brown cyst when it dies. [5] The female is white to cream in color. Globodera rostochiensis is similar in appearance, but the female is yellow in color for part of its life. [2]

The male has a wormlike body which is held in a C- or S-shape. [5]

This nematode is thought to be native to the Andes. Today it is found in 55 countries, mostly in temperate regions. The microscopic cysts are tough and can survive in soil particles, which are transported around the world on objects such as farming equipment and in flowing water. [2] It has been primarily distributed on potatoes, which were introduced from South America to the rest of the world. It can also live on other solanaceous crops such as tomato and eggplant, and many solanaceous weed species, such as black nightshade (Solanum nigrum). [2]

The juvenile nematodes feed on the roots of the plant. Eggs develop inside the females after fertilization, and when the females die they become tough cysts that protect the mature eggs. [2] The eggs in the cysts can remain viable for up to 30 years. [5] The cysts detach from the roots and drop into the soil, where they can be distributed via soil movement. An infested plant becomes yellow and wilted and loses its leaves. [4]

This nematode is an important agricultural pest, especially in Europe. It causes economic losses of about £50 million per year in the United Kingdom alone. [2] Laws defining best management practices have been passed to reduce the spread of the pest. The movement of soil and potatoes across national boundaries is monitored with quarantines. Farming equipment is cleaned, soil is tested for nematodes, contaminated soil is kept out of fields, and resistant cultivars of crops are alternated with susceptible varieties to reduce the possibility that a more virulent nematode will arise through selection. [2]

The nematode is found nearly worldwide today, but it has been mostly kept out of the United States due to rigid quarantines. An exception is one outbreak that occurred in Idaho in 2006. [2] Upon discovery of this outbreak, Japan banned potato imports from the United States for several years. [5]

The genome of this nematode has been sequenced. [1]

Related Research Articles

Plant pathology Scientific study of plant diseases

Plant pathology is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Not included are ectoparasites like insects, mites, vertebrate, or other pests that affect plant health by eating plant tissues. Plant pathology also involves the study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases.

Northern root-knot nematode is a species of vegetable pathogens which produces tiny galls on around 550 crop and weed species. They invade root tissue after birth. Females are able to lay up to 1,000 eggs at a time in a large egg mass. By surviving harsh winters, they can survive in cold climates.

Root-knot nematode Genus of parasitic worms

Root-knot nematodes are plant-parasitic nematodes from the genus Meloidogyne. They exist in soil in areas with hot climates or short winters. About 2000 plants worldwide are susceptible to infection by root-knot nematodes and they cause approximately 5% of global crop loss. Root-knot nematode larvae infect plant roots, causing the development of root-knot galls that drain the plant's photosynthate and nutrients. Infection of young plants may be lethal, while infection of mature plants causes decreased yield.

Soybean cyst nematode Species of roundworm

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is the most devastating pest to soybean crop yields in the U.S., targeting the roots of soybean and other legume plants. When infection is severe SCNs cause stunting, yellowing, impaired canopy development, and yield loss. The symptoms caused by SCNs can go easily unrecognized by farmers - in some cases there are no warning symptoms before a loss of 30% of the yield. Due to the slight stunting and yellowing, many farmers may mistake these symptoms as environmental problems when in fact they are SCNs. Another symptom of SCNs that may affect farmers' yields is stunted roots with fewer nitrogen-fixing nodules. Due to the fact that soybean cyst nematodes can only move a few centimeters in the soil by themselves, they mostly are spread via tillage or plant transplants. This area of infection will look patchy and nonuniform making diagnosis more difficult for farmers. They can be seen in the roots of summer soybean plants if the roots are taken out very carefully and gently washed with water. The egg masses should be seen as bright white or yellow "pearls" on the roots. The later the roots are pulled the harder it will be to diagnose due to the SCNs female dying and turning a much darker color, forming a "cyst". The best way to know if a field is infected by soybean cyst nematodes is to take a soil sample to a nematologist.

Potato cyst nematode

Potato root nematodes or potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are 1-mm long roundworms belonging to the genus Globodera, which comprises around 12 species. They live on the roots of plants of the family Solanaceae, such as potatoes and tomatoes. PCN cause growth retardation and, at very high population densities, damage to the roots and early senescence of plants. The nematode is not indigenous to Europe but originates from the Andes. Fields are free from PCN until an introduction occurs, after which the typical patches, or hotspots, occur on the farmland. These patches can become full field infestations when unchecked. Yield reductions can average up to 60% at high population densities.

<i>Diaprepes abbreviatus</i> Species of beetle

Diaprepes abbreviatus is a species of weevil that is native to the Caribbean, where in Spanish it is colloquially called chichí.

Paratrichodorus minor is a species of nematode in the family Trichodoridae, the stubby-root nematodes. It occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It damages plants by feeding on the roots and it is a vector of plant viruses. It is a pest of some agricultural crops.

<i>Pratylenchus penetrans</i> Species of roundworm

Pratylenchus penetrans is a species of nematode in the genus Pratylenchus, the lesion nematodes. It occurs in temperate regions worldwide, regions between the subtropics and the polar circles. It is an animal that inhabits the roots of a wide variety of plants and results in necrotic lesions on the roots. Symptoms of P. penetrans make it hard to distinguish from other plant pathogens; only an assay of soil can conclusively diagnose a nematode problem in the field. P. penetrans is physically very similar to other nematode species, but is characterized by its highly distinctive mouthpiece. P. penetrans uses its highly modified mouth organs to rupture the outer surface of subterranean plant root structures. It will then enter into the root interior and feed on the plant tissue inside. P. penetrans is considered to be a crop parasite and farmers will often treat their soil with various pesticides in an attempt to eliminate the damage caused by an infestation. In doing this, farmers will also eliminate many of the beneficial soil fauna, which will lead to an overall degradation of soil quality in the future. Alternative, more environmentally sustainable methods to control P. penetrans populations may be possible in certain regions.

Ditylenchus destructor is a plant pathogenic nematode commonly known as the potato rot nematode. Other common names include the iris nematode, the potato tuber eelworm and the potato tuber nematode. It is an endoparasitic, migratory nematode commonly found in areas such as the United States, Europe, central Asia and Southern Africa.

<i>Globodera rostochiensis</i>

Globodera rostochiensis, commonly known as the golden nematode, golden eelworm or yellow potato cyst nematode, is a plant pathogenic nematode. It is a pest of plants in the family Solanaceae, primarily infesting potatoes and tomatoes, as well as a variety of other root crops.

Heterodera carotae is a plant pathogenic nematode commonly known as the carrot root nematode or carrot cyst nematode. It is found in Europe, Cyprus and India and is considered an invasive species in the United States. It causes damage to carrot crops and is very specific in its choice of hosts, only infecting Daucus carota and Daucus pulcherrima.

Heterodera sacchari, the sugarcane cyst nematode, mitotic parthenogenic sedentary endoparasitic nematode. This plant-parasitic nematode infects the roots of sugarcane, and the female nematode eventually becomes a thick-walled cyst filled with eggs. Aboveground symptoms are species specific and are similar to those caused by other Heterodera species. Symptoms include: stunted and chlorotic plants, and reduced root growth. Seedlings may be killed in heavily infested soils.

<i>Pratylenchus</i> Genus of roundworms

Pratylenchus is a genus of nematodes known commonly as lesion nematodes. They are parasitic on plants and are responsible for root lesion disease on many taxa of host plants in temperate regions around the world. Lesion nematodes are migratory endoparasites that feed and reproduce in the root and move around, unlike the cyst or root-knot nematodes, which may stay in one place. They usually only feed on the cortex of the root. Species are distinguished primarily by the morphology of the stylets.

Nematode Phylum of worms with tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends

The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda, with plant-parasitic nematodes also known as eelworms. They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a broad range of environments. Taxonomically, they are classified along with insects and other moulting animals in the clade Ecdysozoa, and unlike flatworms, have tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends. Like tardigrades, they have a reduced number of Hox genes, but their sister phylum Nematomorpha has kept the ancestral protostome Hox genotype, which shows that the reduction has occurred within the nematode phylum.

Globodera tabacum, commonly known as a tobacco cyst nematode, is a plant parasitic nematode that mainly infests the tobacco plant, but also plants in family Solanaceae.

Pratylenchus alleni is a migratory endoparasitic nematode, living inside of plant roots and feeding on parenchyma cells in the root cortex. P. alleni is an obligate biotroph, meaning it must have a living host in order to survive. Due to their incredibly broad host range, Pratylenchus species fall third in total economic impact, finishing just behind cyst nematodes and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne). In Canada, it was isolated for the first time in 2011 in a soybean field.

Heterodera zeae, the corn cyst nematode (CCN), is a plant parasitic nematode that feeds on Zea mays (maize/corn). The CCN has a limited economic impact worldwide due to its high soil temperature requirements.

Globodera ellingtonae is one of the potato cyst nematodes and was recently recognized as a new species in the United States. This triggered a quarantine of the fields where it was isolated to prevent the spread of this nematode to other fields.

Cactodera cacti, also known as the cactus cyst nematode or cactus cyst eelworm, is a plant pathogenic nematode. It is a pest of plants in the families Cactaceae, Apiaceae, and Euphorbiaceae.

<i>Nacobbus</i> Genus of roundworms

Nacobbus is a genus of plant-parasitic nematodes. Prevalent in North and South America, the genus Nacobbus threatens crops such as tomato, potato, quinoa and sugarbeet. They can cause so much damage that they are considered to be of quarantine importance. The morphology and biology of Nacobbus is not all that well known, although it is possible that the host—in this case, a specific crop—influences how the morphological characteristics of these nematodes are expressed.


  1. 1 2 Cotton, J. A., et al. (2014). The genome and life-stage specific transcriptomes of Globodera pallida elucidate key aspects of plant parasitism by a cyst nematode. Genome Biology 15 R43.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Globodera pallida. Invasive Species Compendium. CABI.
  3. Globodera pallida. Washington University in St. Louis.
  4. 1 2 Pale Cyst Nematode, Globodera pallida. Invasive Species Factsheets, Michigan State University.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Globodera pallida. Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine Nemaplex. UC Davis. Revised 2013.