Justicia (plant)

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Justicia
Jacobinia magnifica02.jpg
Justicia magnifica
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Acanthaceae
Subfamily: Acanthoideae
Tribe: Justicieae
Genus: Justicia
L. [1]
Species

Over 900, see List of Justicia species

Synonyms [2]
List
    • AcelicaRizzini
    • AdatodaRaf.
    • AdelodaRaf.
    • AdhatodaMill.
    • AthlianthusEndl.
    • AulojusticiaLindau
    • BeloperoneNees
    • BeloperonidesOerst.
    • BentiaRolfe
    • CalliaspidiaBremek.
    • Calophanoides(C.B.Clarke) Ridl.
    • CalymmostachyaBremek.
    • CarimaRaf.
    • ChaetochlamysLindau
    • ChaetothylaxNees
    • ChaetothylopsisOerst.
    • ChiloglossaOerst.
    • CyphisiaRizzini
    • CyrtantheraNees
    • CyrtantherellaOerst.
    • DigyrolomaTurcz.
    • DimanisaRaf.
    • DrejerellaLindau
    • DuvernoiaNees
    • DuvernoyaE.Mey.
    • DyspemptemorionBremek.
    • EcboliumRiv. ex Kuntze
    • EmulariaRaf.
    • EthesiaRaf.
    • GendarussaNees
    • GlosarithysRizzini
    • GromoviaRegel
    • HarnieriaSolms
    • HeinzeliaNees
    • HemichoristeNees
    • HeteraspidiaRizzini
    • IxtlaniaM.E.Jones
    • JacobiniaMoric.
    • KuesteraRegel
    • LeptostachyaNees
    • LiboniaK.Koch
    • LophotheciumRizzini
    • LustriniaRaf.
    • MananthesBremek.
    • MegalostomaLeonard
    • NeohalliaHemsl.
    • OrthotactusNees
    • PelecostemonLeonard
    • PetalantheraRaf.
    • PlegmatolemmaBremek.
    • PorphyrocomaScheidw. ex Hook.
    • PupillaRizzini
    • RhyticalymmaBremek.
    • RosliniaNeck.
    • SalviacanthusLindau
    • SarojusticiaBremek.
    • SarothecaNees
    • × SericoboniaLinden & André
    • SericographisNees
    • SimonisiaNees
    • SiphonoglossaOerst.
    • ThalestrisRizzini
    • ThamnojusticiaMildbr.
    • TyloglossaHochst.
    • Vada-kodiAdans.

Justicia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae. It is the largest genus within the family, encompassing around 700 [3] species with hundreds more as yet unresolved. [4] They are native to tropical to warm temperate regions of the Americas, India, and Africa. The genus serves as host to many butterfly species, such as Anartia fatima . Common names include water-willow and shrimp plant, the latter from the inflorescences, which resemble a shrimp in some species. The generic name honours Scottish horticulturist James Justice (1698–1763). [5] They are closely related to Pachystachys . [6]

Contents

Description

They are evergreen, perennial plants and shrubs with leaves that are often strongly veined, but they are primarily cultivated for their showy, tubular flowers in shades of white, cream, yellow, orange, violet, or pink. Excepting J. americana L., they are not hardy below 7 °C (45 °F), so must be grown under glass in frost-prone areas. [6]

Species

Selected species include:

J. brandegeeana (formerly Beloperone guttata, commonly called shrimp plant) is native to Mexico. It is hardy to 4 °C, but often recovers in the spring after freezing back in USDA Plant Zone 8a. J. carnea (formerly Jacobinia carnea, common names including Brazilian plume flower, flamingo flower, and jacobinia) is native to South America in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. It is hardy to 2 °C but often recovers in the spring after freezing back in USDA Plant Zone 8a. J. procumbens is a procumbent herb with angular stems, swollen at the nodes, with small, ovate leaves; small, purple flowers in terminal spikes; inserted didynamous stamens; and shortly bilobed stigmata.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acanthaceae</span> Family of flowering plants comprising the acanthus

Acanthaceae is a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species. Most are tropical herbs, shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. The four main centres of distribution are Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, and Central America. Representatives of the family can be found in nearly every habitat, including dense or open forests, scrublands, wet fields and valleys, sea coast and marine areas, swamps, and mangrove forests.

<i>Aphelandra</i> Species of plant

Aphelandra is a genus of about 170 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas.

<i>Ruellia</i> Genus of flowering plants

Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as ruellias or wild petunias. They are not closely related to petunias (Petunia) although both genera belong to the same euasterid clade. The genus was named in honor of Jean Ruelle (1474–1537), herbalist and physician to Francis I of France and translator of several works of Dioscorides.

<i>Dicliptera</i> Genus of flowering plants

Dicliptera is a genus of flowering plants in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae. Well-known synonyms include Peristrophe and Dactylostegium.

Justicia phyllocalyx is a plant species native to central South America.

<i>Poikilacanthus</i> Genus of flowering plants

Poikilacanthus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae.

<i>Stenandrium</i> Genus of flowering plants in the acanthus family

Stenandrium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae native to the Americas.

Anisotes is a genus of Afrotropical plants in the family Acanthaceae. The genus is morphologically similar to Metarungia, from which it differs mainly in the dehiscence of the fruit capsule, and the nature of the placenta. Placentas remain attached to the inner surface of fruit capsules in Anisotes.

<i>Odontonema</i> Genus of flowering plants

Odontonema, the toothedthreads, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae. It is native to Central America.

<i>Pseuderanthemum</i> Genus of plants

Pseuderanthemum is a genus of plants in family Acanthaceae with a pantropical distribution.

<i>Stenostephanus</i> Genus of flowering plants

Stenostephanus is a genus of plants in the family Acanthaceae.

<i>Crossandra</i> Genus of flowering plants

Crossandra is a genus of plants in the family Acanthaceae, comprising 54 species that occur in Africa, Madagascar, Arabia and the Indian subcontinent. Some species, especially Crossandra infundibuliformis, are cultivated for their brightly colored flowers.

<i>Justicia carnea</i> Species of flowering plant

Justicia carnea, the Brazilian plume flower, Brazilian-plume, flamingo flower, or jacobinia, is a flowering plant in the family Acanthaceae.

Stenandriopsis is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Acanthaceae. It is considered a synonym of Stenandrium by some sources, including Plants of the World Online as of March 2022, Molecular phylogenies have placed the Old World Stenandriopsis apart from New World Stenandrium, and the genus is accepted in a classification of the family Acanthaceae published in 2022.

Chamaeranthemum is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Acanthaceae.

Herpetacanthus is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Acanthaceae.

Mellera is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Acanthaceae.

References

  1. "Genus: Justicia L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-01-23. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  2. "Justicia L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  3. Daniel, Thomas F. (2011). "JUSTICIA (ACANTHACEAE) IN TEXAS". Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 5 (2): 595–618. JSTOR   41972309.
  4. "Justicia — the Plant List".
  5. Austin, Daniel F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. p. 381. ISBN   978-0-8493-2332-4.
  6. 1 2 RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN   978-1405332965.

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