The Maryland Terrapins football team was founded in 1892 to represent the University of Maryland in intercollegiate competition and has participated in the sport all but one season since its inception.Over the course of the team's history, the Terrapins' performance has run the gamut from national championships to winless seasons.
The Maryland Terrapins football team represents the University of Maryland, College Park in the sport of American football. The Terrapins compete in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and the Big Ten Conference. The Terrapins joined the Big Ten Conference on July 1, 2014, following 62 years in the Atlantic Coast Conference as a founding member. Mike Locksley is the head coach.
The University of Maryland, College Park is a public research university in College Park, Maryland. Founded in 1856, UMD is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland, and is the largest university in both the state and the Washington metropolitan area, with more than 41,000 students representing all fifty states and 123 countries, and a global alumni network of over 360,000. Its twelve schools and colleges together offer over 200 degree-granting programs, including 92 undergraduate majors, 107 master's programs, and 83 doctoral programs. UMD is a member of the Association of American Universities and competes in intercollegiate athletics as a member of the Big Ten Conference.
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States.
During periods of both ascendancy and mediocrity, individual Maryland players of exceptional ability have received various accolades. In total, Terrapins have been named to an All-America team 58 times, an All-Atlantic Coast Conference team 196 times, an All-Big Ten Conference team 7 times, and an All-Southern Conference team 14 times. Of the All-America selections, twenty-three players received first-team honors a total of twenty-eight times. Eleven players were named consensus first-team All-Americans a total of twelve times, and five players were named first-team All-Americans by unanimous consensus.
The College Football All-America Team is an honor given annually to the best American college football players at their respective positions. The original use of the term All-America seems to have been to the 1889 College Football All-America Team selected by Caspar Whitney and published in This Week's Sports in association with football pioneer Walter Camp. Camp took over the responsibility for picking the All-America team and was recognized as the official selector in the early years of the 20th century.
The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) is a collegiate athletic conference in the United States of America in which its fifteen member universities compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)'s Division I, with its football teams competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest levels for athletic competition in US-based collegiate sports. The ACC sponsors competition in twenty-five sports with many of its member institutions' athletic programs held in high regard nationally. Current members of the conference are Boston College, Clemson University, Duke University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Florida State University, North Carolina State University, Syracuse University, the University of Louisville, the University of Miami, the University of North Carolina, the University of Notre Dame, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and Wake Forest University.
The Big Ten Conference is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States, based in suburban Chicago, Illinois. Despite its name, the conference consists of 14 members. They compete in the NCAA Division I; its football teams compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), formerly known as Division I-A, the highest level of NCAA competition in that sport. The conference includes the flagship public university in each of 11 states stretching from New Jersey to Nebraska, as well as two additional public land grant schools and a private university.
Terrapins have won several nationally recognized individual awards, including the Chuck Bednarik Award, the Dick Butkus Award, the Lombardi Award, and the Outland Trophy, each of which recognizes the best player at a particular position in a given season. The College Football Hall of Fame has inducted six former Maryland players, and the Pro Football Hall of Fame has enshrined two. Four former Maryland head coaches have also been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. The University of Maryland Athletic Hall of Fame has inducted sixty-two former football lettermen and two former head coaches who were not alumni.
The Chuck Bednarik Award is presented annually to the defensive player in college football as judged by the Maxwell Football Club to be the best in the United States. The award is named for Chuck Bednarik, a former college and professional American football player. Voters for the Maxwell College Awards are NCAA head college football coaches, members of the Maxwell Football Club, and sportswriters and sportscasters from across the country. The Maxwell Club is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the presentations are held in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Club members are given voting privileges for the award.
The Lombardi Award is awarded by the Lombardi Foundation annually to the best college football player, regardless of position, based on performance, as well as leadership, character, and resiliency. From 1970 until 2016 the award was presented by Rotary International specifically to a lineman or linebacker. The Lombardi Award program was approved by the Rotary International club in Houston in 1970 shortly after the death of famed National Football League coach Vince Lombardi. The committee outlined the criteria for eligibility for the award, which remained in place until 2016: A player should be a down lineman on either offense or defense or a linebacker who lines up no further than five yards deep from the ball.
The Outland Trophy is awarded to the best college football interior lineman in the United States as adjudged by the Football Writers Association of America. It is named after John H. Outland. One of only a few players ever to be named an All-American at two positions, Outland garnered consensus All-America honors in 1898 as a tackle and consensus honors as a halfback in 1899. Outland had always contended that football tackles and guards deserved greater recognition and conceived the Outland Trophy as a means of providing this recognition. In 1988, Jim Ridlon was commissioned to design and sculpt the Outland Trophy. A member of the National College Football Awards Association, the award has become one of college football's most prestigious.
Each year, numerous publications and organizations release lists of All-America teams, hypothetical rosters of players considered the best in the nation at their respective positions.Some selecting organizations choose more than one roster of All-Americans, in which case they use the terms "first team", "second team", and "third team" as appropriate. Some selectors also award honorable mentions to outstanding players who did not make any of their teams.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), a college sports governing body, uses officially recognized All-America selectors to determine the "consensus" selections. These are based on a point system in which a player is awarded three points for every selector that names him to the first team, two points for the second team, and one point for the third team. The individual who receives the most points at his position is called a consensus All-American.Over time, the sources used to determine the consensus selections have changed, and since 2002, the NCAA has used these five selectors to determine consensus All-Americans: the Associated Press (AP), American Football Coaches Association (AFCA), Football Writers Association of America (FWAA), The Sporting News (TSN), and the Walter Camp Football Foundation (WCFF).
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It also organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, and helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. Its members are U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its standards and practices.
The American Football Coaches Association (AFCA) is an association of over 11,000 American football coaches and staff on all levels. According to its constitution, some of the main goals of the American Football Coaches Association are to "maintain the highest possible standards in football and the profession of coaching football," and to "provide a forum for the discussion and study of all matters pertaining to football and coaching." The AFCA, along with USA Today, is responsible for the Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Coaches Poll. The AFCA is also responsible for the Top 25 poll for Division II and Division III football.
In 1923, end Bill Supplee was selected to the Associated Press second team, which made him the first Maryland player to be named an All-American.Guard Bob Ward became the first Terrapin named to a first team when he received that honor from AP and the Football Writers Association of America in 1950. The following year, Ward became Maryland's first consensus All-American when he was unanimously chosen by every NCAA-recognized selector. Five other Terrapins have earned consensus All-America honors: Jack Scarbath in 1952, Stan Jones in 1953, Bob Pellegrini in 1955, Randy White in 1974, and linebacker E. J. Henderson in 2001. Henderson was also named a consensus All-American in 2002, which made him the first, and thus far only, Maryland player to receive the honor twice.
William C. "Zuke" Supplee was an American educator and college athlete. He attended the University of Maryland where he played college football and basketball for the Maryland Terrapins, and competed in track & field. In 1923, he received second-team All-America football honors, which made him the first Maryland player honored as such.
Robert Richard Ward was an American football coach and player. He played college football for the Terrapins at the University of Maryland. He is considered, alongside Randy White, as one of the greatest linemen to have ever played for Maryland. Ward is the only player to have been named an Associated Press first-team All-American for both an offensive and defensive position.
John Carl Scarbath is a former professional American football quarterback in the National Football League (NFL) for the Washington Redskins and Pittsburgh Steelers. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1983.
Just as the media recognizes the nation's best players with All-America lists, individual athletic conferences honor their best players with "all-conference" selections. In 1921, Maryland joined the Southern Conference (SoCon). Thirteen years later, Norwood Sothoron became the first Terrapin named to an All-Southern Conference team. Maryland was a member of the league from 1921 to 1952, and twelve Terrapins received All-Southern Conference honors a total of fourteen times.
After the 1952 season, Maryland and six other schools left the Southern Conference to form the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). times. Terrapins were named to All-ACC second or third teams an additional 62 times, although those teams were not published continuously and there was not always a third team. Since Maryland moved to the Big Ten Conference in 2014, five Terrapins have been named to All-Big Ten first teams, and two have earned second-team honors.The following year, the conference honored its inaugural season's best players with an All-ACC team. In that initial class, five Terrapins were selected to the first team and two to the second team. From 1953 to 2013, Maryland players received first-team All-ACC honors a total of 134
When the NCAA abolished the one-platoon system in 1965,the ACC began naming separate all-conference offensive and defensive teams. In 1974, Maryland won its first ACC championship since 1955, and a school record six Terrapins were named to the conference's first team. Maryland secured the title again in 1975 and 1976, and surpassed the previous mark when seven Terrapins were named first-team All-ACC for each of those seasons. The 2001 squad set a new benchmark when eight players made the first team, and the 2002 Terrapins equaled that feat.
In 2003, the Atlantic Coast Conference published the "ACC 50th Anniversary Football Team", a list of the league's fifty best players from its first half-century as chosen by a 120-member committee.Four former Terrapins were included on the list: Boomer Esiason, a Maryland quarterback from 1981 to 1983; Stan Jones, a tackle from 1951 to 1953; Bob Pellegrini, a guard from 1953 to 1955; and Randy White, a defensive tackle from 1972 to 1974.
Various organizations bestow awards recognizing the best player overall or at a specific position, and some of these annual awards are considered highly prestigious honors. All of the following individual awards bestowed upon Terrapins have gone to linemen and defensive players. In 1952, tackle Dick Modzelewski was awarded the Outland Trophy, for best interior lineman, and the Touchdown Club's Knute Rockne Award for best lineman. The following year, Stan Jones won the Knute Rockne Award. In 1955, the Touchdown Club bestowed its Walter Camp Memorial Trophy, for best player, and Knute Rockne Award, for best lineman, upon center Bob Pellegrini, who was also named the Lineman of the Year by United Press International (UPI). In 1974, Randy White won the Lombardi Award, for best lineman or linebacker; the Outland Trophy, for best interior lineman; and was named the UPI Lineman of the Year. In 2002, E. J. Henderson received the Chuck Bednarik Award, for best linebacker, and the Dick Butkus Award for best lineman or linebacker.
By comparison, Maryland's offensive players and backs have fared better with conference accolades. Quarterback Jack Scarbath was named the 1952 Southern Conference Player of the Year, and Bernie Faloney received ACC Player of the Year honors the following season. In 2001, running back Bruce Perry was named the ACC Offensive Player of the Year.
No Terrapin has ever won the Heisman Trophy, but several have received votes. In 1952, quarterback Jack Scarbath was the Heisman runner-up,and his successor, Bernie Faloney, finished fourth in the voting the following year. Center Bob Pellegrini finished sixth in 1955, end Gary Collins finished eighth in 1961, defensive tackle Randy White finished ninth in 1973, and quarterback Boomer Esiason finished tenth in 1983.
After his national championship-winning season in 1953, Jim Tatum received Coach of the Year honors from the AFCA and the FWAA. He was also named coach of the year by the Southern Conference in 1951 and the Atlantic Coast Conference in 1953 and 1955. The Sporting News named Jerry Claiborne the nation's top coach in 1974, and in 1982, his successor, Bobby Ross, received that distinction from the Touchdown Club.For his first-year turnaround of a team that had one winning season in the previous decade, Ralph Friedgen received national Coach of the Year plaudits from at least eight organizations.
|National Award||Recipient(s) and year received|
|Lou Groza Award||Brad Craddock (2014)|
|Chuck Bednarik Award||E. J. Henderson (2002)|
|Dick Butkus Award||E. J. Henderson (2002)|
|Walter Camp Memorial Trophy||Bob Pellegrini (1955)|
|Lombardi Award||Randy White (1974)|
|Outland Trophy||Randy White (1974); Dick Modzelewski (1952)|
|Knute Rockne Award||Bob Ward (1951); Dick Modzelewski (1952); Stan Jones (1953); Bob Pellegrini (1955)|
|UPI Lineman of the Year||Bob Pellegrini (1955); Randy White (1974)|
|Conference Award||Recipient(s) and year received|
|ACC Player of the Year||Bernie Faloney (1953); Bob Pellegrini (1955); Randy White (1974); E. J. Henderson (2001)|
|ACC Offensive Rookie of the Year||Danny O'Brien (2010)|
|ACC Offensive Player of the Year||Bruce Perry (2001)|
|ACC Defensive Player of the Year||E.J Henderson (2001 & 2002); D'Qwell Jackson (2005)|
|SoCon Player of the Year||Bob Ward (1951); Jack Scarbath (1952)|
|Jacobs Blocking Trophy||John Gormley (1936); Bob Pellegrini (1955); Ralph Sonntag (1969); Dave Pacella (1982)|
|Jim Tatum Award||Jonathan Claiborne (1997); Nick Novak (2004); Josh Wilson (2006)|
|Brian Piccolo Award||Al Neville (1972); David Visaggio (1974); J. D. Maarleveld (1984); Mike Anderson (1989)|
|Bakken–Andersen Kicker of the Year||Brad Craddock (2014)|
|Rodgers–Dwight Return Specialist of the Year||William Likely (2015)|
|"Coach of the Year"||Recipient(s) and year received|
|AFCA||Jim Tatum (1953); Ralph Friedgen (2001)|
|Associated Press||Ralph Friedgen (2001)|
|Bobby Dodd Award||Ralph Friedgen (2001)|
|College Football News||Ralph Friedgen (2001)|
|CNN Sports Illustrated||Ralph Friedgen (2001)|
|Eddie Robinson Award||Ralph Friedgen (2001)|
|FWAA||Jim Tatum (1953)|
|Home Depot Award||Ralph Friedgen (2001)|
|The Sporting News||Jerry Claiborne (1974)|
|Walter Camp Award||Ralph Friedgen (2001)|
|Washington Touchdown Club||Bobby Ross (1982)|
|Atlantic Coast Conference||Jim Tatum (1953 & 1955); Jerry Claiborne (1973, 1974, & 1975); Bobby Ross (1983); Ralph Friedgen (2001)|
|Southern Conference||Jim Tatum (1951)|
The College Football Hall of Fame has commemorated many of the sport's most outstanding and most innovative personalities. Among them are six former Maryland players and four former Maryland head coaches. kg), Ward was nicknamed the "watch-charm guard", but consistently outplayed much larger opponents. He also served as the team's head coach in 1967 and 1968, but without much success. In 1983, the Hall of Fame inducted former quarterback Jack Scarbath, who led Maryland to a school-record 22-game winning streak and an upset victory over first-ranked Tennessee in the 1952 "Game of the Century". That season, Scarbath was named a first-team All-American by unanimous consensus and finished as the runner-up in the Heisman Trophy vote. Tackle Dick Modzelewski, inducted in 1993, won the 1952 Outland Trophy as the nation's best lineman and later had a 14-year career in the National Football League (NFL). Center Bob Pellegrini was inducted in 1996. Named the ACC's best blocker in 1955, Pellegrini was a starter on the 1953 national championship team, the AP Poll eighth-ranked 1954 team, and the third-ranked 1955 team.In 1980, Bob Ward became the first Maryland player in the College Football Hall of Fame. At 5 feet, 9 inches (1.75 m) and 185 pounds (84
Two former Maryland players have been inducted into both the College Football Hall of Fame and the Pro Football Hall of Fame for accomplishments during their professional playing careers.Tackle Stan Jones was named a unanimous consensus All-American after the 1953 national championship campaign. After graduation, he embarked upon a 13-year NFL career that included seven consecutive Pro Bowls. Jones was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1991 and the College Football Hall of Fame in 2000. Defensive tackle Randy White was twice named to the All-American first team, the second time by unanimous consensus in 1974. That season, White helped Maryland to an ACC championship and received numerous lineman and player of the year accolades. During his 14-year NFL career, White played in three Super Bowls, six National Football Conference championships, and missed only one game.
In 1968, Clark Shaughnessy became the first Maryland coach inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. Shaughnessy pioneered the pass-oriented variation of the T-formation that largely replaced the single-wing, and he coached Maryland for two non-consecutive seasons in the 1940s. Shaughnessy mentored Terrapins quarterback and future head coach Tommy Mont, the third-ranked passer in the nation in 1942.Bear Bryant, inducted in 1986, is best known for leading Alabama to six national championships, but his first head coaching job came at Maryland in 1945. Bryant's team finished the season 6–2–1, and he later said that the Maryland position was the one "that launched me to whatever I've accomplished". Jim Tatum, inducted in 1984, served as Maryland's head coach from 1947 to 1955, and his teams secured two national championships, three conference championships, and five bowl game appearances. Tatum compiled a 73–15–4 record without a losing season, and he remains Maryland's all-time winningest coach of the modern era. When Jerry Claiborne arrived in 1972, Maryland had suffered through seven straight losing seasons. In his second year, Claiborne engineered a turnaround, and from 1973 to 1978, he led Maryland to six consecutive bowl games and three consecutive ACC championships. After losing the 1977 Cotton Bowl Classic to Houston, Maryland narrowly missed an opportunity for the national championship. Claiborne was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1999.
Since 1982, the University of Maryland Athletic Hall of Fame has enshrined some of the school's greatest athletes. Inductees have included sixty-two football players, three of whom also served as head coach, and two head football coaches who were not alumni of the university.Eleven football lettermen were in the inaugural class, including Harry Clifton "Curley" Byrd, who was a multi-sport athlete, 24-year football coach, athletic director, professor, university president, and politician. Other football players in the 1982 class included Bosey Berger, a Major League Baseball player; Burton Shipley, Maryland's first basketball coach; and Fred Linkous, a Lacrosse Hall of Famer.
|B||Back||OG||Offensive guard||AFCA||American Football Coaches Association||FWAA||Football Writers Association of America|
|C||Center||OT||Offensive tackle||AP||Associated Press||INS||International News Service|
|DB||Defensive back||P||Punter||CFN||College Football News||NEA||Newspaper Enterprise Association|
|DL||Defensive lineman||QB||Quarterback||CNN||CNN Sports Illustrated||TSN||The Sporting News|
|DT||Defensive tackle||RB||Running back||CSW||College Sports Writers||UPI||United Press International|
|E||End||RS||Return specialist||ESPN||ESPN.com||WCFF||Walter Camp Foundation|
John Edgar Faber Jr. was an American microbiologist and college football and lacrosse coach at the University of Maryland. Faber served as the Maryland lacrosse coach from 1928 to 1963, during which time he compiled a 249–57 record and secured numerous national and conference championships. Faber was inducted into the National Lacrosse Hall of Fame in 1963. He coached the Maryland football team in 1935 and again, as a co-head coach alongside Al Heagy and Al Woods, from 1940 to 1941. He compiled a 12–13–4 record in football.
Robert Francis Pellegrini was an American football linebacker in the National Football League for the Philadelphia Eagles and the Washington Redskins. He played college football at Maryland, where he was an All-American as a center. Pellegrini was drafted in the first round of the 1956 NFL Draft. In 1996, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame.
The 1981 Clemson Tigers football team represented Clemson University in the Atlantic Coast Conference. The Tigers were led by head coach Danny Ford and played their home games in Memorial Stadium. Clemson finished their undefeated 1981 season with a 22–15 victory over the #4 Nebraska Cornhuskers in the 1982 Orange Bowl, and were voted #1 in the Associated Press (AP) and United Press International (UPI) polls.
The Jimmy Crab Bowl Classic is the name given to the Maryland–Navy football rivalry. It is an American college football rivalry between the Maryland Terrapins football team of the University of Maryland and the Navy Midshipmen football team of the United States Naval Academy. The two institutions, located in close proximity in the state of Maryland, first met for a football game in 1905. Since then, the series has often been marked by controversy, with incidents by players and supporters occurring both on and off the field. The winner of the game is awarded the Crab Bowl Trophy.
The 2009 Maryland Terrapins football team represented the University of Maryland during its 57th season in the Atlantic Coast Conference. The Terrapins played in the Atlantic Division of the conference, and competed against all five divisional opponents, two Coastal Division opponents on a rotational basis, and one permanent cross-divisional rival: Virginia. The rotating Coastal Division opponents were Virginia Tech and Duke. In 2009, Maryland played its second game of the home-to-home series against California, this year in Berkeley.
Gerald Theodore "Snitz" Snyder was an American football player and Army officer. He played college football as a back for the Maryland Terrapins at the University of Maryland. Snyder played professionally for two seasons in the National Football League (NFL).
From 1947 to 1955, Jim Tatum served as the head coach of the Maryland Terrapins football team, which represented the University of Maryland in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) college football. Maryland hired Tatum to replace Clark Shaughnessy after the 1946 season. Tatum had created both success and controversy during his one season as head coach of the Oklahoma Sooners football team. During his nine-year tenure, Tatum became one of the most successful head football coaches in Maryland history, and the Terrapins compiled two national championships, three conference championships, and five bowl game appearances. His teams compiled a 73–15–4 record without a single losing season, and as of the end of 2016, he has the highest winning percentage of any Maryland football coach who coached at least seven games. In 1954, the University of Maryland appointed a new president, Dr. Wilson Elkins, who chose to de-emphasize football. Following the 1955 season, Tatum took a pay cut to coach at his alma mater, North Carolina, and he died four years later.
Tom Cosgrove was a National Football League player for the Cleveland Browns and the Baltimore Colts. He played college football for the Maryland Terrapins at the University of Maryland.
The 1950 Maryland Terrapins football team represented the University of Maryland in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) college football in its 30th season as a member of the Southern Conference.
The 1951 Maryland Terrapins football team represented the University of Maryland in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) college football in its 31st season as a member of the Southern Conference. Maryland outscored its opponents, 381–74, and finished the season with a 10–0 record, including three shut outs, and held seven opponents held to seven points or less. It was the school's first perfect undefeated and untied season since 1893. Maryland also secured its first berth in a major postseason bowl game, the 1952 Sugar Bowl, where it upset first-ranked Tennessee under head coach Robert Neyland.
Richard Edell was an American lacrosse coach. He served as the head coach for the University of Maryland, United States Military Academy, and University of Baltimore's men's lacrosse teams. Edell was inducted into the US Lacrosse Hall of Fame in 2004, at which time he held the second-most NCAA tournament appearances of any head coach.
The 1952 College Football All-America team is composed of college football players who were selected as All-Americans by various organizations and writers that chose College Football All-America Teams in 1952. The eight selectors recognized by the NCAA as "official" for the 1952 season are (1) the Associated Press, (2) the United Press, (3) the All-America Board, (4) the American Football Coaches Association (AFCA), (5) the Football Writers Association of America (FWAA), (6) the International News Service (INS), (7) the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA), and (8) the Sporting News.
The 1953 Maryland Terrapins football team represented the University of Maryland in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) college football in its first season as a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). Maryland outscored its opponents 298–38 and recorded six defensive shutouts. Jim Tatum served as the head coach for the seventh year of his nine-year tenure. In the postseason, Maryland lost to Oklahoma in the 1954 Orange Bowl. The team was selected national champion by Associated Press, International News Service, and United Press International, leading to a consensus national champion designation.
William "Bill" Walker is an American former football and baseball player. He attended the University of Maryland, College Park where he played college football as an end and baseball as an outfielder. Wire services twice named Walker to All-America football second teams and he was also selected to an All-Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) team three years. Walker was named to the All-ACC baseball team once as well. He was selected by the Detroit Lions in the eighth round of the 1955 NFL Draft, but instead signed with the Edmonton Eskimos of the Western Interprovincial Football Union.