Low (band)

Last updated
Low band.jpg
Low in 2013
Background information
Origin Duluth, Minnesota, United States
Genres Indie rock, slowcore, dream pop
Years active1993–present
Labels Vernon Yard, Kranky, P-Vine, Sub Pop, Rocket Girl
Associated acts Retribution Gospel Choir
Website chairkickers.com
Members Alan Sparhawk
Mimi Parker
Past membersJohn Nichols
Zak Sally [1]
Matt Livingston
Steve Garrington

Low is an American indie rock band from Duluth, Minnesota, formed in 1993. The group is composed of founding members Alan Sparhawk (guitar and vocals) and Mimi Parker (drums and vocals). Previous bassists for the band include John Nichols from 1993 to 1994, Zak Sally from 1994 to 2005, Matt Livingston from 2005 to 2008, and Steve Garrington from 2008 to 2020.


The music of Low is characterized by slow tempos and minimalist arrangements. Early descriptions sometimes referred to it as a rock subgenre called "slowcore" often compared to the band Bedhead, who played this style during the early 1990s. However, Low's members ultimately disapproved of the term. [2] [3]

Parker and Sparhawk's vocal harmonies represent perhaps the group's most distinctive element; critic Denise Sullivan writes that their shared vocals are "as chilling as anything Gram [Parsons] and Emmylou [Harris] ever conspired on—though that's not to say it's country-tinged, just straight from the heart." [4]


The band formed in the spring of 1993. Sparhawk had been playing in the Superior, Wisconsin band Zen Identity, [5] the core of which was formed by drummer Robb Berry and vocalist Bill Walton. That band needed a new bassist, and recruited future Low bassist John Nichols. At that time, Nichols was a senior at Superior Senior High School, and bassist in the band Lorenzo's Tractor. Sparhawk taught Zen Identity songs to Nichols and during practices, the two started improvising with some very modest, quiet themes. As a joke, they wondered what would happen if they played such quiet music in front of Duluth crowds, which at that point focused around the loud, grunge, "post-punk" sound. Soon, the joke became a serious thought. Sparhawk left Zen Identity, who continued to perform and record without him, and he and Nichols recruited Sparhawk's wife Mimi Parker to play a very modest drum kit composed of a single snare drum, single cymbal, and a single floor tom. [1] She was to use brushes almost exclusively, rather than drum sticks.

Low at Duluth's Electric Fetus Low at Duluth's Electric Fetus.jpg
Low at Duluth's Electric Fetus

Low's debut album, I Could Live in Hope , was released on Virgin Records' Vernon Yard imprint in 1994. It featured Nichols on bass, though he was replaced by Zak Sally, who joined for the recording of the band's next album Long Division. Both I Could Live in Hope and Long Division were produced and recorded by Kramer. Long Division and its similar follow-up, 1996's The Curtain Hits the Cast, established the band as critical darlings; extensive touring helped them to develop a highly devoted fan base. "Over the Ocean", a single drawn from The Curtain Hits the Cast, also became something of a hit on college radio.

By the time of their next full-length album (1999's Secret Name) Low had moved to the independent label Kranky. In between, they released several singles and EPs. In 1999, Low joined forces with Dirty Three to record an In The Fishtank session for Konkurrent records. Allmusic called the six-song disc "some of the best material either unit has produced." [6] Of particular note is the disc's lengthy cover of Neil Young's "Down by the River". 2001 saw the release of Things We Lost in the Fire.

The following year saw the release of the band's final full-length on Kranky, Trust. All three of the band's full-length releases on Kranky featured superstar producers: Secret Name and Things We Lost in the Fire feature the work of recording engineer Steve Albini, who proved sympathetic to capturing the band's strengths; while Trust was recorded by Tom Herbers along with Duluth engineer Eric Swanson and mixed by Tchad Blake at Peter Gabriel's Real World Studios.

In April 2003, Peter S. Scholtes of the Twin Cities weekly paper City Pages posted in his weblog that Zak Sally had left Low. The following month, the band posted an update [7] to the news on their website: "We have all had to work through some personal things recently ... After sorting it out, the good news is that Zak is remaining in the band ..." In July 2003, they toured Europe with Radiohead, Sally in tow. Following a successful tour in early 2004 that vividly demonstrated the band's commitment to their fans (Parker was visibly pregnant throughout), the band signaled their intent to continue making music by signing with powerhouse indie label Sub Pop. To tie up the loose ends of the era, Low released a three-disc rarities compilation on its own Chairkickers label in 2004.

Beginning with Secret Name, the band have diversified their sound. The band use subtle electronic music touches to augment their sound, reflective of their tenure with Kranky and their exposure to the Midwest's post-rock scene. Adding a more overt rock element to their aesthetic, the band has used fuzz bass from Things We Lost In the Fire onward, and began using distorted lead guitar on Trust. The band's 2005 album, The Great Destroyer, nods even further in the direction of rock. Recorded with producer Dave Fridmann and released by Sub Pop in January 2005, The Great Destroyer has received mostly positive reviews; the Village Voice described the record's "comparatively thunderous verve." [8]

Low canceled the second leg of their extensive tour in support of The Great Destroyer in late spring of 2005. Sparhawk's statement, published on the band's website, addressed directly to fans, detailing his personal problems with depression resulting in the cancellation of the tour. In August 2005, Sparhawk announced his return to performance, embarking on a US tour with former Red House Painters frontman Mark Kozelek. In October 2005, Sally announced he was leaving the band. Low replaced Sally with Matt Livingston, a bassist and saxophonist from Duluth's musical scene. In addition to playing bass guitar, Livingston also played an antique Navy chaplain's pump organ in the group.

After appearing on 2007's Drums and Guns and touring with the group, Matt Livingston left Low in 2008, to be replaced by Steve Garrington. Garrington would perform with the band for the next 12 years and four studio albums: 2011's C'mon, 2013's The Invisible Way, 2015's Ones and Sixes and 2018's Double Negative.

In June 2021, the band announced an upcoming release on Sub Pop entitled HEY WHAT. [9] The album will be released on September 10. [9] With the announcement of the album came news of Garrington's departure from the band a year prior, turning Low into an official duo for the first time in their career.


Low live in the Barby club, Tel Aviv, Israel, September 11, 2008 Low-2008-09-11-Barby-06.jpg
Low live in the Barby club, Tel Aviv, Israel, September 11, 2008

Low are known for their impressive live performances. Rock club audiences sometimes watch the band while seated on the floor. During their early career, the band often faced unsympathetic and inattentive audiences in bars and clubs, to which they responded by bucking rock protocol and turning their volume down. The huge dynamic range of Low's early music made it susceptible to background noise and chatter, since many of their songs were very quiet. A performance in 1996 at the South by Southwest festival was overpowered when a Scandinavian hardcore band was booked downstairs. The Trust album marked a turning point, and Low's music has developed a more emphatic sound.[ citation needed ]

Their shows often feature drastically reinterpreted cover versions of famous songs by Joy Division and The Smiths, in addition to their own original material. In performance, Low shows off a sense of humor not necessarily found on their recordings; a tour in early 2004 featured a cover of OutKast's hit song "Hey Ya!". At a gig in Los Angeles on Halloween 1998, the band took the stage as a Misfits tribute act, [10] complete with corpse paint and black clothing.

At the 2008 End of the Road Festival in Dorset, England, Sparhawk abruptly ended the band's performance by ripping the strings and lead out of his guitar, throwing it to the ground and then hurling it into the crowd before exiting the stage. He had earlier informed the audience that it had been a "crappy day". In 2010 they performed the Great Destroyer at Primavera Sound Festival [11] On Friday July 13, 2012 Low gave a candlelit concert at Halifax Minster.

Low's performance at the 2013 Rock the Garden concert consisted of a slowed and lengthened version of their drone rock song "Do You Know How to Waltz?" followed by Alan saying, "Drone, not drones," a reference to an anti-drone sticker made by Minneapolis's Luke Heiken; [12] the performance resulted in mass audience confusion and divisive online discussion. [13] The performance lasted half an hour and was broadcast live on The Current which had been playing cuts of their recent album. Low had performed a more traditional show for The Current at the Fitzgerald earlier in the year.

Commercial success

The band's mainstream exposure has been limited: their best-known song is arguably a hymnal version of "The Little Drummer Boy", which was featured in a Gap television ad that depicted a snowball fight in slow-motion to match the song's glacial tempo. A remix of their "Halflight" was featured in the Mothman Prophecies motion picture. The band made their network television debut in 2005 by performing the single "California" on an episode of Last Call with Carson Daly . On June 11, 2007, Scott Bateman, a web animator, announced that his video for Low's song Hatchet (Optimimi version) would be one of the preloads on the new Zune. [14] Also in 2007 they recorded a song called "Family Tree" which featured in the "Careful" episode of Nick Jr's kids' show Yo Gabba Gabba!

On March 24, 2008, their song "Point of Disgust" was featured in the popular show Skins in the UK, prompting a rush of download sales from iTunes. Another of their songs, "Sunflower", was featured in the following episode (episode 9), and "Breaker" was featured in a later episode. As the music supervisor of Skins declared in the Episode Track Listing section of the show's official website: "You may have guessed by now that we are all pretty huge fans of Low in the Skins office[...]".[ citation needed ]

The 2008 movie KillShot, starring Mickey Rourke and Diane Lane, features the song "Monkey" early in the film. The 2003 documentary film Tarnation by Jonathan Caouette features the Low tracks "Laser Beam", "Embrace" and "Back Home Again" alongside tracks by artists such as Red House Painters and The Magnetic Fields. "Laser Beam" also featured on episode 4 season 2 of Misfits . Low was the subject of the 2008 documentary Low: You May Need a Murderer.

In 2010, Robert Plant recorded two Low songs for inclusion on his album Band of Joy , "Monkey" and "Silver Rider" from the LP The Great Destroyer. In an interview, Plant said of The Great Destroyer, "It's great music; it's always been in the house playing away beside Jerry Lee Lewis and Howlin' Wolf, you know. There's room for everything.". [15] It is rumored that Plant was introduced to Low's music by guitarist/producer Buddy Miller; Miller worked with Low in the past, and played guitar on Band of Joy . Curiously, writing credits for both "Monkey" and "Silver Rider" are listed in the "Band of Joy" liner notes as "Zachary Micheletti, Mimi Parker, George Sparhawk" per the official listing in BMI's publishing database. It is notable that Sparhawk performs under the pseudonym "Chicken-Bone George" in his side project Black Eyed Snakes.

The band were chosen by Jeff Mangum of Neutral Milk Hotel to perform at the All Tomorrow's Parties festival in March 2012 in Minehead, England. [16]

In November 2013, their song "Blue Christmas" featured as part of the soundtrack to season 4, episode 7 ("Chapter 28") of HBO's Eastbound & Down .

In June 2017, the song "Especially Me" featured in season 5, episode 8 ("Tied to the Tracks") of Netflix's Orange Is the New Black . [17]

In August 2019, the song "Dancing and Blood" feature in season 3, episode 6 of Netflix's 13 Reasons Why . [18]

In March 2020, the song "Congregation" features in episode 2 of FX's Devs.

Personal lives

Sparhawk and Parker are married, have two children, and are practicing members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, otherwise known as the Mormon faith. (Sparhawk was born into an LDS family in Seattle, and for some time lived in Utah before moving to Minnesota at age nine; he also briefly attended Brigham Young University. Parker is a convert.)

In 2006, Sparhawk was involved in raising funds for the construction of a school in Namuncha, Kenya, which he visited in August of that year. On Low's website he is quoted as saying, "My visit to Namuncha, Kenya in August was one of the most impressive experiences of my life so far."

Side projects

Low owns a record label, Chairkickers' Union, which releases material by other musicians such as Rivulets and Haley Bonar, as well as some of their own material. Sparhawk is notably active in Duluth's small but vibrant independent music scene; he operates a recording studio in the town, in a deconsecrated church that naturally provides the lush reverb characteristic of Low's sound. The Chairkickers label offers another outlet for Duluth musicians, as most groups on the label are from that city, or at least from Minnesota and surrounding areas.

Sally has toured as a bassist with Dirty Three, and Sparhawk has devoted considerable time and energy to his Black Eyed Snakes project, a blues-rock revival band quite far removed from the Low aesthetic. Recently Sparhawk has also been seen with a new side project called The Retribution Gospel Choir. Matt Livingston, who became Low's bassist in late 2005, also played in The Retribution Gospel Choir, and was subsequently replaced by Steve Garrington. On Retribution's first tour (fall 2005), they played the Low song "From Your Place on Sunset". Musical crossover between Sparhawk's bands went in both directions as two songs originally released on a RGC tour EP, "Hatchet" and "Breaker", were later covered on Low's Drums and Guns release (before making it onto RGC's self-titled full-length debut). Similarly, Low and the Black-Eyed Snakes have played some overlapping songs, such as "Lordy".

Sparhawk and Sally also made several recordings in a more synthesizer-driven style, reminiscent of the band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, under the name The Hospital People. The most widely distributed of these was "Crash / We'll Be Philosophers", released as a 7-inch on clear vinyl by Duck Suit Records. Sparhawk and Sally have also played live as The Tooth Fairies, with Sally performing on drums and Sean Erspamer on bass; Tooth Fairies sets have typically consisted of cover songs by the Stooges, MC5, and similar bands. Sally has generated several works that fall in the 'graphic novel' genre, and also created the original artwork for David Bazan's (formerly of Pedro the Lion) first solo effort, the EP Fewer Moving Parts, which was recently re-released by Barsuk. At one time, Mimi Parker was rumored to have started a punk band called Rubbersnake, [19] but this was an inside joke on the part of the band. In 2007 Sparhawk did a Take-Away Show acoustic video session shot by Vincent Moon.

In April 2012, Low collaborated with artist Peter Liversidge for their performance at the Royal Festival Hall in London. [20] Low collaborated with the artist again for their performance at the Barbican Centre in London in April 2013. [21]

In 2011, Sparhawk began collaborating with fellow Duluth violinist/vocalist Gaelynn Lea on a band called The Murder of Crows. The duo plays Lea's originals, instrumentals, and covers, using looping pedals and pared-down arrangements that create a haunting sound. [22]

Honors and awards

Low's star on the outside mural of the Minneapolis nightclub First Avenue Low - First Avenue Star.jpg
Low's star on the outside mural of the Minneapolis nightclub First Avenue

The band has been honored with a star on the outside mural of the Minneapolis nightclub First Avenue, [23] recognizing performers that have played sold-out shows or have otherwise demonstrated a major contribution to the culture at the iconic venue. [24] Receiving a star "might be the most prestigious public honor an artist can receive in Minneapolis," according to journalist Steve Marsh. [25]


Studio albums


List of studio albums, with selected chart positions, sales figures and certifications
Album title and detailsPeak chart positionsCertifications
The Great Destroyer
  • Year released: 2005
  • Record label: Sub Pop
Drums and Guns
  • Year released: 2007
  • Record label: Sub Pop
  • Year released: 2011
  • Record label: Sub Pop
The Invisible Way
  • Year released: 2013
  • Record label: Sub Pop
Ones and Sixes
  • Year released: 2015
  • Record label: Sub Pop
Double Negative
  • Year released: 2018
  • Record label: Sub Pop



Live albums



Related Research Articles

Hot Hot Heat Canadian indie rock band

Hot Hot Heat was a Canadian indie rock band from Victoria, British Columbia, formed in 1999. The band was signed by Seattle label Sub Pop in 2001 and released its first EP, Knock Knock Knock, and first full-length album, Make Up the Breakdown, the following year. The band released five full-length albums, the last being the self-titled Hot Hot Heat in 2016. The band's style makes use of electronic and traditional instruments and has variously been categorized as dance-punk, post-punk revival, new wave, and art-punk. They made an appearance on Yo Gabba Gabba, with the song, "Time to go Outdoors". It was featured on the "Talent" episode.

<i>Blew</i> 1989 EP by Nirvana

"Blew" is a song by American rock band Nirvana, written by vocalist and guitarist Kurt Cobain. It is the first song on the band's debut album Bleach, released in June 1989 by Sub Pop. The song was re-released by the Tupelo record label as the title track of a four-song Nirvana EP in the United Kingdom in November 1989, where it charted at number 15 on the UK Indie Singles chart.

Alan Sparhawk American musician and singer-songwriter

George Alan Sparhawk is an American musician and singer-songwriter. He is best known as the guitarist and vocalist for bands Low and Retribution Gospel Choir.

Jessica Bailiff is an American singer-songwriter from Toledo, Ohio. Her music is largely classified as slowcore, although it contains elements of post-rock and shoegaze. Bailiff was discovered by Low's Alan Sparhawk, who recommended her earlier demos to Kranky, the label on which Bailiff later recorded. Bailiff collaborated and released records with acts such as Odd Nosdam of Anticon. and cLOUDDEAD fame, Low's Alan Sparhawk, Dave Pearce of Flying Saucer Attack, Casino Versus Japan, Rivulets and Annelies Monseré amongst others. Bailiff was also featured on The Wire's Brain in the Wire compilation.

Windy & Carl is an American ambient group, based in Dearborn, Michigan, United States.

<i>The Great Destroyer</i> 2005 studio album by Low

The Great Destroyer is the seventh studio album by American indie rock band Low. It was released on January 25, 2005 as their first recording on Sub Pop Records.

<i>The Curtain Hits the Cast</i> 1996 studio album by Low

The Curtain Hits the Cast is the third studio album by American indie rock band Low. It was released in 1996 on Vernon Yard Recordings.

<i>Songs for a Dead Pilot</i> 1997 EP by Low

Songs For A Dead Pilot is a 1997 EP/mini-album by Duluth, Minnesota slowcore group Low, released in 1997. It was their first release on Kranky, and is viewed as their most minimalistic recording. The title is a reference to a pilot whose plane had crashed, whom the band read about. No credit is given for the cover artwork in the liner notes.

Six Finger Satellite are an American synthesizer-based post-hardcore band, based in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.

Haley McCallum American singer-songwriter

Haley McCallum, professionally known as Haley and formerly Haley Bonar, is a Canadian-born American singer and songwriter who was raised in Rapid City, South Dakota. She has lived in Duluth and currently St. Paul, Minnesota. In 2009, she moved to Portland, Oregon, where she spent a year writing songs for her album Golder, which was released April 19, 2011. She plays acoustic guitar, baritone electric guitar, electric guitar, and Rhodes or Wurlitzer electric piano, either solo or with her Twin Cities-based band, including Jeremy Ylvisaker, Robert Skoro, and Jacob Hanson.

Kid Dakota is the musical moniker of Darren Jackson, sometimes accompanied live or in the studio by various band members.

Blitzen Trapper

Blitzen Trapper is a Portland, Oregon-based experimental country/folk/rock band associated with Sub Pop Records, Vagrant Records and Lojinx. Formed in 2000, the band currently operates as a quintet, with Eric Earley (guitar/harmonica/vocals/keyboard), Erik Menteer (guitar/keyboard), Brian Adrian Koch (drums/vocals/harmonica), Michael Van Pelt (bass), and Marty Marquis (guitar/keyboards/vocals/melodica). Blitzen Trapper self-released its first three albums. "Wild Mountain Nation" was No. 98 on Rolling Stone's list of the 100 Best Songs of 2007.

Pan American is an American experimental electronic music ensemble. It is the alter ego of Mark Nelson, vocalist and guitarist for the band Labradford, who first began recording under the name in 1997.

Retribution Gospel Choir

Retribution Gospel Choir is an indie rock band based in Duluth, Minnesota. Current members of the band include Alan Sparhawk and Steve Garrington (bass), both of whom are also in the band Low, and Eric Pollard. Despite sharing the majority of their members, RGC's high-energy performance differs greatly from Low's subdued, minimalist feel.

Jamestown Story Singer-songwriter from Minnesota

Dane Schmidt, better known by his stage name Jamestown Story, is an American alternative acoustic singer-songwriter from Minneapolis, Minnesota now residing in Nashville, Tennessee. Previously the main vocalist and songwriter of a band also named Jamestown Story, Schmidt chose to keep the band's name and continue on after the band dissolved in 2007. Schmidt released his first album under the name And Then I Turned Seven in late 2003 and has since released 7 albums as well as numerous singles and EP's.

<i>2</i> (Retribution Gospel Choir album) 2010 studio album by Retribution Gospel Choir

2 is the second studio album from Low singer-songwriter-guitarist Alan Sparhawk's band Retribution Gospel Choir. It was released on January 26, 2010, in the US and February 8, 2010, in the UK on the Sub Pop Records label.

Black Eyed Snakes

The Black-eyed Snakes is an American blues rock band from Duluth, Minnesota. Since releasing their debut album "It's the Black-eyed Snakes" in 2001, the band has toured the U.S., including with Charlie Parr, among others. Front man Alan Sparhawk also performs with Low and Retribution Gospel Choir.

If Thousands

If Thousands is an American drone band from Duluth, Minnesota. Since releasing their debut album "Candice Recorder" in 2001, the band has toured the US with Low. If Thousands' music has been featured on NPR. Christian McShane also performed with Charlie Parr in the band Devil's Flying Machine. Aaron Molina was previously part of the rock band Small Engine City. Nathan Amundson of Rivulets performed on their album Yellowstone.

<i>Cmon</i> (Low album) 2011 studio album by Low

C'mon is the ninth full-length album by American indie rock band Low. It was released on April 12, 2011 on Sub Pop records. The album was recorded at Sacred Heart Studio, a former Catholic church in Duluth, Minnesota, where the band previously recorded 2002's Trust. The album includes guest contributions from Nels Cline, Caitlin Moe of Trans-Siberian Orchestra (violin) and Dave Carroll of Trampled by Turtles (banjo).

Actual Wolf Musical artist

Eric Pollard, known professionally as Actual Wolf, is an American singer-songwriter and instrumentalist best known for his instrumental work in Retribution Gospel Choir, Sun Kil Moon, Low and as the leader and songwriter for his eponymous band Actual Wolf.


  1. 1 2 "Low". ROCKRGRL. 43–49: 116. 2002. ISSN   1086-5985.
  2. Sparhawk: "What's the cheesiest? Slow-core. I hate that word. The most appropriate is anything that uses the word minimal in it, but I don't think anybody's made one up for that."QRD magazine interview
  3. In another interview, Sparhawk claimed that a friend coined the term: "this friend of ours in a record store was always joking around ... and he said, 'I got it! You should call it "slowcore"!' ... It was a total joke, and I think I mentioned it at one of our interviews." "Interview with Low", Chord magazine, Jess Hemerly, April 2007, p. 44.
  4. "Secret Name Japan by Low @ARTISTdirect". Artistdirect.com. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
  5. "YouTube". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
  6. "In the Fish Tank #7 - Dirty Three, Low - Songs, Reviews, Credits - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  7. "Low". 25 May 2003. Archived from the original on 25 May 2003. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2008-04-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. 1 2 Pearis, Bill (June 22, 2021). "Low announce new album 'HEY WHAT' & 2022 tour (stream "Days Like These")". Brooklyn Vegan . Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  10. "Low". 11 July 2001. Archived from the original on 11 July 2001. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  11. "Ola's Kool Kitchen on Radio 23 Low Live Primavera 2010 : DJ Ola : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". 2001-03-10. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
  12. Schmelzer, Paul (2013-07-12). ""Drone, not Drones": Behind the Slogan that Capped Low's Infamous 27-Minute Set – The Green Room – Walker Art Center". Blogs.walkerart.org. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
  13. Swensson, Andrea (2013-06-18). "The audacity of Low: What does a band 'owe' us when we pay to see them perform? | Local Current Blog | The Current from Minnesota Public Radio". Blog.thecurrent.org. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
  14. Bateman, Scott. "Remember the animated video I did for Low's "Hatchet (Optimimi Version)?"". Scottbateman.livejournal.com. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  15. Chris Talbott, "Robert Plant follows his muse on 'Band of Joy", Associated Press, September 14, 2010
  16. "ATP curated by Jeff Mangum (Neutral Milk Hotel) – All Tomorrow's Parties". Atpfestival.com. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
  17. "Music from Orange is the New Black S5E08". Tunefind. Retrieved 2017-12-08.
  18. "13 Reasons Why season 3 soundtrack - every song by episode".
  19. "Low interview". Users.skynet.be. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
  20. "Peter Liversidge & Low Collaboration". Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  21. "Sean Kelly Gallery". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  22. "The Murder of Crows – The Murder of Crows". Lea-sparhawk-crows.com. 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
  23. "The Stars". First Avenue & 7th Street Entry. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  24. Bream, Jon (2019-05-03). "10 things you'll learn about First Avenue in new Minnesota History Center show". Star Tribune . Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  25. Marsh, Steve (2019-05-13). "First Avenue's Star Wall". Mpls.St.Paul Magazine. Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Retrieved 2020-05-10.