The proportional counter is a type of gaseous ionization detector device used to measure particles of ionizing radiation. The key feature is its ability to measure the energy of incident radiation, by producing a detector output pulse that is proportional to the radiation energy absorbed by the detector due to an ionizing event; hence the detector's name. It is widely used where energy levels of incident radiation must be known, such as in the discrimination between alpha and beta particles, or accurate measurement of X-ray radiation dose.
Gaseous ionization detectors are radiation detection instruments used in particle physics to detect the presence of ionizing particles, and in radiation protection applications to measure ionizing radiation.
In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge. It may be an ion, such as a molecule or atom with a surplus or deficit of electrons relative to protons. It can also be an electron or a proton, or another elementary particle, which are all believed to have the same charge. Another charged particle may be an atomic nucleus devoid of electrons, such as an alpha particle.
Ionizing radiation is radiation that carries sufficient energy to detach electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them. Ionizing radiation is made up of energetic subatomic particles, ions or atoms moving at high speeds, and electromagnetic waves on the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A proportional counter uses a combination of the mechanisms of a Geiger–Müller tube and an ionization chamber, and operates in an intermediate voltage region between these. The accompanying plot shows the proportional counter operating voltage region for a co-axial cylinder arrangement.
The Geiger–Müller tube or G–M tube is the sensing element of the Geiger counter instrument used for the detection of ionizing radiation. It was named after Hans Geiger, who invented the principle in 1908, and Walther Müller, who collaborated with Geiger in developing the technique further in 1928 to produce a practical tube that could detect a number of different radiation types.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles. Conventionally, the term "ionization chamber" is used exclusively to describe those detectors which collect all the charges created by direct ionization within the gas through the application of an electric field. It only uses the discrete charges created by each interaction between the incident radiation and the gas, and does not involve the gas multiplication mechanisms used by other radiation instruments, such as the Geiger counter or the proportional counter.
In a proportional counter the fill gas of the chamber is an inert gas which is ionized by incident radiation, and a quench gas to ensure each pulse discharge terminates; a common mixture is 90% argon, 10% methane, known as P-10. An ionizing particle entering the gas collides with an atom of the inert gas and ionizes it to produce an electron and a positively charged ion, commonly known as an "ion pair". As the ionizing particle travels through the chamber it leaves a trail of ion pairs along its trajectory, the number of which is proportional to the energy of the particle if it is fully stopped within the gas. Typically a 1 MeV stopped particle will create about 30,000 ion pairs.
An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.It is also called as noble gas.The noble gases often do not react with many substances, and were historically referred to as the inert gases. Inert gases are used generally to avoid unwanted chemical reactions degrading a sample. These undesirable chemical reactions are often oxidation and hydrolysis reactions with the oxygen and moisture in air. The term inert gas is context-dependent because several of the noble gases can be made to react under certain conditions.
The chamber geometry and the applied voltage is such that in most of the chamber the electric field strength is low and the chamber acts as an ion chamber. However, the field is strong enough to prevent re-combination of the ion pairs and causes positive ions to drift towards the cathode and electrons towards the anode. This is the "ion drift" region. In the immediate vicinity of the anode wire, the field strength becomes large enough to produce Townsend avalanches. This avalanche region occurs only fractions of a millimeter from the anode wire, which itself is of a very small diameter. The purpose of this is to use the multiplication effect of the avalanche produced by each ion pair. This is the "avalanche" region.
A key design goal is that each original ionizing event due to incident radiation produces only one avalanche. This is to ensure proportionality between the number of original events and the total ion current. For this reason, the applied voltage, the geometry of the chamber and the diameter of the anode wire are critical to ensure proportional operation. If avalanches start to self-multiply due to UV photons as they do in a Geiger–Muller tube, then the counter enters a region of "limited proportionality" until at a higher applied voltage the Geiger discharge mechanism occurs with complete ionization of the gas enveloping the anode wire and consequent loss of particle energy information.
Therefore, it can be said that the proportional counter has the key design feature of two distinct ionization regions:
The process of charge amplification greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the detector and reduces the subsequent electronic amplification required.
Signal-to-noise ratio is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. SNR is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 indicates more signal than noise.
In summary, the proportional counter is an ingenious combination of two ionization mechanisms in one chamber which finds wide practical use.
Usually the detector is filled with a noble gas; they have the lowest ionization voltages and do not degrade chemically. Typically neon, argon, krypton or xenon are used. Low-energy x-rays are best detected with lighter nuclei (neon), which are less sensitive to higher-energy photons. Krypton or xenon are chosen when for higher-energy x-rays or for higher desired efficiency.
Often the main gas is mixed with a quenching additive. A popular mixture is P10 (10% methane, 90% argon).
Typical working pressure is 1 atmosphere (about 100 kPa).
In the case of a cylindrical proportional counter the multiplication, M, of the signal caused by an avalanche can be modeled as follows:
Where a is the anode wire radius, b is the radius of the counter, p is the pressure of the gas, and V is the operating voltage. K is a property of the gas used and relates the energy needed to cause an avalanche to the pressure of the gas. The final term gives the change in voltage caused by an avalanche.
The proportionality between the energy of the charged particle traveling through the chamber and the total charge created makes proportional counters useful for charged particle spectroscopy. By measuring the total charge (time integral of the electric current) between the electrodes, we can determine the particle's kinetic energy because the number of ion pairs created by the incident ionizing charged particle is proportional to its energy. The energy resolution of a proportional counter, however, is limited because both the initial ionization event and the subsequent 'multiplication' event are subject to statistical fluctuations characterized by a standard deviation equal to the square root of the average number formed. However, in practice these are not as great as would be predicted due to the effect of the empirical Fano factor which reduces these fluctuations.In the case of argon, this is experimentally about 0.2.
Proportional counters are also useful for detection of high energy photons, such as gamma-rays, provided these can penetrate the entrance window. They are also used for the detection of X-rays to below 1 Kev energy levels, using thin-walled tubes operating at or around atmospheric pressure.
Proportional counters in the form of large area planar detectors are used extensively to check for radioactive contamination on personnel, flat surfaces, tools, and items of clothing. This is normally in the form of installed instrumentation because of the difficulties of providing portable gas supplies for hand-held devices. They are constructed with a large area detection window made from such as metalized mylar which forms one wall of the detection chamber and is part of the cathode. The anode wire is routed in a convoluted manner within the detector chamber to optimize the detection efficiency. They are normally used to detect alpha and beta particles, and can enable discrimination between them by providing a pulse output proportional to the energy deposited in the chamber by each particle. They have a high efficiency for beta, but lower for alpha. The efficiency reduction for alpha is due to the attenuation effect of the entry window, though distance from the surface being checked also has a significant effect, and ideally a source of alpha radiation should be less than 10mm from the detector due to attenuation in air.
These chambers operate at very slight positive pressure above ambient atmospheric pressure. The gas can be sealed in the chamber, or can be changed continuously, in which case they are known as "gas-flow proportional counters". Gas flow types have the advantage that they will tolerate small holes in the mylar screen which can occur in use, but they do require a continuous gas supply.
In the United Kingdom the HSE has issued a user guidance note on selecting the correct radiation measurement instrument for the application concerned . This covers all radiation instrument technologies and is a useful comparative guide to the use of proportional counters.
A Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation. Also known as a Geiger–Mueller counter, it is widely used in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics, and the nuclear industry.
A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillating material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator. Detectors can measure the particle energy and other attributes such as momentum, spin, charge, particle type, in addition to merely registering the presence of the particle.
A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope. Gas-filled tubes exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases, and operate by ionizing the gas with an applied voltage sufficient to cause electrical conduction by the underlying phenomena of the Townsend discharge. A gas-discharge lamp is an electric light using a gas-filled tube; these include fluorescent lamps, metal-halide lamps, sodium-vapor lamps, and neon lights. Specialized gas-filled tubes such as krytrons, thyratrons, and ignitrons are used as switching devices in electric devices.
Paschen's law is an equation that gives the breakdown voltage, that is, the voltage necessary to start a discharge or electric arc, between two electrodes in a gas as a function of pressure and gap length. It is named after Friedrich Paschen who discovered it empirically in 1889.
This article is about ionizing radiation detectors. For information about semiconductor detectors in radio, see Detector (radio), Crystal detector, Semiconductor diodes, and Rectifier.
A glow discharge is a plasma formed by the passage of electric current through a gas. It is often created by applying a voltage between two electrodes in a glass tube containing a low-pressure gas. When the voltage exceeds a value called the striking voltage, the gas ionization becomes self-sustaining, and the tube glows with a colored light. The color depends on the gas used.
A multi-wire proportional chamber is a type of proportional counter that detects charged particles and photons and can give positional information on their trajectory, by tracking the trails of gaseous ionization.
Photodetectors, also called photosensors, are sensors of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. Photodiodes and photo transistors are a few examples of photo detectors. Solar cells convert some of the light energy absorbed into electrical energy.
In physics, a time projection chamber (TPC) is a type of particle detector that uses a combination of electric fields and magnetic fields together with a sensitive volume of gas or liquid to perform a three-dimensional reconstruction of a particle trajectory or interaction.
An electron avalanche is a process in which a number of free electrons in a transmission medium are subjected to strong acceleration by an electric field and subsequently collide with other atoms of the medium, thereby ionizing them. This releases additional electrons which accelerate and collide with further atoms, releasing more electrons—a chain reaction. In a gas, this causes the affected region to become an electrically conductive plasma.
The hot-filament ionization gauge, sometimes called a hot-filament gauge or hot-cathode gauge, is the most widely used low-pressure (vacuum) measuring device for the region from 10−3 to 10−10 Torr. It is a triode, with the filament being the cathode.
The Townsend discharge or Townsend avalanche is a gas ionisation process where free electrons are accelerated by an electric field, collide with gas molecules, and consequently free additional electrons. Those electrons are in turn accelerated and free additional electrons. The result is an avalanche multiplication that permits electrical conduction through the gas. The discharge requires a source of free electrons and a significant electric field; without both, the phenomenon does not occur.
A gas electron multiplier (GEM) is a type of gaseous ionization detector used in nuclear and particle physics and radiation detection.
The gaseous detection device-GDD is a method and apparatus for the detection of signals in the gaseous environment of an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and all scanned beam type of instruments that allow a minimum gas pressure for the detector to operate.
X-ray detectors are devices used to measure the flux, spatial distribution, spectrum, and/or other properties of X-rays.
Micropattern gaseous detectors (MPGDs) are a group of gaseous ionization detectors consisting of microelectronic structures with sub-millimeter distances between anode and cathode electrodes. When interacting with the gaseous medium of the detector, particles of ionizing radiation create electrons and ions that are subsequently drifted apart by means of an electric field. The accelerated electrons create further electron-ion pairs in an avalanche process in regions with a strong electrostatic field. The various types of MPGDs differ in the way this strong field region is created. Examples of MPGDs include the Microstrip Gas Chamber, the Gas Electron Multiplier and the MicroMegas detector.