|Location||comune di Santa Severa|
|Cultures||Etruscan Roman Republic|
|Archaeologists||Giovanni Colonna; Mario Torelli|
Pyrgi (Πύργοι in Ancient greek) was an ancient Etruscan port in Latium, central Italy, to the north-west of Caere. Its location is now occupied by the borough of Santa Severa.
Remains of its defensive walls exist in polygonal blocks of limestone and sandstone, neatly jointed. They enclosed a rectangular area some 200 m in width and at least 220 m in length. The south-west extremity has probably been destroyed by the sea. It contained a rich temple of Leucothea, the foundation of which was ascribed to the Pelasgi. It was plundered by Dionysius in 384 BC. Later it became dependent on Caere, though it is not probable that it was originally merely the harbour of Caere; Alsium was c. 8 km (5 mi) to the south.
The Romans established a colony here, which is first mentioned in 191 BC. Later still it supplied fish to Rome, and became a favorite summer resort, as did also Punicum (Santa Marinella), 8 km (5 mi) to the north-west, where are many remains of villas. Both were stations on the coast road (Via Aurelia).
In 1957 excavations found the remains of a large temple with a triple-cella arrangement.The Pyrgi Tablets, containing texts in Phoenician and Etruscan languages, were found here in 1964.
Etruscan was the language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria. Etruscan influenced Latin but eventually was completely superseded by it. The Etruscans left around 13,000 inscriptions that have been found so far, only a small minority of which are of significant length; some bilingual inscriptions with texts also in Latin, Greek, or Phoenician; and a few dozen loanwords. Attested from 700 BC to AD 50, the relation of Etruscan to other languages has been a source of long-running speculation and study, with its being referred to at times as an isolate, one of the Tyrsenian languages, and a number of other less well-known theories.
Etruria was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, in the region of Campania, southern Italy, situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.
The Pyrgi Tablets are three golden plates inscribed with a bilingual Phoenician–Etruscan dedicatory text. They were discovered in 1964 during a series of excavations at the site of ancient Pyrgi, on the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy in Latium (Lazio). The text records the foundation of a temple and its dedication to the Etruscan supreme goddess Uni, who is identified with Astarte in the Phoenician text. The temple’s construction is attributed to Tiberius Velianas, ruler of the nearby city of Caere.
Astarte is the Hellenized form of the Ancient Near Eastern goddess Astoreth, a form of Ishtar, worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity. The name is particularly associated with her worship in the ancient Levant among the Canaanites and Phoenicians. She was also celebrated in Egypt following the importation of Levantine cults there. The name Astarte is sometimes also applied to her cults in Mesopotamian cultures like Assyria and Babylonia.
Marzabotto is a small town and comune in Italian region Emilia-Romagna, part of the Metropolitan City of Bologna. It is located 27 kilometres (17 mi) south-southwest of Bologna by rail, and lies in the valley of the Reno. The area includes the site of an ancient Etruscan city and also the place of a modern massacre that took place there during World War II.
Alatri is an Italian town and comune of the province of Frosinone in the region of Lazio, with c. 30,000 inhabitants. An ancient city of the Hernici, it is known for its megalithic acropolis.
The Via Clodia was an ancient high-road of Italy. Situated between the Via Cassia and the Via Aurelia, it is different from them notably in that the latter was designed primarily for military long-haul, irrespective of settlements they met, but the Via Clodia was of short-range, intended for commercial traffic with the colonies in Etruscan lands.
Tarquinia, formerly Corneto, is an old city in the province of Viterbo, Lazio, Italy known chiefly for its ancient Etruscan tombs in the widespread necropoleis or cemeteries which it overlies, for which it was awarded UNESCO World Heritage status.
Cerveteri is a town and comune of northern Lazio in the region of the Metropolitan City of Rome. Known by the ancient Romans as Caere, and previously by the Etruscans as Caisra or Cisra, and as Agylla by the Greeks, its modern name derives from Caere Vetus used in the 13th century to distinguish it from Caere Novum.
Uni is the ancient goddess of marriage, fertility, family, and women in Etruscan religion and myth, and the patron goddess of Perugia. She is identified as the Etruscan equivalent of Juno in Roman mythology, and Hera in Greek mythology. As the supreme goddess of the Etruscan pantheon, she is part of the Etruscan trinity, an original precursor to the Capitoline Triad, made up of her husband Tinia, the god of the sky, and daughter Menrva, the goddess of wisdom.
Caere is the Latin name given by the Romans to one of the larger cities of southern Etruria, the modern Cerveteri, approximately 50-60 kilometres north-northwest of Rome. To the Etruscans it was known as Cisra, to the Greeks as Agylla and to the Phoenicians as Kyšryʼ.
Alsium was an ancient city on the coast of Etruria, between Pyrgi and Fregenae, at the distance of 18 miles (29 km) from the Portus Augusti at the mouth of the Tiber, on the Via Aurelia, by which it is about 35 km from Rome. It was one of the oldest cities of Etruria, but does not appear in history until the Roman colonization of 247 BCE, and was never of great importance, except as a resort of wealthy Romans, many of whom had villas there.
Artena is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy. It is situated in the northwest of Monti Lepini, in the upper valley of the Sacco River. It is approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast by rail, and 30 kilometres (19 mi) direct from Rome.
Soluntum or Solus was an ancient city on the Tyrrhenian coast of Sicily near present-day in the comune of Santa Flavia, Italy. In antiquity, it was one of the three chief Phoenician settlements in the island.
Rusellae was an important ancient town of Etruria, which survived until the Middle Ages before being abandoned. The impressive archaeological remains lie near the modern frazione or village of Roselle in the comune of Grosseto.
Nepi is a town and comune in the province of Viterbo, Lazio, central Italy. The town lies 30 kilometres (19 mi) southeast of the city of Viterbo and about 13 kilometres (8 mi) southwest from Civita Castellana.
Santa Severa is a frazione of the comune of Santa Marinella, in the province of Rome, Lazio, Italy. It is a small sea resort on the Via Aurelia, c. 8 km (5 mi) south of Santa Marinella and 50 km (31 mi) north of Rome.
Aquino is a town and comune in the province of Frosinone, in the Lazio region of Italy, 12 kilometres (7 mi) northwest of Cassino.
Amrit, the classical Marathus, was a Phoenician port located near present-day Tartus in Syria. Founded in the third millennium BC, Marat was the northernmost important city of ancient Phoenicia and a rival of nearby Arwad. During the 2nd century BC, Amrit was defeated and its site largely abandoned, leaving its ruins well preserved and without extensive remodeling by later generations.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Ashby, Thomas (1911). "Pyrgi". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 689.