List of Etruscan mythological figures

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This is a list of deities and legendary figures found in Etruscan mythology .

Contents

The names below were taken mainly from Etruscan "picture bilinguals", which are Etruscan call-outs on art depicting mythological scenes or motifs. Several different media provide names. Variants of the names are given, reflecting differences in language in different localities and times.

Many of the names are Etruscan spellings (and pronunciations) of Greek names. The themes may or may not be entirely Greek. Etruscans frequently added their own themes to Greek myths. The same may be said of native Italic names rendered into Etruscan. Some names are entirely Etruscan, which is often a topic of debate in the international forum of scholarship.

Deities

DeityDescription
AchlaeGreek river god Achelous. [1]
Achvizr, Achuvesr, Achuvizr, AchviztrUnknown character associated with Turan. [2] It may be one of the Samothracian Great Gods or Cabeiri (Άξίερος, perhaps from *Aχsiver-) according to É. Benveniste. [3]
Aita, EitaThe Etruscan equivalent of the Greek god of the underworld and ruler of the dead, Hades. [2]
Alpanu, Alpan, AlpnuEtruscan goddess, whose name is identical to Etruscan "willingly." [2]
AminthEtruscan winged deity in the form of a child, probably identified with Amor. [4]
Ani Divinity named on the periphery of the Piacenza Liver as dominant in that section. It seems to correspond to Martianus Capella's Templum I, north, ruled by Janus, for which Ani appears to be the Etruscan word. [5]
Apulu, ApluThe god Apollo. [4]
ApruAlternate Etruscan spelling of Aphrodite. See Turan. [6]
ArilEtruscan deity identified with Atlas. [4]
Aritimi, ArtumesThe goddess Artemis. [4]
AthrpaThe goddess Atropos. [4]
Calu Etruscan infernal god of wolves, represented by a wolf. [7]
Catha, Cavtha, CathAn Etruscan deity, god and goddess, not well represented in the art. She appears in the expression ati cath, "Mother Cath" [8] and also maru Cathsc, "the maru of Cath". The nature of the maru is not known. She is also called śech, "daughter," [9] which seems to fit Martianus Capella's identification of the ruler of Region VI of the sky as Celeritas solis filia, "Celerity the daughter of the sun." In the Piacenza Liver the corresponding region is ruled by Cath. [10]
Cel Etruscan earth goddess, probably identified with Ge, as she had a giant for a son. Her name occurs in the expression ati Cel, "Mother Cel." [8]
Crapsti Umbrian local deity Grabouie. [11]
Culsans God of doors and doorways, corresponding to the two-faced Roman god Janus.
EnieGreek Enyo, one of the Graeae. [12]
ErisThe goddess Eris. [13]
ErusThe god Eros. [13]
EsplaceThe legendary healer, Asklepios. [13]
Ethausva, EthEtruscan goddess, attendant at the birth of Menrva. [13]
Euturpa, EuterpeThe Greek goddess Euterpe. [13]
Feronia An obscure rural goddess primarily known from the various Roman cults who worshipped her. [14]
Fufluns Etruscan god of wine, identified with Dionysus. The name is used in the expressions Fufluns Pacha (Bacchus) and Fufluns Pachie. [13] [15] Puplona (Populonia) was named from Fufluns. [16]
Horta Goddess of agriculture (highly conjectural).
IlithiiaThe goddess of childbirth, known to the Greeks as Eileithyia. Occurs also in the expression flereś atis ilithiial, "statue of mother Eileithyia." [17]
Laran Etruscan god of war. [18]
Lasa One of a class of deities, plural Lasas, mainly female, but sometimes male, from which the Roman Lares came. Where the latter were the guardians of the dead, the Etruscan originals formed the court of Turan. Lasa often precedes an epithet referring to a particular deity: Lasa Sitmica, Lasa Achununa, Lasa Racuneta, Lasa Thimrae, Lasa Vecuvia. [18]
Lasa VecuviaGoddess of prophecy, associated with the nymph Vegoia. [18] See under Begoë.
Leinth Etruscan divinity, male and female, [19] possibly related to lein, Etruscan word for "to die", but does not appear in any death scenes. [18]
Letham, Lethns, Letha, Lethms, LetaAn Etruscan infernal goddess. [18]
LetunThe goddess known to the Greeks as Leto. [18]
MalavischEtruscan divinity of the mirrors, probably from malena, "mirror." [20]
Mania Etruscan infernal deity, one of a dyad including Mantus. [21] She went on into Latin literature, ruling beside Mantus and was reported to be the mother of the Lares and Manes. [22] Under the Etruscan kings, she received the sacrifices of slain children during the Laralia festival of May 1. [23]
Mantus Etruscan infernal deity, one of a dyad including Mania. [21] A tradition of Latin literature [24] names the Etruscan city of Manthua, later Mantua, after the deity. [16]
Mariś A class of divinity used with epithets: mariś turans, mariś husurnana, mariś menitla, mariś halna, mariś isminthians. The appearances in art are varied: a man, a youth, a group of babies cared for by Menrva. [20] The Roman god, Mars, is believed to have come from this name. Pallottino refers to the formation of a god by "... fusing groups of beings ... into one." Of Mars he says "... the protecting spirits of war, represented as armed heroes, tend to coalesce into a single deity, the Etrusco-Roman Mars, on the model of the Greek god Ares." [25]
Mean, MeanpeEtruscan deity, equivalent of Nike or Victoria. [20]
Menerva, Menrva The Etruscan original to the Roman Minerva, made into Greek Athena. [20]
MunthukhGoddess of love and health, and one of the attendants of Turan
Nethuns Italic divinity, probably Umbrian, of springs and water, [26] identified with Greek Poseidon and Roman Neptune, from which the name comes. [27] It occurs in the expression flere Nethuns, "the divinity of Nethuns." [28]
Nortia Goddess of fate and chance. Unattested in Etruscan texts but mentioned by Roman historian Livy. [29] Her attribute was a nail, which was driven into a wall in her temple during the Etruscan new year festival as a fertility rite.
Orcus Etruscan god of the underworld, punisher of broken oaths. He was portrayed in paintings in Etruscan tombs as a hairy, bearded giant.
PachaRoman Bacchus, an epithet of Fufluns. [26]
PemphetruGreek Pemphredo, one of the Graeae. [12]
Phersipnai, Phersipnei, Persipnei, ProserpnaiQueen of the underworld, equivalent to the Greek Persephone and Roman Proserpina. [12]
PhersuA divinity of the mask, probably from Greek πρόσωπον "face". [30] The god becomes adjectival, *phersuna, from which Latin persona. [12]
PrumatheThe Greek mythological figure Prometheus. [31]
RathEtruscan deity identified with Apollo. Tarquinia was his sanctuary. [31]
Satre Etruscan deity, source of the Roman god, Saturn. [31]
Selvans God who appears in the expression Selvansl Tularias, "Selvans of the boundaries", which identifies him as a god of boundaries. The name is either borrowed from the Roman god, Silvanus or the original source of the Roman god's name. [32]
Sethlans Etruscan blacksmith and craftsman god, often wielding an axe. Equivalent to the Greek Hephaistos and Roman Vulcanus. [32]
Summanus Etruscan God of Nocturnal Thunder, often said to be Zeus's twin or opposite.
SvutafA winged Etruscan deity whose name, if from the same Latin root as the second segment of persuade, might mean "yearning" and therefore be identifiable with Eros. [32]
TecumGod of the lucomenes, or ruling class.
Thalna, Thalana, TalnaEtruscan divine figure of multiple roles shown male, female and androgynous. They attend the births of Menrva and Fufluns, dance as a Maenad and expound prophecy. In Greek θάλλειν "to bloom". A number of divinities fit the etymology: Greek Thallo and Hebe and Roman Iuventas, "youth." [33] [34]
ThanrAn Etruscan deity shown present at the births of deities. [33]
Thesan Etruscan goddess of the dawn. She was identified with the Roman Aurora and Greek Eos. [33]
ThetlvmthUnknown deity of the Piacenza Liver, which is not a picture bilingual. [35]
ThuflthaUnknown deity of the Piacenza Liver, which is not a picture bilingual. [35]
Tinia, Tina, TinChief Etruscan god, the ruler of the skies, husband of Uni, and father of Hercle, identified with the Greek Zeus and Roman Jupiter well within the Etruscan window of ascendance, as the Etruscan kings built the first temple of Jupiter at Rome. Called apa, "father" in inscriptions (parallel to the -piter in Ju-piter), he has most of the attributes of his Indo-European counterpart, with whom some have postulated a more remote linguistic connection. [36] The name means "day" in Etruscan. He is the god of boundaries and justice. He is depicted as a young, bearded male, seated or standing at the center of the scene, grasping a stock of thunderbolts. According to Latin literature, the bolts are of three types: for warning, good or bad interventions, and drastic catastrophes. [37] Unlike Zeus, Tin needs the permission of the Dii Consentes (consultant gods) and Dii Involuti (hidden gods) to wield the last two categories. A further epithet, Calusna (of Calu), hints at a connection to wolves or dogs and the underworld. [37]
Tiur, Tivr, TivEtruscan deity identified with Greek Selene and Roman Luna (goddess). [38]
Tlusc, Tluscv, Mar TluscUnknown deity of the Piacenza Liver, which is not a picture bilingual. [35] [39] The corresponding region in Martianus Capella is ruled by Sancus, an Italic god and Sabine progenitor, who had a temple on the Quirinal Hill, and appears on an Etruscan boundary stone in the expression Selvans Sanchuneta, in which Sanchuneta seems to refer to the oaths establishing the boundary. Sancus probably comes from Latin sancīre, "to ratify an oath." [40]
Turan Etruscan goddess identified with Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus. She appears in the expression, Turan ati, "Mother Turan", equivalent to Venus Genetrix. [41] Her name is a noun meaning "the act of giving" in Etruscan, based on the verb stem Tur- 'to give.'
Turms, TurmśEtruscan god identified with Greek Hermes and Roman Mercurius. In his capacity as guide to the ghost of Tiresias, who has been summoned by Odysseus, he is Turms Aitas, "Turms Hades." [41]
TurnuAn Etruscan deity, a type of Eros, child of Turan. [41]
TV[?]thUnknown deity of the Piacenza Liver, which is not a picture bilingual. [35]
Uni Supreme goddess of the Etruscan pantheon, wife of Tinia, mother of Hercle, and patroness of Perugia. With Tinia and Menrva, she was a member of the ruling triad of Etruscan deities. Uni was the equivalent of the Roman Juno, whose name Uni may be derived from, and the Greek Hera.
UsilEtruscan deity identified with Greek Helios, Roman Sol. [38]
VeaEtruscan divinity, possibly taking its name from the city of Veii or vice versa. [42]
Veltha, Velthume, Vethune, VeltuneEtruscan deity, possible state god of the Etruscan league of Etruria, the Voltumna in the Latin expression Fanum Voltumnae, "shrine of Voltumna", which was their meeting place, believed located at Orvieto. The identification is based on reconstruction of a root *velthumna from Latin Voltumna, Vertumnus and Voltumnus of literary sources, probably from Etruscan veltha, "earth" or "field." Representations of a bearded male with a long spear suggest Velthune may be an epithet of Tinia. [43]
Veiove, Veive, VetisEtruscan infernal deity whose temple stood at Rome near the Capitoline Hill. [42] The identification is made from the deity's Latin names related by a number of ancient authors over the centuries: Vēi, Vēdi, Vēdii, Veiovis, Vediovis, Vediiovis, Vedius. [44]
VesunaItalic goddess mentioned also in the Iguvine Tables. [42]
Zerene Macedonian goddess Zeirene Eleusia, Latin Ceres. [42]

Deified mortals

NameDescription
CalaniceA Greek title for Hercle, Kallinikos. [45]
Castur Castor, one of the mythological twins. [45]
CatmiteThe Trojan youth, Ganymede, from an alternative Greek spelling, Gadymedes. [46] From the Etruscan is Latin Catamitus. [8]
Hercle, Hercele, Herecele, Herkle, HrcleEtruscan form of the Greek hero Hēraklēs, Roman Hercules. [17] With Perseus, the main Etruscan hero, the adopted son of Uni/Juno, who suckled the adult Hercle. His image appears more often than any other on Etruscan carved hardstones. His name appears on the bronze Piacenza Liver, used for divination (hepatoscopy), a major element of Etruscan religious practice.
Pultuce, Pulutuce, Pulutuke, Pultuke Pollux, one of the mythological twins, Greek Polydeuces. [31]
Rathmtr Rhadamanthys, the Greek mythological character, judge of the dead. [31]
Tinas cliniarEtruscan expression, "sons of Tina", designating the Dioscuri, proving that Tin was identified with Zeus. [38]

Spirits, demons, and other creatures

NameDescription
AuluntheEtruscan, the name of a satyr. [45]
Begoë, Vegoia Etruscan nymph believed to have power over lightning. She was also said to have composed a tract known as Ars Fulguritarum ("Art of the Thunderstruck"), which was included in the Roman pagan canon, along with the Sibylline Books .
CalainaThe Greek Nereid, Galene. [45]
CelsclanEtruscan Gigas, "son of Cel", identifying her as "Earth", as the giants in Greek mythology were the offspring of the earth. [8]
ChaluchasuTranslation of Greek panchalkos, "wholly of bronze", perhaps the robot of Crete, Talos. [8]
Charun, CharuThe mythological figure, Charon. [38]
ChelphunAn Etruscan satyr.
CulsuAlso Cul. A female underworld demon who was associated with gateways. Her attributes included a torch and scissors. She was often represented next to Culsans.
EvanAn attendant on Turan, sometimes male, sometimes female. [13]
HathnaEtruscan satyr. [17]
IynxAn Etruscan mythological creature, a bird of love.
Man, ManiEtruscan class of spirits representing "the dead" [47] and yet not the same as a hinthial, "ghost." From the Mani came the Latin Manes, which are both "the good" and the deified spirits of the dead. [48]
MetusThe Gorgon Medusa. The head appears on the Aegis of Menrva as a Gorgoneion. [20]
Pecse, PaksteThe name of the legendary winged horse, Pegasus, assigned by the Etruscans to the Trojan Horse. [26]
PuaneaEtruscan name of a satyr. [31]
SimeAn Etruscan satyr who has a Greek name. [32]
Thevrumines Minotaur
Tuchulcha An Etruscan daemon. [41]
TusnaPerhaps from *Turansna, "of Turan." The swan of Turan. [41]
Vanth Etruscan winged demon of the underworld often depicted in the company of Charun. She could be present at the moment of death, and frequently acted as a guide of the deceased to the underworld. [38] [42] [49]
Vecu, Vecui, Vecuvia, Vegoia The prophetic nymph Vegoia. See under Lasa Vecuvia, [42] Begoë.

Places

NameDescription
Achrum, AcharumLegendary Greek river of the underworld, the Acheron. [2]
HipeceThe magic spring, Hippocrene, represented in Etruscan art as a water spout in the form of a lion's head. [17]
Truia, Truials Troy, Trojan, the city of the Iliad. [50]

Mortals

NameDescription
Achle, AchileLegendary hero of the Trojan War, from the Greek Achilles. [1]
AchmemrunLegendary king of Mycenaean Greece, from the Greek Agamemnon. [1]
Aivas Tlamunus, Aivas Vilates Also Eivas or Evas. Etruscan equivalents of the Greek heroes Ajax, son of Telamon and Ajax, son of Oileus. [2]
AlchumenaThe Greek legendary character, Alcmena. [2]
Alcstei, AlcstiThe Greek legendary character, Alcestis. [2]
Alichsantre, Alechsantre, Alcsentre, Elchsntre, Elachśantre, Elachśntre, ElcsteThe Trojan legendary character, Alexandrus, otherwise known as Paris. [2] [16]
AlthaiaThe Greek figure Althaea, mother of Meleager. [2]
Amuce, Amuche, AmukeThe Greek legendary figure Amycus of the Argonauts myth. [4]
AreathaThe mythological figure Ariadne. [4]
AtaiunThe mythological figure Actaeon. [4]
Atlenta, AtlntaThe mythological person Atalanta. [4]
AtmiteThe legendary character Admetus. [45]
AtunisThe mythological figure Adonis. [45]
AturmicaThe mythological figure Andromache, the Amazon. [45]
Capne, KapneThe legendary hero Capaneus. [45]
Caśntra Cassandra, prophetess of the Trojan War. [45]
CercaEnchantress of the Odyssey Circe. [8]
CilensAlso written Celens.
Cluthumustha, ClutmstaThe female legendary character, Clytemnestra. [16]
CrisithaThe heroine of the Trojan War, the Greek name Chryseis. [12]
Easun, Heasun, HeiasunEtruscan version of the mythological hero Jason.
EcapaThe tragic heroine of the Trojan War, Hecuba. [12]
Ectur Hector, a hero of the Trojan War. [12]
Elinei, Elinai, ElinaThe character Helen of Trojan War fame. [16]
Epiur, EpeurGreek epiouros, "guardian", a boy presented to Tinia by Hercle, possibly Tages. [13]
Ermanialegendary character Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen. [13]
EtuleGreek Aitolos, confused with his brother, Epeios, who built the Trojan horse. [13]
Evtucle, [Ev]thucleThe hero Eteocles. [13]
Hamphiare, AmphareLegendary seer Amphiaraus. [17]
LatvaThe mythological person also known as Leda. [18]
Lunc, LncheThe legendary figure Lynceus. [18]
MeleacrThe legendary figure known to the Greeks as Meleager. [20]
Memnum, Memrum Memnon, a Trojan saved from Achle by his mother, Thesan. [20]
MenleThe hero Menelaus of Trojan War fame. [20]
Metaia, Metua, MetviaThe mythological character Medea. [20]
MlacuchA young Etruscan woman kidnapped by Hercle. [26]
NesturThe legendary hero Nestor. [26]
Palmithe, TalmitheThe hero Palamedes. [26]
Pantasila, PentasilaThe Greek name, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons. [26]
Patrucle Patroclus of Trojan War fame. [26]
Pava TarchiesEtruscan Tarchies in an expression: "boy Tarchies." See under Tarchies. [26]
PeleThe hero Peleus. [26]
Perse, PherseThe mythological hero Perseus. [12]
Phaun, Faun, PhamuThe mythological character Phaon. [12]
PhuinisThe Greek Phoinix, friend of Peleus. [12]
PhulsphnaThe legendary figure Polyxena. [12]
PrisisThe Greek Briseis mentioned in the Iliad. [12]
Priumne Priam king of Troy. [12]
Semla The Greek mortal Semele. [32]
Sispe, SispheThe legendary king Sisyphus. [32]
TagesSee Tarchies.
TaitleThe Etruscan form of the mythological figure Daedalus. [33]
TarchiesOccurs in Pava Tarchies, label of a central figure in depictions of divination, who, along with Epiur, a divinatory child, is believed to be the same as Tages, founder of the Etruscan religion, mentioned by Roman authors. [32]
Tarchon An Etruscan culture hero who, with his brother, Tyrrhenus, founded the Etruscan Federation of twelve cities.
TechrsFrom the Greek Trojan War hero Teucer. [33]
Telmun, Tlamun, Talmun, Tlamu Telamon, a legendary Argonaut. [33]
Teriasals, TeriasaLegendary blind prophet Tiresias. [33]
TheseA hero who is the equivalent of Theseus.
ThethisThe Greek nymph Thetis, mother of Achilles. [1]
TuntleThe legendary figure, known to the Greeks as Tyndareus. [41]
TuteThe Greek hero Tydeus. [41]
Tyrrhenus An Etruscan culture hero and twin brother of Tarchon.
UrpheThe mythological figure Orpheus. [1]
UrustheThe homeric legendary character Orestes. [1]
UthsteThe legendary hero Odysseus
VelparunThe Greek hero Elpenor. [42]
VikareSon of Taitle, the mythological figure of Icarus. [51] The name is found inscribed once, on a golden bulla dating to the 5th century BCE now housed at the Walters Art Museum. [52]
Vile, VilaeGreek Iolaos, nephew of Hercle. [42]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Bonfantes (2002), page 192.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Bonfantes (2002), page 193.
  3. É. Benveniste "Nom et origine de la déesse étrusque Acaviser" in Studi Etruschi31929 pp. 249–258.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Bonfantes (2002), page 194.
  5. Rykwert page 140. The liver and a list of names is depicted in Hooper & Schwartz page 223.
  6. de Grummond, N.T. & Simon, E. (eds). (2006). The Religion of the Etruscans. Austin, TX. University of Texas Press.
  7. De Grummond page 55.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Bonfantes (2002), page 196
  9. De Grummond page 105.
  10. Thulin pages 50 and 65.
  11. The Bonfantes (2002), page 215.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 The Bonfantes (2002), page 203.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 The Bonfantes (2002) page 198.
  14. Titus Livius, Ab urbe condita book 1, chapter 30, section 5
  15. Leland, Chapter IV, Faflon.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 Pallottino page 248.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 The Bonfantes (2002) page 199.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The Bonfantes (2002), page 200.
  19. De Grummond page 21.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Bonfantes (2002), page 201.
  21. 1 2 Pallottino, page 162.
  22. For a summary of her classical life, see Seyffert's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities under Mania, online at Archived 2007-09-06 at the Wayback Machine ancientlibrary.com.
  23. Summers, page 24, quotes Macrobius, Saturnalia I vii on this topic.
  24. Virgil Aeneid Book X lines 199–200 says that it was named after the prophetess Manto, but Servius' gloss on Line 199 says that the city was named after Mantus and that he was Dispater, which corresponds to Aulus Caecina's view that Tarchon dedicated all the Etruscan cities of the Po valley to Dispater. De Grummond, pages 141, 205.
  25. Page 159.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The Bonfantes (2002), page 202.
  27. De Grummond page 59.
  28. Bonnefoy page 30.
  29. Livy vii. 3. 7
  30. The face theory is presented, among other reputable sources, by Eric Partridge, Origins, ISBN   0-517-41425-2.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Bonfantes (2002) page 204.
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Bonfantes (2002), page 205.
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Bonfantes (2002), page 206.
  34. De Grummond pages 152–153.
  35. 1 2 3 4 The Bonfantes (2002), page 174.
  36. The Nostratic Macrofamily: a Study in Distant Linguistic Relationships, (1994) Allan R. Bornhard and John C. Kerns, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN   3-11-013900-6, page 304, previewed on Google Books.
  37. 1 2 De Grummond, Chapter IV.
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 Swaddling & Bonfante page 78.
  39. Thulin page 59.
  40. De Grummond, page 50, features a diagram comparing Capella and the liver, while page 149 presents the boundary stone.
  41. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Bonfantes (2002), page 208.
  42. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The Bonfantes (2002), page 210.
  43. A good development of the concept can be found in Harmon.
  44. Lewis & Short, Latin Lexicon, available online at www.perseus.com.
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Bonfantes (2002), page 195.
  46. J.N. Adams page 163.
  47. Bonfante 2000 page 60.
  48. Schmitz, Leonhard (1870). "Manes". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ancientlibrary.com. Archived from the original on 2008-06-06.
  49. de Grummond, pages 220–225.
  50. The Bonfantes (2002), page 178.
  51. Swaddling & Bonfante page 42.
  52. The Walters Art Museum

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Tuchulcha

In Etruscan mythology, Tuchulcha was a chthonic daemon with pointed ears, and hair made of snakes and a beak. Tuchulcha lived in the underworld known as Aita.

Maris was an Etruscan god often depicted as an infant or child and given many epithets, including Mariś Halna, Mariś Husrnana, and Mariś Isminthians. He was the son of Hercle, the Etruscan equivalent of Heracles. On two bronze mirrors, Maris appears in scenes depicting an immersion rite to ensure his immortality, possibly connected to stories about the centaur Mares, the ancestor of the Ausones, who underwent a triple death and resurrection.

Turan (mythology) Etruscan goddess of love and fertility

Turan was the Etruscan goddess of love, fertility and vitality and patroness of the city of Velch.

Larissa Bonfante was an Italian-American classicist, Professor of Classics emerita at New York University and an authority on Etruscan language and culture.

Etruscology

Etruscology is the study of the ancient civilization of the Etruscans in Italy, which was incorporated into an expanding Roman Empire during the period of Rome's Middle Republic. Since the Etruscans were politically and culturally influential in pre-Republican Rome, many Etruscologists are also scholars of the history, archaeology, and culture of Rome.

Usil Etruscan god of the sun

Usil is the Etruscan god of the sun. This name appears on the bronze liver of Piacenza, next to Tiur, the moon. Another iconic depiction features Usil rising out of the sea, with a fireball in either outstretched hand, on an engraved Etruscan bronze mirror in late Archaic style, formerly on the Roman antiquities market. On Etruscan mirrors in Classical style, Usil appears with a halo.

Tomb of Orcus Etruscan hypogeum (burial chamber) in Tarquinia, Italy

The Tomb of Orcus, sometimes called the Tomb of Murina, is a 4th-century BC Etruscan hypogeum in Tarquinia, Italy. Discovered in 1868, it displays Hellenistic influences in its remarkable murals, which include the portrait of Velia Velcha, an Etruscan noblewoman, and the only known pictorial representation of the demon Tuchulcha. In general, the murals are noted for their depiction of death, evil, and unhappiness.

Vegoia is a sibyl, prophet, or nymph within the Etruscan religious framework who is identified as the author of parts of their large and complex set of sacred books, detailing the religiously correct methods of founding cities and shrines, draining fields, formulating laws and ordinances, measuring space and dividing time; she initiated the Etruscan people to the arts, as originating the rules and rituals of land marking, and as presiding over the observance, respect, and preservation of boundaries. Vegoia also is known as Vecu, Vecui, and Vecuvia, as well as Vegoe; her name is also given as Begoe or Bigois.

Satre (Etruscan god)

Satre or Satres was an Etruscan god who appears on the Liver of Piacenza, a bronze model used for haruspicy. He occupies the dark and negative northwest region, and seems to be a "frightening and dangerous god who hurls his lightning from his abode deep in the earth." It is possible that Satre is also referred to with the word "satrs" in the Liber Linteus, the Etruscan text preserved in Ptolemaic Egypt as mummy wrappings.

Cel was the Etruscan goddess of the earth. On the Etruscan calendar, the month of Celi (September) is likely named for her. Her Greek counterpart is Gaia and her Roman is Tellus.

Catha (mythology)

Catha is a female Etruscan lunar or solar deity, who may also be connected to childbirth, and has a connection to the underworld. Catha is also the goddess of the south sanctuary at Pyrgi, Italy She is often seen with the Etruscan god Śuri with whom she shares a cult. Catha is also frequently paired with the Etruscan god Fufluns, who is the counterpart to the Greek god Dionysus, and Pacha, the counterpart to the Roman god Bacchus. Additionally, at Pyrgi, Catha is linked with the god Aplu, the counterpart to the Greek god Apollo. Aplu may have even taken some of the characteristics of Catha when he was brought into the Etruscan religion. Giovanni Colonna has suggested that Catha is linked to the Greek Persephone since he links Catha's consort, Suri, to Dis Pater in Roman mythology.

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