# Scaling (geometry)

Last updated Each iteration of the Sierpinski triangle contains triangles related to the next iteration by a scale factor of 1/2

In Euclidean geometry, uniform scaling (or isotropic scaling  ) is a linear transformation that enlarges (increases) or shrinks (diminishes) objects by a scale factor that is the same in all directions. The result of uniform scaling is similar (in the geometric sense) to the original. A scale factor of 1 is normally allowed, so that congruent shapes are also classed as similar. Uniform scaling happens, for example, when enlarging or reducing a photograph, or when creating a scale model of a building, car, airplane, etc. Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements. Euclid's method consists in assuming a small set of intuitively appealing axioms, and deducing many other propositions (theorems) from these. Although many of Euclid's results had been stated by earlier mathematicians, Euclid was the first to show how these propositions could fit into a comprehensive deductive and logical system. The Elements begins with plane geometry, still taught in secondary school as the first axiomatic system and the first examples of formal proof. It goes on to the solid geometry of three dimensions. Much of the Elements states results of what are now called algebra and number theory, explained in geometrical language.

A scale factor is a number which scales, or multiplies, some quantity. In the equation y = Cx, C is the scale factor for x. C is also the coefficient of x, and may be called the constant of proportionality of y to x. For example, doubling distances corresponds to a scale factor of two for distance, while cutting a cake in half results in pieces with a scale factor for volume of one half. The basic equation for it is image over preimage. Two geometrical objects are called similar if they both have the same shape, or one has the same shape as the mirror image of the other. More precisely, one can be obtained from the other by uniformly scaling, possibly with additional translation, rotation and reflection. This means that either object can be rescaled, repositioned, and reflected, so as to coincide precisely with the other object. If two objects are similar, each is congruent to the result of a particular uniform scaling of the other. A modern and novel perspective of similarity is to consider geometrical objects similar if one appears congruent to the other when zoomed in or out at some level.

## Contents

More general is scaling with a separate scale factor for each axis direction. Non-uniform scaling ( anisotropic scaling) is obtained when at least one of the scaling factors is different from the others; a special case is directional scaling or stretching (in one direction). Non-uniform scaling changes the shape of the object; e.g. a square may change into a rectangle, or into a parallelogram if the sides of the square are not parallel to the scaling axes (the angles between lines parallel to the axes are preserved, but not all angles). It occurs, for example, when a faraway billboard is viewed from an oblique angle, or when the shadow of a flat object falls on a surface that is not parallel to it. A shape is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture or material composition.

When the scale factor is larger than 1, (uniform or non-uniform) scaling is sometimes also called dilation or enlargement. When the scale factor is a positive number smaller than 1, scaling is sometimes also called contraction.

In the most general sense, a scaling includes the case in which the directions of scaling are not perpendicular. It also includes the case in which one or more scale factors are equal to zero (projection), and the case of one or more negative scale factors (a directional scaling by -1 is equivalent to a reflection). In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation from a vector space to itself such that . That is, whenever is applied twice to any value, it gives the same result as if it were applied once (idempotent). It leaves its image unchanged. Though abstract, this definition of "projection" formalizes and generalizes the idea of graphical projection. One can also consider the effect of a projection on a geometrical object by examining the effect of the projection on points in the object. In mathematics, a reflection is a mapping from a Euclidean space to itself that is an isometry with a hyperplane as a set of fixed points; this set is called the axis or plane of reflection. The image of a figure by a reflection is its mirror image in the axis or plane of reflection. For example the mirror image of the small Latin letter p for a reflection with respect to a vertical axis would look like q. Its image by reflection in a horizontal axis would look like b. A reflection is an involution: when applied twice in succession, every point returns to its original location, and every geometrical object is restored to its original state.

Scaling is a linear transformation, and a special case of homothetic transformation. In most cases, the homothetic transformations are non-linear transformations.

In mathematics, a homothety is a transformation of an affine space determined by a point S called its center and a nonzero number λ called its ratio, which sends

## Matrix representation

A scaling can be represented by a scaling matrix. To scale an object by a vector v = (vx, vy, vz), each point p = (px, py, pz) would need to be multiplied with this scaling matrix:

$S_{v}={\begin{bmatrix}v_{x}&0&0\\0&v_{y}&0\\0&0&v_{z}\\\end{bmatrix}}.$ As shown below, the multiplication will give the expected result:

$S_{v}p={\begin{bmatrix}v_{x}&0&0\\0&v_{y}&0\\0&0&v_{z}\\\end{bmatrix}}{\begin{bmatrix}p_{x}\\p_{y}\\p_{z}\end{bmatrix}}={\begin{bmatrix}v_{x}p_{x}\\v_{y}p_{y}\\v_{z}p_{z}\end{bmatrix}}.$ Such a scaling changes the diameter of an object by a factor between the scale factors, the area by a factor between the smallest and the largest product of two scale factors, and the volume by the product of all three. In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle. It can also be defined as the longest chord of the circle. Both definitions are also valid for the diameter of a sphere. There are several well-known formulas for the areas of simple shapes such as triangles, rectangles, and circles. Using these formulas, the area of any polygon can be found by dividing the polygon into triangles. For shapes with curved boundary, calculus is usually required to compute the area. Indeed, the problem of determining the area of plane figures was a major motivation for the historical development of calculus. Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance or shape occupies or contains. Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container; i. e., the amount of fluid that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. Volumes of complicated shapes can be calculated with integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. One-dimensional figures and two-dimensional shapes are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space.

The scaling is uniform if and only if the scaling factors are equal (vx = vy = vz). If all except one of the scale factors are equal to 1, we have directional scaling.

In the case where vx = vy = vz = k, scaling increases the area of any surface by a factor of k2 and the volume of any solid object by a factor of k3.

### Scaling in arbitrary dimensions

In $n$ -dimensional space $\mathbb {R} ^{n}$ , uniform scaling by a factor $v$ is accomplished by scalar multiplication with $v$ , that is, multiplying each coordinate of each point by $v$ . As a special case of linear transformation, it can be achieved also by multiplying each point (viewed as a column vector) with a diagonal matrix whose entries on the diagonal are all equal to $v$ , namely $vI$ .

Non-uniform scaling is accomplished by multiplication with any symmetric matrix. The eigenvalues of the matrix are the scale factors, and the corresponding eigenvectors are the axes along which each scale factor applies. A special case is a diagonal matrix, with arbitrary numbers $v_{1},v_{2},\ldots v_{n}$ along the diagonal: the axes of scaling are then the coordinate axes, and the transformation scales along each axis $i$ by the factor $v_{i}$ In uniform scaling with a non-zero scale factor, all non-zero vectors retain their direction (as seen from the origin), or all have the direction reversed, depending on the sign of the scaling factor. In non-uniform scaling only the vectors that belong to an eigenspace will retain their direction. A vector that is the sum of two or more non-zero vectors belonging to different eigenspaces will be tilted towards the eigenspace with largest eigenvalue.

## Using homogeneous coordinates

In projective geometry, often used in computer graphics, points are represented using homogeneous coordinates. To scale an object by a vector v = (vx, vy, vz), each homogeneous coordinate vector p = (px, py, pz, 1) would need to be multiplied with this projective transformation matrix:

$S_{v}={\begin{bmatrix}v_{x}&0&0&0\\0&v_{y}&0&0\\0&0&v_{z}&0\\0&0&0&1\end{bmatrix}}.$ As shown below, the multiplication will give the expected result:

$S_{v}p={\begin{bmatrix}v_{x}&0&0&0\\0&v_{y}&0&0\\0&0&v_{z}&0\\0&0&0&1\end{bmatrix}}{\begin{bmatrix}p_{x}\\p_{y}\\p_{z}\\1\end{bmatrix}}={\begin{bmatrix}v_{x}p_{x}\\v_{y}p_{y}\\v_{z}p_{z}\\1\end{bmatrix}}.$ Since the last component of a homogeneous coordinate can be viewed as the denominator of the other three components, a uniform scaling by a common factor s (uniform scaling) can be accomplished by using this scaling matrix:

$S_{v}={\begin{bmatrix}1&0&0&0\\0&1&0&0\\0&0&1&0\\0&0&0&{\frac {1}{s}}\end{bmatrix}}.$ For each vector p = (px, py, pz, 1) we would have

$S_{v}p={\begin{bmatrix}1&0&0&0\\0&1&0&0\\0&0&1&0\\0&0&0&{\frac {1}{s}}\end{bmatrix}}{\begin{bmatrix}p_{x}\\p_{y}\\p_{z}\\1\end{bmatrix}}={\begin{bmatrix}p_{x}\\p_{y}\\p_{z}\\{\frac {1}{s}}\end{bmatrix}}$ which would be equivalent to

${\begin{bmatrix}sp_{x}\\sp_{y}\\sp_{z}\\1\end{bmatrix}}.$ ## Function dilation and contraction

Given a point $P(x,y)$ , the dilation associates it with the point $P'(x',y')$ through the equations ${\begin{cases}x'=mx\\y'=ny\end{cases}}$ for $m,n\in \mathbb {R} ^{+}$ Therefore, given a function $y=f(x)$ , the equation of the dilated function is

$y=nf\left({\frac {x}{m}}\right)$ ### Particular cases

If $n=1$ , the transformation is horizontal; when $m>1$ , it is a dilation, when $m<1$ , it is a contraction.

If $m=1$ , the transformation is vertical; when $n>1$ it is a dilation, when $n<1$ , it is a contraction.

## Footnotes

1. Durand; Cutler. "Transformations" (PowerPoint). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 12 September 2008.