Thread is a type of yarn but similarly used for sewing. It can be made out of many different materials including cotton, linen, nylon, and silk.
Thread is made from a wide variety of materials. Where a thread is stronger than the material that it is being used to join, if seams are placed under strain the material may tear before the thread breaks. Garments are usually sewn with threads of lesser strength than the fabric so that if stressed the seam will break before the garment. Heavy goods that must withstand considerable stresses such as upholstery, car seating, tarpaulins, tents, and saddlery require very strong threads. Attempting repairs with light weight thread will usually result in rapid failure, though again, using a thread that is stronger than the material being sewn can end up causing rips in that material before the thread itself gives way. Thread is a type of yarn but similarly used for sewing. It can be made out of many different materials including cotton, linen, nylon, and silk.
|Cotton||Spun traditional thread||general|
|Cotton/polyester||A cotton thread with a polyester core which is slightly stretchy but retains the traditional look of cotton||strength without sheen|
|Fusible||Fuses sewn fabrics together when ironed||binding and appliqué|
|Linen||A spun thread, typically in a thicker gauge than that used for fabric garments. It may be waxed for durability and resistance to mildew.||Traditional leather saddlery; leather luggage, handbags, and accessories; and beadwork.|
|Metallics||A delicate metallic coating protected by an outer coating providing extremely vibrant color/glitter and/or texture.||decoration|
|Nylon||A transparent monofillament which can be melted by an iron. Nylon is usually stronger than polyester.||strength with transparency|
|Polyester||A synthetic blend which is stronger and stretchier than cotton with little or no lint (may be texturized)||strength|
|Rayon||Made from cellulose, but not considered to be a natural fibre because it is highly processed. Useful for obtaining bright colors, though not always color-fast.||high sheen, soft texture|
|Silk||A very fine, strong and hard-to-see thread; tends to degrade over time, however.||high strength and often high sheen, used for attaching beads|
|Wool||A thicker thread.||homespun look, rougher texture, highly insulating, water absorbent|
|Water-soluble||Dissolves when washed||temporary basting|
Polyester/polyester core spun thread is made by wrapping staple polyester around a continuous polyester filament during spinning and plying these yarns into a sewing thread. Core Spun Thread
Yarns are measured by the density of the yarn, which is described by various units of textile measurement relating to a standardized length per weight. These units do not directly correspond to thread diameter.
The most common weight system specifies the length of the thread in kilometres required to weigh 1 kilogram. Therefore, a greater weight number (indicated in the American standard by the abbreviation wt) indicates a thinner, finer thread. The American standard of thread weight was adopted from the Gunze Count standard of Japan which uses two numbers separated by a forward slash. The first number corresponds to the wt number of the thread and the second number indicates how many strands of fiber were used to compose the finished thread. It is common to wrap three strands of the same weight to make one thread, though this is not a formal requirement in the US standard (which is therefore less informative).
|Weight||Gunze Count||Common Use|
|Light||60 wt||#60/3||bobbin or appliqué|
|Thin||50 wt||#50/3||bobbin or appliqué|
A denier weight specification states how many grams 9,000 meters of the thread weighs. Unlike the common thread weight system, the greater the denier number, the thicker the thread. The denier weight system, like the common weight system, also specifies the number of strands of the specified weight which were wrapped together to make the finished thread.
Tex is the mass in grams of 1,000 meters of thread. If 1,000 meters weighs 25 grams, it is a tex 25. Larger tex numbers are heavier threads. Tex is used more commonly in Europe and Canada.
Some thread manufacturers, especially those producing very fine silk threads, apply their own scales of thread measurement using "aughts" or zeroes (not unlike the zeros used in measuring the sizes of seed beads). Within a given manufacturer's spectrum, a higher "aught count" indicates a finer thread: this is usually given as a single digit followed by a forward slash and a zero— for example, 3/0 indicates a three-aught thread or a thread size "000", but this number only has significance when compared to other threads produced by the same manufacturer: one manufacturer's 4/0 will always be more fine than that same manufacturer's 2/0, but will mean nothing if compared to the 4/0 of another manufacturer. The aught scale therefore is not suitable for conversion or comparison to other more-generalized weight scales, though it is in common use.
Thread weight conversion table
|Converting From||Converting To||Method|
|Weight||Denier||9000 / weight|
|Weight||Tex||1000 / weight|
|Denier||Weight||9000 / denier|
|Denier||Tex||denier / 9|
|Tex||Denier||tex x 9|
|Tex||Weight||1000 / tex|
For example: 40 weight = 225 denier = Tex 25. A common Tex number for general sewing thread is Tex 25 or Tex 30. A slightly heavier silk buttonhole thread suitable for bartacking, small leather items, and decorative seams might be Tex 40. A strong, durable upholstery thread, Tex 75. A heavy duty topstitching thread for coats, bags, and shoes, Tex 100. A very strong topstitching thread suitable for luggage and tarpaulins, Tex 265-Tex 290. But a fine serging thread, only Tex 13. For blindstitching and felling machines, an even finer Tex 8.
High temperature sewing threads provide durability and resistance to extreme temperatures. Some threads can be used for applications up to 800 °C (1472 °F). There are a variety of different sewing threads available which have different applications and benefits.
Kevlar-coated stainless steel sewing threads have a high-temperature and flame-resistant steel core combined with Kevlar coating designed to facilitate easier machine sewing. The stainless steel core has a temperature resistance of up to 800 °C (1472 °F) and the Kevlar coating is heat-resistant up to 220 °C (428 °F).
PTFE coated glass sewing threads have an excellent temperature resistance combined with a PTFE coating to provide easier machine sewing. The glass core has a temperature resistance of up to 550 °C (1022 °F) and the PTFE coating is heat-resistant up to 230 °C (446 °F).
Nomex sewing threads are inherently flame-retardant and heat-resistant with a tough protective coating which resists abrasion during the sewing operation. It is temperature resistant up to 370 °C (698 °F).
Bonded nylon sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rot proofing, and have good tensile strength for lower temperature applications. They are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C (248 °F).
Bonded polyester sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rotproofing, and have exceptional tensile strength for lower temperatures but heavier-duty sewing operations. They are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C (248 °F).
|Look up thread in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The well-known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon by Chemours. Chemours was a spin-off from DuPont, which originally discovered the compound in 1938. Another popular brand name of PTFE is Syncolon by Synco Chemical Corporation.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, tatting, felting, or braiding.
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for needlework.
Fiber or fibre is a natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.
A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant to a fire to extinguish it. Outdoors, it attaches either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can permanently attach to a building's standpipe or plumbing system.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic polymer material that becomes pliable or moldable at a certain elevated temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
Zari is an even thread traditionally made of fine gold or silver used in traditional Indian, and Pakistani garments, especially as brocade in saris etc. This thread is woven into fabrics, primarily of silk to make intricate patterns and elaborate designs of embroidery called zardozi. Zari was popularised during the Moghul era, the port of Surat was linked to the Meccan pilgrimage route which served as a major factor for re-introducing this ancient craft in India. During the Vedic ages, the gold embroidery was associated with the grandeur and regal attire of gods, kings, and literary figures (gurus). Today in most fabrics, zari is not made of real gold and silver, but has cotton or polyester yarn at its core, wrapped by golden/ silver metallic yarn.
Metallic fibers are manufactured fibers composed of metal, metallic alloys, plastic-coated metal, metal-coated plastic, or a core completely covered by metal.
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene. Also known as high-modulus polyethylene, (HMPE), it has extremely long chains, with a molecular mass usually between 3.5 and 7.5 million amu. The longer chain serves to transfer load more effectively to the polymer backbone by strengthening intermolecular interactions. This results in a very tough material, with the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic presently made.
Sailcloth encompasses a wide variety of materials that span those from natural fibers, such as flax, hemp or cotton in various forms of sail canvas, to synthetic fibers, including nylon, polyester, aramids, and carbon fibers in a variety of woven, spun and molded textiles.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain. As a specific material, it most commonly refers to a type called polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naturally occurring chemicals, such as in the cutin of plant cuticles, as well as synthetics such as polybutyrate. Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not. The material is used extensively in clothing.
Vinyl coated polyester is a material frequently used for flexible fabric structures. It is made up of a polyester scrim, a bonding or adhesive agent, and an exterior PVC coating. The scrim supports the coating and provides the tensile strength, elongation, tear strength, and dimensional stability of the resulting fabric. Depending on its formula, the PVC coating makes the material waterproof and resistant to dirt, mildew, oil, salt, chemicals and UV rays and gives the material added strength and durability. It can be sewn or heat sealed by way of RF(Radio Frequency) welding or hot-air welding.
The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies. To make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving, which turns yarn into cloth. The machine used for weaving is the loom. For decoration, the process of colouring yarn or the finished material is dyeing. For more information of the various steps, see textile manufacturing.
A technical textile is a textile product manufactured for non-aesthetic purposes, where function is the primary criterion. Technical textiles include textiles for automotive applications, medical textiles, geotextiles, agrotextiles, and protective clothing.
Textile fibers, threads, yarns and fabrics are measured in a multiplicity of units.
Embroidery thread is yarn that is manufactured or hand-spun specifically for embroidery and other forms of needlework.
A conductive textile is a fabric which can conduct electricity. Conductive textiles can be made with metal strands woven into the construction of the textile or by conductive yarns which are conductive thanks to a metal-coating. There is also an interest in semiconducting textiles, made by impregnating normal textiles with carbon- or metal-based powders.
Ripstop fabrics are woven fabrics, often made of nylon, using a special reinforcing technique that makes them resistant to tearing and ripping. During weaving, (thick) reinforcement yarns are interwoven at regular intervals in a crosshatch pattern. The intervals are typically 5 to 8 millimeters. Thin and lightweight ripstop fabrics have a 2-dimensional structure due to the thicker yarns being interwoven in thinner cloth. Older lightweight ripstop fabrics display the thicker interlocking thread patterns in the material quite prominently, but more modern weaving techniques make the ripstop threads less obvious. A similar effect can be achieved by weaving two or three fine yarns together at smaller intervals.
In architecture, fabric structures are forms of constructed fibers that provide end users a variety of aesthetic free-form building designs. Custom-made fabric structures are engineered and fabricated to meet worldwide structural, flame retardant, weather-resistant, and natural force requirements. Fabric structures are considered a sub-category of tensile structure.
In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into a usable material and more specifically to any process performed after dyeing the yarn or fabric to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finish textile or clothing. The precise meaning depends on context.