Singer Corporation

Last updated

Singer Corporation
Industry Manufacturing
Founded1851 in New York City
Headquarters La Vergne, Tennessee, United States
Products Sewing machine Upholstery
Owner SVP Worldwide
A Singer treadle sewing machine Singer sewing machine table.jpg
A Singer treadle sewing machine

Singer Corporation is an American manufacturer of consumer sewing machines, first established as I. M. Singer & Co. in 1851 by Isaac M. Singer with New York lawyer Edward C. Clark. Best known for its sewing machines, it was renamed Singer Manufacturing Company in 1865, then the Singer Company in 1963. It is based in La Vergne, Tennessee, near Nashville. Its first large factory for mass production was built in 1863 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. [1]



A Singer 1851 sewing machine Singer Sewing Machine 1851.jpg
A Singer 1851 sewing machine

Singer's original design was the first practical sewing machine for general domestic use. It incorporated the basic eye-pointed needle and lock stitch, developed by Elias Howe, who won a patent-infringement suit against Singer in 1854.

Singer's patent model for his sewing machine Singer Sewing Machine Patent Model, No. 8,294, 1851.jpg
Singer's patent model for his sewing machine

Singer obtained patent no. 8294 in August 1851 for an improved sewing machine that included a circular feed wheel, thread controller, and power transmitted by gear wheels and shafting. [2]

Singer consolidated enough patents in the field to enable him to engage in mass production, and by 1860 his company was the largest manufacturer of sewing machines in the world. In 1885 Singer produced its first "vibrating shuttle" sewing machine, an improvement over contemporary transverse shuttle designs (see bobbin drivers). The Singer company began to market its machines internationally in 1855 and won first prize at the Paris world's fair that year. The company demonstrated the first workable electric sewing machine in 1910. Singer was also a marketing innovator and a pioneer in promoting the use of installment payment plans.

Early sales figures

Source: [3]
Old Singer logo Singer-logo old.png
Old Singer logo

By 1876, Singer was claiming cumulative sales of two million sewing machines and had put the two millionth machine on display in Philadelphia. [4]

Singer in Scotland

Workers leaving Singer sewing machine factory on Clydebank People leaving Singer Sewing Machine Factory, Clydebank.jpg
Workers leaving Singer sewing machine factory on Clydebank

In 1867, the Singer Company decided that the demand for their sewing machines in the United Kingdom was sufficiently high to open a local factory in Glasgow on John Street. The Vice President of Singer, George Ross McKenzie selected Glasgow because of its iron making industries, cheap labour, and shipping capabilities. [5] Demand for sewing machines outstripped production at the new plant and by 1873, a new larger factory was completed on James Street, Bridgeton. By that point, Singer employed over 2,000 people in Scotland, but they still could not produce enough machines.

In 1882, McKenzie, by then President-elect of the Singer Manufacturing Company, undertook the ground breaking ceremony on 46 acres (19 ha) of farmland at Kilbowie, Clydebank. Originally, two main buildings were constructed, each 800-foot (240 m) long, 50-foot (15 m) wide and three storeys high. These were connected by three wings. Built above the middle wing was a 200-foot (61 m) tall clock tower with the "Singer" name clearly displayed for all to see for miles around. A total of 2.75 miles (4.43 km) of railway lines were laid throughout the factory to connect the different departments such as the boiler room, foundry, shipping and the lines to main railway stations. Sir Robert McAlpine was the building contractor and the factory was designed to be fire proof with water sprinklers, making it the most modern factory in Europe at that time. [6]

With nearly a million square feet of space and almost 7,000 employees, it was possible to produce on average 13,000 machines a week, making it the largest sewing machine factory in the world. The Clydebank factory was so productive that in 1905, the U.S. Singer Company set up and registered the Singer Manufacturing Company Ltd. in the United Kingdom. Demand continued to exceed production, so each building was extended upwards to 6 storeys high. A railway station with the company name was established in 1907 with connections to adjoining towns and central Glasgow to assist in transporting the workforce to the facility. Increased productivity came from 'scientific management' techniques which increased workloads whilst keeping salary overheads low, and in 1911, a mass walk out of 10,000 workers, the 'Singer Strike', [7] took place in support of twelve women polishers, who had seen three staff dismissed, but the workload remained the same with no extra pay. [8] It was significant in its recognition of the rights of women workers [9] and 'collective bargaining' and predated the labour movement known as 'Red Clydeside'. [10] [11] [12] A centenary film was made by the BBC about the female workers who stood up to the American management. [13]

In the First World War, sewing machine production gave way to munitions. The Singer Clydebank factory received over 5000 government contracts, and made 303 million artillery shells, shell components, fuses, and aeroplane parts, as well as grenades, rifle parts, and 361,000 horseshoes. Its labour force of 14,000 was about 70% female at war's end. [14]

From its opening in 1884 until 1943, the Kilbowie factory produced approximately 36,000,000 sewing machines. Singer was the world leader and sold more machines than all the other makers added together. In 1913, the factory shipped 1.3 million machines. The late 1950s and 1960s saw a period of significant change at the Clydebank factory. In 1958, Singer reduced production at their main American plant and transferred 40% of this production to the Clydebank factory in a bid to reduce costs. Between 1961 and 1964, the Clydebank factory underwent a £4 million modernization program which saw the Clydebank factory cease the production of cast iron machines and focus on the production of aluminium machines for western markets. As part of this modernisation programme, the famous Singer Clock was demolished in 1963. At the height of its productiveness in the mid 1960s, Singer employed over 16,000 workers but by the end of that decade, compulsory redundancies were taking place and 10 years later the workforce was down to 5,000. Financial problems and lack of orders forced the world's largest sewing machine factory to close in June 1980, bringing to an end over 100 years of sewing machine production in Scotland. The complex of buildings was demolished in 1998. [15]

An archive about the factory, the strike and the history of its business in Scotland, is regarded as a recognised collection of national significance by Museums Galleries Scotland. [16]

Painted Singer Sewing sign in Kingston, New York Singersign.JPG
Painted Singer Sewing sign in Kingston, New York
A Singer sewing machine with electric retrofit Singer-P1010053.jpg
A Singer sewing machine with electric retrofit


Advertising photograph by Paolo Monti, Milan 1963 Paolo Monti - Servizio fotografico - BEIC 6346702.jpg
Advertising photograph by Paolo Monti, Milan 1963

The Singer sewing machine was the first complex standardized technology to be mass marketed. It was not the first sewing machine, and its patent in 1851 led to a patent battle with Elias Howe, inventor of the lockstitch machine. This eventually resulted in a patent sharing accord among the major firms. [17] Marketing strategies included focusing on the manufacturing industry, [18] gender identity, [19] credit plans, [20] and "hire purchases." [17]

Singer's marketing emphasized the role of women and their relationship to the home, evoking ideals of virtue, modesty, and diligence. [21] Though the sewing machine represented liberation from arduous hand sewing, it chiefly benefited those sewing for their families and themselves. Tradespeople relying on sewing as a livelihood still suffered from poor wages, which dropped further in response to the time savings gained by machine sewing. [17] Singer offered credit purchases and rent-to-own arrangements, allowing people to rent a machine with the rental payments applied to the eventual purchase of the machine, [17] and sold globally through the use of direct-sales door-to-door canvassers to demonstrate and sell the machines. [22]

In the late 60s/early 70s, Singer sponsored rock and roll concerts to help advertise a variety of products including a line of Singer record players. The 1971 concert series was broadcast by WPLJ New York from the A&R Recording Studios and included the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, Seatrain, Procol Harum, Incredible String Band, Mother Earth, and Delaney & Bonnie and Friends. [23] In 1968, Singer sponsored "Singer Presents ... Elvis", commonly referred to as the '68 Comeback Special. [24]

World War II

During World War II, the company suspended sewing machine production to take on government contracts for weapons manufacturing. Factories in the United States supplied the American forces with Norden bomb sights and M1 Carbine rifle receivers, while factories in Germany provided their armed forces with weapons. [25]

In 1939, the company was given a production study by the government to draw plans and develop standard raw material sizes for building M1911A1 pistols. The following April 17, Singer was given an educational order of 500 units with serial numbers S800001 S800500. The educational order was a program set up by the Ordnance Board in the U.S. to teach companies without gun-making experience to manufacture weapons.

Singer delivered 500 units to the U.S. government. Although Singer was unable to produce 100 guns a day, which the government contract required, the War Department was impressed with the quality of their pistols and asked the company to produce navigation and targeting equipment components. [26] The pistol tooling and manufacturing machines were transferred to Remington Rand whilst some went to the Ithaca Gun Company. Approximately 1.75 million 1911A1 pistols were produced during World War II, making original Singer pistols relatively rare and collectable. [27] In 2017, one sold at auction for $414,000. [26]

In December 1940, Singer won a contract to produce the M5 Antiaircraft Director, a version of the UK-designed Kerrison Predictor. The US Army had previously adopted the M7 Computing Sight for their 37 mm gun M1 anti-aircraft guns, but the gun proved temperamental and Sperry Corporation was too busy producing other systems to build the required number of M7's. After testing in September 1940, the Army accepted the Kerrison as the M5, and later, the Bofors 40 mm gun in place of the M1. [28]


Singer resumed developing sewing machines in 1946. [29] After the not so well received Singer 206k, a first attempt in zig-zag machines, starting production in 1936, They introduced one of their most popular, highest-quality and fully-optioned machines in 1957, the 401 Slant-o-Matic. 2011 marked their 160th anniversary. Currently, they manufacture computerized, heavy duty, embroidery, quilting, serging, and mechanical sewing machines. [30]

In 2017, they launched their new Singer Sewing Assistant App. [31]


Singer in Malta Early 20th-century Singer sewing machine in Malta.png
Singer in Malta

In the 1960s, the company diversified, acquiring the Friden calculator company in 1965 and General Precision Equipment Corporation in 1968. Friden became Singer Business Machines which produced the Singer System 10. [32] GPE included Librascope, The Kearfott Company, Inc, and Link Flight Simulation. In 1968 also, Singer bought out GPS Systems and added it to the Link Simulations Systems Division (LSSD). This unit produced nuclear power plant control room simulators in Silver Spring, Maryland: Tech Road building for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Parkway building for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and later moved to Broken Land Parkway in Columbia, Maryland while flight simulators were produced in Binghamton, New York.

By 1971 Singer was also producing portable/home audio/visual equipment as evidenced by the Singer-branded record and cassette tape players and film-strip viewers that can be found on e.g., eBay. In order to support this venture, Singer sponsored concerts such as the 1971 A&R Studio concerts on WPLJ-New York mentioned above.

For several years in the 1970s, Singer set up a national sales force for CAT phototypesetting machines (of UNIX troff fame) made by another Massachusetts company, Graphic Systems Inc. [33] This division was purchased by Wang Laboratories in 1978.

In 1987, corporate raider Paul Bilzerian made a "greenmail" run at Singer, and ended up owning the company when no "White Knight" rescuer appeared. To recover his money, Bilzerian sold off parts of the company. Kearfott was split, the Kearfott Guidance & Navigation Corporation was sold to the Astronautics Corporation of America in 1988 and the Electronic Systems Division was purchased the Plessey Company in 1988 and renamed Plessey Electronic Systems (and then acquired by GEC-Marconi in 1990, renamed GEC-Marconi Electronic Systems, and later incorporated into BAE Systems). The four Link divisions developing and supporting industrial and flight simulation were sold to Canadian Avionics Electronics (CAE) and became CAE-Link. The nuclear power simulator division became S3 Technologies, and later GSE Systems, and relocated to Eldersburg, MD. The Sewing Machine Division was sold in 1989 to Semi-Tech Microelectronics, a publicly traded Toronto-based company. [34]

20th century

Woman with Singer sewing machine in East Timor (2017) Singer Nahmaschine in Osttimor 2017-04-22.jpg
Woman with Singer sewing machine in East Timor (2017)

Sales and profits grew until the 1940s. The market was affected in several ways. The USA market matured after WWII. Japanese manufacturers ate into the market with zig-zag sewing machines. [35] Under the leadership of Donald P. Kircher, Singer diversified into markets such as office equipment, defense, and aerospace. Revenue of which 90% of revenue from sewing machines was reduced to 35% after diversification.

In 1978 Singer moved its HQ from Rockefeller Plaza to Stamford, Conn. This relocation moved 430 jobs to the new location. [36]

During the 1980s Singer sewing machine markets were being hit with Japanese machines and European brands including Bernina, Pfaff, and Viking. In 1986, the original Singer company spun off its sewing machine business under the name SSMC. In 1989 Semi-Tech Global purchased SSMC renaming SSMC back to Singer. [37] Semi-Tech Global incorporated Singer into Singer N.V. based in Netherlands Antilles owned by the Hong Kong holding company.

Singer N.V. filed bankruptcy in 1999 and was acquired by Kohlberg & Company. [38] In 1997, Singer (Singer N.V.) US operations moved its consumer products to LaVergne, Tennessee. This location also served its wholesale distribution of sewing machines and parts. [38] In 2006 The parent company of Singer - Kohlberg & Company, acquired Husqvarna and Pfaff brands. This merged the three brands into the current company the SVP Group. [39] Its main competitors are Baby Lock, Bernina, Brother, Janome, Juki and Aisin Seiki.

The tower of the former Singer Building in Manhattan, the tallest in the world at the time of its construction Historic American Buildings Survey, September 1967, VIEW FROM WEST. - Singer Tower, 149 Broadway, New York, New York County, NY HABS NY,31-NEYO,71-4.tif
The tower of the former Singer Building in Manhattan, the tallest in the world at the time of its construction
Singer House in Saint Petersburg, Russia Singer House SPB 01.jpg
Singer House in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Singer was heavily involved in Manhattan real estate in the 1800s through Edward C. Clark, a founder of the company. Clark had built The Dakota apartments and other Manhattan buildings in the 1880s. In 1900, the Singer company retained Ernest Flagg to build a 12-story loft building at Broadway and Prince Street in Lower Manhattan. The building is now considered architecturally notable, and it has been restored. [40]

The 47-story Singer Building, completed in 1908, was also designed by Flagg, who designed two landmark residences for Bourne. Constructed during Bourne's tenure, the Singer Building (demolished in 1968) was then the tallest building in the world and was the tallest building to be intentionally demolished until the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were destroyed in the September 11 attacks. [41]

At their Clydebank factory, Singer built a 200 feet (61 m) clock tower, which stood over the central wing and had the reputation of being the largest four-faced clock in the world. Each face weighed five tons, and it took four men fifteen minutes twice a week to keep it wound. [42] The tower was demolished in 1963,17 years before the factory closed in 1980 and is now the site of Clydebank Business Park. Singer railway station, built to serve the factory, is only one of two railway stations in the UK, named after a factory, and is still in operation today.

The famous Singer House, designed by architect Pavel Suzor, was built in 1902–1904 at Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg as headquarters of the Russian branch of the company. This modern style building (situated just opposite the Kazan Cathedral) is officially recognized as an object of Russian historical-cultural heritage.

In 2018, a large factory fire destroyed a Singer distribution office and warehouse in Seven Hills, Sydney. Singer had manufactured sewing machines in Australia at a purpose-built plant in the western Sydney suburb of Penrith, from 1959 until 1967.

List of company presidents

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sewing machine</span> Machine used to stitch fabric

A sewing machine is a machine used to sew fabric and materials together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. Since the invention of the first sewing machine, generally considered to have been the work of Englishman Thomas Saint in 1790, the sewing machine has greatly improved the efficiency and productivity of the clothing industry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Browning Hi-Power</span> American-Belgian semi-automatic pistol

The Browning Hi-Power is a single-action, semi-automatic pistol available in the 9×19mm Parabellum and .40 S&W calibers. It was based on a design by American firearms inventor John Browning, and completed by Dieudonné Saive at FN Herstal. Browning died in 1926, several years before the design was finalized. FN Herstal named it the "High Power" in allusion to the 13-round magazine capacity, almost twice that of other designs at the time, such as the Luger or Colt M1911.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Browning</span> American firearms designer (1855–1926)

John Moses Browning was an American firearm designer who developed many varieties of military and civilian firearms, cartridges, and gun mechanisms – many of which are still in use around the world. He made his first firearm at age 13 in his father's gun shop and was awarded the first of his 128 firearm patents on October 7, 1879, at the age of 24. He is regarded as one of the most successful firearms designers of the 19th and 20th centuries and pioneered the development of modern repeating, semi-automatic, and automatic firearms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Isaac Singer</span> American inventor and businessman (1811–1875)

Isaac Merritt Singer was an American inventor, actor, and businessman. He made important improvements in the design of the sewing machine and was the founder of what became one of the first American multi-national businesses, the Singer Sewing Machine Company.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Remington Rand</span> American manufacturing company (1927–1955)

Remington Rand, Inc., was an early American business machine manufacturer, originally a typewriter manufacturer and in a later incarnation the manufacturer of the UNIVAC line of mainframe computers. Formed in 1927 following a merger, Remington Rand was a diversified conglomerate making other office equipment, electric shavers, etc. The Remington Rand Building at 315 Park Avenue South in New York City is a 20-floor skyscraper completed in 1911. After 1955, Remington Rand had a long series of mergers and acquisitions that eventually resulted in the formation of Unisys.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Elias Howe</span> American inventor (1819–1867)

Elias Howe Jr. was an American inventor best known for his creation of the modern lockstitch sewing machine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Colt's Manufacturing Company</span> American firearms manufacturer

Colt's Manufacturing Company, LLC is an American firearms manufacturer, founded in 1855 by Samuel Colt and is now a subsidiary of Czech holding company Colt CZ Group. It is the successor corporation to Colt's earlier firearms-making efforts, which started in 1836. Colt is known for the engineering, production, and marketing of firearms, most especially between the 1850s and World War I, when it was a dominating force in its industry and a seminal influence on manufacturing technology. Colt's earliest designs played a major role in the popularization of the revolver and the shift away from earlier single-shot pistols. Although Samuel Colt did not invent the revolver concept, his designs resulted in the first very successful ones.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clydebank</span> Town in Scotland

Clydebank is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. Situated on the north bank of the River Clyde, it borders the village of Old Kilpatrick to the west, and the Yoker and Drumchapel areas of the adjacent City of Glasgow immediately to the east. Depending on the definition of the town's boundaries, the suburban areas of Duntocher, Faifley and Hardgate either surround Clydebank to the north, or are its northern outskirts, with the Kilpatrick Hills beyond.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lycoming Engines</span> Manufacturer of aircraft engines

Lycoming Engines is a major American manufacturer of aircraft engines. With a factory in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, Lycoming produces a line of horizontally opposed, air-cooled, four, six and eight-cylinder engines including the only FAA-certified aerobatic and helicopter piston engines on the market.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Remington Model 51</span> Semi-automatic pistol

The Remington Model 51 is a small pocket pistol designed by John Pedersen and manufactured by Remington Arms in the early 20th century for the American civilian market. Remington manufactured approximately 65,000 Model 51 pistols in .32 ACP and .380 ACP calibers from 1918 to 1926, though small numbers were assembled into the mid-1930s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Singer railway station</span> Railway station in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland

Singer railway station is a two-platformed staffed station serving Clydebank town centre, West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It is located on the Argyle Line, 7+12 miles (12.1 km) west of Glasgow Central and the North Clyde Line, 8+12 miles (13.7 km) west of Glasgow Queen Street.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Union Switch & Signal</span>

Union Switch & Signal was an American company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which focused on railway signaling equipment, systems and services. The company was acquired by Ansaldo STS in 1988, operating as a wholly-owned company until January 2009, when US&S was renamed "Ansaldo STS USA" to operate as a subsidiary of Ansaldo in the Americas and Asia.

Pope Manufacturing Company was founded by Albert Augustus Pope around 1876 in Boston, Massachusetts, US and incorporated in Hartford, Connecticut in 1877. Manufacturing of bicycles began in 1878 in Hartford at the Weed Sewing Machine Company factory. Pope manufactured bicycles, motorcycles, and automobiles. From 1905 to 1913, Pope gradually consolidated manufacturing to the Westfield Mass plant. The main offices remained in Hartford. It ceased automobile production in 1915 and ceased motorcycle production in 1918. The company subsequently underwent a variety of changes in form, name and product lines through the intervening years. To this day, bicycles continue to be sold under the Columbia brand.

Bernina International AG is a privately owned international manufacturer of sewing and embroidery systems. The company was founded in Steckborn, Switzerland, by a Swiss inventor Fritz Gegauf. The company develops, manufactures, and sells goods and services for the textile market, primarily household sewing-related products in the fields of embroidery, quilting, home textiles, garment sewing, and crafting. The origins of the company lie in the invention of the hemstitch sewing machine, invented in 1893 by a Swiss inventor and entrepreneur Karl Friedrich Gegauf. Currently, the company's products include sewing machines, embroidery machines, serger/overlocker machines, and computer software for embroidery design.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sauer & Sohn</span>

J. P. Sauer und Sohn GmbH is a manufacturer of firearms and machinery and is the oldest firearms manufacturer still active in Germany. The products of this company are frequently referred to as Sauer.

The history of Connecticut Industry is a major part of the history of Connecticut. Between the birth of the U.S. patent system in 1790 and 1930, Connecticut had more patents issued per capita than any other state; in the 19th century, when the U.S. as a whole was issued one patent per three thousand population, Connecticut inventors were issued one patent for every 700–1000 residents. Connecticut's first recorded invention was a lapidary machine, by Abel Buell of Killingworth, in 1765.

The Oliver Typewriter Company was an American typewriter manufacturer headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. The Oliver Typewriter was one of the first "visible print" typewriters, meaning text was visible to the typist as it was entered. Oliver typewriters were marketed heavily for home use, using local distributors and sales on credit. Oliver produced more than one million machines between 1895 and 1928 and licensed its designs to several international firms.

Events from the year 1911 in Scotland.

Clothing industry or garment industry summarizes the types of trade and industry along the production and value chain of clothing and garments, starting with the textile industry, embellishment using embroidery, via the fashion industry to apparel retailers up to trade with second-hand clothes and textile recycling. The producing sectors build upon a wealth of clothing technology some of which, like the loom, the cotton gin, and the sewing machine heralded industrialization not only of the previous textile manufacturing practices. Clothing industries are also known as allied industries, fashion industries, garment industries, or soft good industries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jane Rae</span> British political activist

Jane Rae was a British political activist, suffragist, councillor and Justice of the peace. She was one of the activists involved in the 1911 all-out strike at the Singer Sewing Machine factory at Kilbowie in Clydebank, Branch Secretary of the Clydebank branch of the Independent Labour Party, and a Labour councillor for Clydebank Town Council.


  1. Cunningham, John T. (2004). Ellis Island: Immigration's Shining Center. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN   978-0-7385-2428-3.
  2. "Sewing machine history". Archived from the original on March 28, 2010.
  3. "Sewing Machines". Machine-History.Com. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
  4. Fort Moultrie Centennial, Part II. Charleston: Walker, Evans & Cogswell. 1876. p. 29. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  5. Hounshell, David (1984). From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States . Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp.  93–94. ISBN   9780801831584.
  6. "A portrait of achievement" (PDF). Sir Robert McAlpine. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 8, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  7. "Red Clydeside: The Singer strike 1911". Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  8. "The Strike at Singer's by John Maclean 1911". Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  9. "The contribution of women in the Singer factory strike of 1911". The contribution of women in the Singer factory strike of 1911. Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  10. "Singer Sewing Machine Strike". International Sewing Machine Collectors Society. Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  11. "BBC - Scotland's History - Singer Sewing Factory strike". Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  12. The Singer strike Clydebank, 1911. Ishbel Ballantine, Glasgow Labour History Workshop, Clydebank District Library. [Clydebank]: Clydebank District Library. 1989. ISBN   0-906938-07-4. OCLC   22625271.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  13. "Exclusive pics of 1911 shoot: Singer Factory Strike". Hopscotch Films | TV & Film Production Company. Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  14. Robert Bruce Davies, Peacefully working to conquer the world (Arno Press, 1976) p. 170
  15. "Singer Sewing Machine Factory Kilbowie, Clydebank".
  16. "Singer". Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Joan Perkin, "Sewing Machines: Liberation or Drudgery for Women?" History Today 52 (Dec. 2002).
  18. Andrew Godley "Selling the Sewing Machine Around the World: Singers International Marketing Strategies, 1850-1920." Enterprise and Society (June 2007) 7 281.
  19. Judith G. Coffin, "Credit, Consumption, and Images of Women's Desires: Selling the Sewing Machine in Late Nineteenth-Century France." Historical Studies (Spring, 1994) 18 746-750.
  20. Judith G. Coffin, "Credit, Consumption, and Images of Women's Desires: Selling the Sewing Machine in Late Nineteenth-Century France." Historical Studies (Spring, 1994) 18 752
  21. Judith G. Coffin, "Credit, Consumption, and Images of Women's Desires: Selling the Sewing Machine in Late Nineteenth-Century France." Historical Studies (Spring, 1994) 18 746-752.
  22. Andrew Godley "Selling the Sewing Machine Around the World: Singers International Marketing Strategies, 1850-1920." Enterprise and Society (June 2007) 7 269-281.
  25. Sanders, Richard Robert S. Clark (1877-1956), Press for Conversion! magazine, Issue 53, "Facing the Corporate Roots of American Fascism," March 2004. Published by the Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade.
  26. 1 2 "When the Singer Sewing Machine Company Built the Best .45 Pistol Ever Made". Popular Mechanics. November 2, 2021. Retrieved November 25, 2022.
  27. Karash, Karl (2002). "Singer Manufacturing Co". Moore, Ty. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  28. Mindell, David A. (April 1995). "Anti-aircraft fire control and the development of integrated systems at Sperry, 1925-40". IEEE Control Systems Magazine. 15 (2): 108–113. doi:10.1109/37.375318. ISSN   1066-033X.
  29. "The Singer Brand History - 160+ Years of Sewing |". Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  30. "Machines |". Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  31. "SINGER Sewing Assistant App for iPhone & Android |". Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  32. "A New Lease of Life for Singer's System 10". The Sydney Morning Herald . September 18, 1979. p. 27. Retrieved June 3, 2012.
  33. "Old Phototypesetter Tales".
  34. Miller, Matthew; Clifford, Mark L.; Zegel, Susan (August 5, 2002). "Dishonored Dealmaker". Businessweek. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
  35. [ bare URL ]
  36. Sterba, James P. (June 14, 1978). "Singer Co. Is Moving to. Stamford to Surprise of New York Officials". The New York Times.
  37. "The wrecking of Singer". Forbes .
  38. 1 2 "Singer sewing company to be sold to Kohlberg".
  39. "SVP Group | SingerSA". Archived from the original on November 27, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
  40. Gray, Christopher (June 29, 1997). "Style Standard for Early Steel-Framed Skyscraper". The New York Times. p. 7. Retrieved August 1, 2010.
  41. "New York Architecture Images- HOME".
  42. "Singer Clydebank history on West Dunbarton Council website".
  43. "A Raider's Days Of Reckoning". Time Magazine. July 10, 1989. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
  44. Daniel Hilken & Albert Wong (July 1, 2005). "Semi-Tech's Ting jailed six years". The Standard (Hong Kong). Retrieved August 15, 2010.

Further reading