Thymus pannonicus, known by its common name Hungarian thyme or Eurasian thyme, is a perennial herbaceous plant, distributed in central and eastern Europe and Russia. It grows over open dry meadows, grasslands, and rocks.
In Serbia, this plant species contributes to several xerothermous grass formations which develop on warm, dry silicate terrains at altitude above 160 m (520 ft), mostly over plains or mild slopes, on acidic soils derived from crystalline albite-muscovite schist and gneiss-like granite. In southern Banat (Serbia), the dried herb is used to make tasty and refreshing herbal tea drinks, owing to its peculiar and pleasant lemon-like scent. Fresh leaves are used for aromatisation of homemade jams, candies and similar confections. Traditionally, it is used also for coughs and other respiratory complaints, as well as certain gastrointestinal disorders.
According to Karuza-Stojaković et al., the principal constituents of T. pannonicus essential oil from southern parts of Vojvodina province (northern Serbia) were terpinyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, thymol, carvacrol, and geranyl acetate (listed in order of descending quantity).Recent comprehensive studies of chemical variability in hydrodistilled essential oils of different wild growing and cultivated populations of T. pannonicus from Hungary, as well as supercritical fluid extracts of various Lamiaceae species, confirmed that high concentrations of both thymol and p-cymene are the main chemosystematic attributes of T. pannonicus essential oil. Further research efforts of Pluhár Zs. et al. on the volatile oil composition of T. pannonicus from nineteen different localities of Hungary, confirmed a significant essential oil polymorphism in this plant species, as twelve different chemovarieties were determined, namely: thymol, thymol/p-cymene, thymol/p-cymene/γ-terpinene, thymol/p-cymene/neral, thymol/p-cymene/γ-terpinene/β-bisabolene, thymol/p-cymene/isoborneol/γ-terpinene, thymol/linalyl acetate/γ-terpinene/α-cubebene, p-cymene/geraniol/linalyl acetate, linalyl acetate/geranyl acetate, germacrene D/β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide/α-cubebene/linalool, and germacrene D/β-caryophyllene/farnesol.
On the other hand, a T. pannonicus population, which is located over the southern slopes of Vršac Mountains in southern Banat (Vojvodina province, Serbia) was characterised by exceptionally high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes (91.75%). The most abundant components of its essential oil were identified as geranial (41.42%, w/w) and neral (29.61%, w/w), the mixture of which is frequently referred to as citral.
The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was evaluated using the agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , two strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and two strains of Candida albicans . The essential oil exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity to varying degrees against all tested strains. The maximum activity of T. pannonicus oil was observed against E. coli, S. aureus and both tested strains of C. albicans (MIC = 50 μl/ml, each). Moderate activity was observed against P. aeruginosa and one of the tested strains of K. pneumoniae (MIC = 200 μl/ml), while E. faecalis and the other strain of K. pneumoniae expressed a higher degree of resistance (MIC > 200 μl/ml))
Lemon balm, balm, common balm, or balm mint, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family Lamiaceae and native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, and Central Asia, but now naturalized in the Americas and elsewhere.
Oregano is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is native to temperate Western and Southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean region.
Thyme is any member of the genus Thymus of aromatic perennial evergreen herbs in the mint family Lamiaceae. Thymes are relatives of the oregano genus Origanum. They have culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses, and the species most commonly cultivated and used for culinary purposes is Thymus vulgaris.
Plectranthus amboinicus, once identified as Coleus amboinicus, is a semi-succulent perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae with a pungent oregano-like flavor and odor. The origin of Plectranthus amboinicus is unknown, but it may be native to Africa, and possibly India. Plectranthus amboinicus is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere in the tropics where it is used as a traditional medicine, spice, and ornamental plant. Common names in English include Indian borage, country borage, Cuban oregano, French thyme, Indian mint, Mexican mint, soup mint, Spanish thyme. Plectranthus is the genus. The species name, amboinicus refers to Ambon Island, in Indonesia, where it was apparently encountered and described by João de Loureiro.
Thymol (also known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, IPMP) is a natural monoterpenoid phenol derivative of cymene, C10H14O, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted from Thymus vulgaris (common thyme), Ajwain and various other kinds of plants as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. Thymol also provides the distinctive, strong flavor of the culinary herb thyme, also produced from T. vulgaris.
Rose oil is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. Rose ottos are extracted through steam distillation, while rose absolutes are obtained through solvent extraction, the absolute being used more commonly in perfumery. Even with their high price and the advent of organic synthesis, rose oils are still perhaps the most widely used essential oil in perfumery.
Carvacrol, or cymophenol, C6H3(CH3)(OH)C3H7, is a monoterpenoid phenol. It has a characteristic pungent, warm odor of oregano.
Cannabis flower essential oil, also known as hemp essential oil is an essential oil obtained by steam distillation from the flowers, panicles, stem, and upper leaves of the hemp plant. Hemp essential oil is distinct from hemp seed oil and hash oil: the former is a vegetable oil that is cold-pressed from the seeds of low-THC varieties of hemp, the latter is a THC-rich extract of dried female hemp flowers (marijuana) or resin (hashish).
Ravensara aromatica is a member of the laurel family, Lauraceae, and originates in Madagascar. The name ravensara is a latinization of the Malagasy word ravintsara. Other Malagasy names include havozo, hazomanitra and tavolomanitra. The leaves and twigs of R. aromatica have a mildly camphorous aroma similar to eucalyptus. The essential oil of R. aromatica is used as a fragrance material in the perfumery industry, and as an antiseptic, anti-viral, antibacterial, expectorant, anti-infective in natural and folk medicine.
Monarda fistulosa, the wild bergamot or bee balm, is a wildflower in the mint family (Lamiaceae) widespread and abundant as a native plant in much of North America. This plant, with showy summer-blooming pink to lavender flowers, is often used as a honey plant, medicinal plant, and garden ornamental. The species is quite variable, and several subspecies or varieties have been recognized within it.
Lallemantia royleana is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae. In Iran it is known as balangu shirazi and it is used as a folk medicine treatment for fever and coughs. Its seeds are a good source of polysaccharides, fiber, oil, and protein.
Thymus zygis is a type of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae.
Satureja thymbra, commonly known as savory of Crete, whorled savory, pink savory, and Roman hyssop, is a perennial-green plant of the family Lamiaceae, having strongly scented leaves, endemic to Libya, southeastern Europe from Sardinia to Turkey; Cyprus, Lebanon and Israel (Palestine). The dwarf shrub is noted for its dark-green leaves, and grows to a height of 20–50 cm., bearing pink to purple flowers which blossom between late March and late May to early June.
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