Timeline of cannabis law

Last updated

The list includes and details significant events that occurred in the global history of national-level implementations of, or changes made to, laws surrounding the use, sale, or production of the psychoactive drug cannabis.

Contents

1300s

1700s

1800s

1900s

2000s

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Legality of cannabis</span> Legal status of cannabis by country

The legality of cannabis for medical and recreational use varies by country, in terms of its possession, distribution, and cultivation, and how it can be consumed and what medical conditions it can be used for. These policies in most countries are regulated by three United Nations treaties: the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Since its descheduling in 2020, cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug under the Single Convention treaty, meaning that signatories can allow medical use but that it is considered to be an addictive drug with a serious risk of abuse.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Legalization of non-medical cannabis in the United States</span> Legalization of marijuana in the United States

In the United States, the non-medical use of cannabis is legalized in 24 states and decriminalized in 7 states, as of November 2023. Decriminalization refers to a policy of reduced penalties for cannabis offenses, typically involving a civil penalty for possessing small amounts, instead of criminal prosecution or the threat of arrest. In jurisdictions without penalty the policy is referred to as legalization, although the term decriminalization is sometimes used for this purpose as well.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Legal history of cannabis in the United States</span>

In the United States, increased restrictions and labeling of cannabis as a poison began in many states from 1906 onward, and outright prohibitions began in the 1920s. By the mid-1930s cannabis was regulated as a drug in every state, including 35 states that adopted the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act. The first national regulation was the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Drug liberalization</span> Process of reducing drug prohibition laws

Drug liberalization is a drug policy process of decriminalizing or legalizing the use or sale of prohibited drugs. Variations of drug liberalization include: drug legalization, drug re-legalization and drug decriminalization. Proponents of drug liberalization may favor a regulatory regime for the production, marketing, and distribution of some or all currently illegal drugs in a manner analogous to that for alcohol, caffeine and tobacco.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Legality of cannabis by U.S. jurisdiction</span>

In the United States, cannabis is legal in 38 of 50 states for medical use and 24 states for recreational use. At the federal level, cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, determined to have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use, prohibiting its use for any purpose. Despite this prohibition, federal law is generally not enforced against the possession, cultivation, or intrastate distribution of cannabis in states where such activity has been legalized.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of cannabis laws in the United States</span> Historical list in chronological order of U.S. cannabis law

The legal history of cannabis in the United States began with state-level prohibition in the early 20th century, with the first major federal limitations occurring in 1937. Starting with Oregon in 1973, individual states began to liberalize cannabis laws through decriminalization. In 1996, California became the first state to legalize medical cannabis, sparking a trend that spread to a majority of states by 2016. In 2012, Washington and Colorado became the first states to legalize cannabis for recreational use.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cannabis in Massachusetts</span> Overview of the use and culture of cannabis in Massachusetts, U.S.

Cannabis in Massachusetts is legal for medical and recreational use. It also relates to the legal and cultural events surrounding the use of cannabis. A century after becoming the first U.S. state to criminalize recreational cannabis, Massachusetts voters elected to legalize it in 2016.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cannabis in Maine</span> Marijuana

In the U.S. state of Maine, marijuana (cannabis) is legal for recreational use. It was originally prohibited in 1913. Possession of small amounts of the drug was decriminalized in 1976 under state legislation passed the previous year. The state's first medical cannabis law was passed in 1999, allowing patients to grow their own plants. The cities of Portland and South Portland decriminalized the possession and recreational use of marijuana in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cannabis in India</span> Overview of the use and culture of cannabis in India

Cannabis in India has been known to be used at least as early as 2000 BCE. In Indian society, common terms for cannabis preparations include charas (resin), ganja (flower), and bhang, with Indian drinks such as bhang lassi and bhang thandai made from bhang being one of the most common legal uses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cannabis in Wyoming</span> Overview of the use and legality of cannabis in Wyoming

Cannabis is strictly illegal in Wyoming. The state has some of the strictest cannabis laws in the United States. Cannabis itself is not allowed for medical purposes, but a 2015 law allows limited use of non-psychoactive Cannabidiol. An effort was made to place two initiatives on the 2022 ballot, one to legalize medical cannabis, and the other to decriminalize personal use.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cannabis in Ohio</span> Legality, use and culture of cannabis in the U.S. state of Ohio

Cannabis in Ohio is legal for recreational use. Issue 2, a ballot measure to legalize recreational use, passed by a 57–43 margin on November 7, 2023. Possession and personal cultivation of cannabis became legal on December 7, 2023, with the first licensed sales yet to occur under the law. Prior to legalization, Ohio decriminalized possession of up 100 grams in 1975, with several of the state's major cities later enacting further reforms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cannabis in South Africa</span> Use of cannabis in South Africa

Cannabis in South Africa has been decriminalized for personal adult consumption in private by the Constitutional Court of South Africa. However, laws still prohibit its use outside of one's private dwelling as well as the buying and selling of cannabis. Regulations prohibiting the purchase of cannabis-containing products remain in effect, raising questions about the enforceability of the ruling.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cannabis in Colombia</span> Use of cannabis in Colombia

Cannabis in Colombia is fully legal for medicinal purposes and for industrial purposes.

Cannabis in Croatia is decriminalized for personal use and legalized for limited medical uses.

Cannabis in Greece is illegal for recreational purposes. In 2017, the Greek government legalized the use of cannabis for medical purposes, and a year later, they lifted the ban on growing or producing it. This enables pharmaceutical companies to grow cannabis legally, and industrial hemp suppliers too.

Cannabis in Malta is legal, within limits, to grow, use, and possess for adults. In 2018, the Parliament of Malta legalised medical cannabis. On 14 December 2021, the Parliament of Malta legalised recreational cannabis for personal possession and use for those aged 18-years-old and over, becoming the first EU country to do so.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cannabis in Mexico</span> Use of cannabis in Mexico

Cannabis in Mexico is legal for both recreational and medicinal purposes. It became legal for recreational purposes in June 2021, upon application and issuance of a permit from the health secretariat, COFEPRIS. On 29 June 2021, the Supreme Court of Mexico decriminalized the recreational use of cannabis. President Andrés Manuel López Obrador signed a bill that allows adults 18 and over to possess up to 28 grams of cannabis and grow up to six marijuana plants on their property.

Cannabis in Peru is not legal for recreational use, possession for own consumption is also decriminalized by the Criminal Code and medical cannabis was legalized in 2017.

Cannabis in Georgia is legal in terms of its possession and consumption due to a ruling by the Constitutional Court of Georgia on 30 July 2018. This makes Georgia one of the first countries in the world to legalize cannabis for both recreational and medical use, and the only former-communist state in the world to do so.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Legal history of cannabis in Canada</span> Aspect of history

The Cannabis Act (C-45) of June, 2018 paved the way for the legalization of cannabis in Canada on 17 October 2018. Police and prosecution services in all Canadian jurisdictions are currently capable of pursuing criminal charges for cannabis marketing without a licence issued by Health Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada has held that the federal Parliament has the power to criminalize the possession of cannabis and that doing so does not infringe upon the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Ontario Court of Appeal and the Superior Court of Ontario have, however, held that the absence of a statutory provision for medical marijuana is unconstitutional, and to that extent the federal law is of no force and/or effect if a prescription is obtained. The recreational use of cannabis has been legalized by the federal government, and took effect on 17 October 2018.

References

  1. Bankole A. Johnson (10 October 2010). Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 303–. ISBN   978-1-4419-0338-9. Archived from the original on 20 April 2023. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  2. Gwyn Campbell (3 April 2012). David Griffiths and the Missionary "History of Madagascar". BRILL. pp. 437–. ISBN   978-90-04-20980-0.
  3. Booth, M. (2015). Cannabis: A History. St. Martin's Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN   978-1-250-08219-0. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  4. Robert Clarke; Mark Merlin (1 September 2013). Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany. University of California Press. pp. 182–. ISBN   978-0-520-95457-1.
  5. A Collection of the Laws of Mauritius and Its Dependencies. By the authority of the Government. 1867. pp. 541–. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  6. The Laws of British Guiana. H. Hart. 1895. pp. 88–.
  7. United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (1989). Drug control in Asia. UNAFEI. p. 128.
  8. C. G. Uragoda (1987). A history of medicine in Sri Lanka from the earliest times to 1948. Sri Lanka Medical Association. p. 192.
  9. Brian M. Du Toit (1991). Cannabis, alcohol, and the South African student: adolescent drug use, 1974-1985. Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN   978-0-89680-166-0. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  10. Nanthawan Bunyapraphatsō̜n (1999). Medicinal and poisonous plants. Backhuys Publishers. p. 169. ISBN   978-90-5782-042-7.
  11. India. Hemp Drugs Commission (1893–1894); Sir William Mackworth Young (1969). Marijuana: Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission, 1893–1894. Thos. Jefferson Publishing Company. p. 270.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  12. E.L. Abel (29 June 2013). Marihuana: The First Twelve Thousand Years. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 133–. ISBN   978-1-4899-2189-5.
  13. Fredrik Söderbaum; Ian Taylor; Nordiska Afrikainstitutet (2008). Afro-regions: The Dynamics of Cross-border Micro-regionalism in Africa. Stylus Pub Llc. p. 130. ISBN   978-91-7106-618-3. Archived from the original on 2019-06-27. Retrieved 2022-04-20.
  14. E.L. Abel (29 June 2013). Marihuana: The First Twelve Thousand Years. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 135–. ISBN   978-1-4899-2189-5. Archived from the original on 20 April 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  15. "(298) Page 264 - India Papers > Medicine - Drugs > Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission, 1894-1895 > Volume I - Medical History of British India - National Library of Scotland". nls.uk. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  16. "The ganja law of 1913: 100 years of oppressive injustice - Columns". JamaicaObserver.com. 2013-12-02. Archived from the original on 2015-07-25. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  17. Kenya Gazette. 15 October 1913. pp. 882–.
  18. Emmanuel Akyeampong; Allan G. Hill; Arthur Kleinman (1 May 2015). The Culture of Mental Illness and Psychiatric Practice in Africa. Indiana University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN   978-0-253-01304-0.
  19. Isaac Campos (2012). Home Grown: Marijuana and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 200–. ISBN   978-0-8078-3538-8.
  20. Martin Chanock (5 March 2001). The Making of South African Legal Culture 1902-1936: Fear, Favour and Prejudice. Cambridge University Press. pp. 94–. ISBN   978-0-521-79156-4.
  21. Craig Paterson (2009). Prohibition & Resistance: A Socio-political Exploration of the Changing Dynamics of the Southern African Cannabis Trade, C. 1850 - the Present. Rhodes University.. Cited in http://mg.co.za/article/2014-07-04-00-for-our-love-of-dagga-we-go-to-court Archived 2016-11-19 at the Wayback Machine
  22. Martin A. Lee (14 August 2012). Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana - Medical, Recreational and Scientific. Simon and Schuster. pp. 325–. ISBN   978-1-4391-0260-2.
  23. Rowan Robinson (1996). The Great Book of Hemp: The Complete Guide to the Environmental, Commercial, and Medicinal Uses of the World's Most Extraordinary Plant. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. pp. 58–. ISBN   978-0-89281-541-8.
  24. Grimaldi A., and Mastagni S. (1997). Canapa Italiana (PDF). Rome: Millelire Stampa Alternativa.
  25. Sudan (1975). Laws of the Sudan. Khartoum University Press. p. 230.
  26. 1 2 "The cannabis problem: A note on the problem and the history of international action". Bulletin on Narcotics, XIV, 4, 27–31. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Archived from the original on 2021-09-03. Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  27. Riboulet-Zemouli, Kenzi; Krawitz, Michael Alan (2022-01-01). "WHO's first scientific review of medicinal Cannabis: from global struggle to patient implications". Drugs, Habits and Social Policy. 23 (1): 5–21. doi:10.1108/DHS-11-2021-0060. ISSN   2752-6747.
  28. Axel Klein; Marcus Day; Anthony Harriott (13 November 2004). Caribbean Drugs: From Criminalization to Harm Reduction. Zed Books. pp. 58–. ISBN   978-1-84277-499-1.
  29. Robert Connell Clarke (1998). Hashish!. Red Eye Press. ISBN   978-0-929349-05-3.
  30. France. Ministère des affaires étrangères (1925). ... Rapport sur la situation de la Syrie et du Liban ... Imprimerie nationale. p. 73. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-11-30. Par arrêté du Haut-Commissaire en date du 8 octobre 1925, la culture du haschich, qui était particulièrement intense dans la Békaa (Grand Liban), a été interdite à compter du ier janvier 1926.
  31. Alex Wodak; Ron Owens (January 1996). Drug Prohibition: A Call for Change. UNSW Press. pp. 11–. ISBN   978-0-86840-175-1.
  32. Thomas H. Slone (2003). Prokem. Masalai Press. pp. 26–. ISBN   978-0-9714127-5-0.
  33. Paul Manning (11 January 2013). Drugs and Popular Culture. Routledge. pp. 136–. ISBN   978-1-134-01211-4.
  34. Bernard Porter (30 October 2015). Empire Ways: Aspects of British Imperialism. I.B.Tauris. pp. 58–. ISBN   978-0-85773-959-9.
  35. "EMCDDA | Country legal profiles". Emcdda.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2021-07-18. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  36. "Dangerous Drugs Act, 1934, Part II". Irish Statute Book . Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  37. "พระราชบัญญัติกันชา พุทธศักราช ๒๔๗๗" (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 52: 339–343. 5 May 1935. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  38. A. Wright (21 November 2013). Opium and Empire in Southeast Asia: Regulating Consumption in British Burma. Springer. pp. 82–. ISBN   978-1-137-31760-5.
  39. Minoru Shikita; Shinichi Tsuchiya (6 December 2012). Crime and Criminal Policy in Japan: Analysis and Evaluation of the Showa Era, 1926–1988. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 13–. ISBN   978-1-4612-2816-5.
  40. Bołtryk, Piotr (2014). KRYMINOLOGICZNE I PRAWNE ASPEKTY POSIADANIA NARKOTYKÓW W POLSCE (NA PRZYKŁADZIE POCHODNYCH KONOPI INNYCH NIŻ WŁÓKNISTE) (PDF) (in Polish). UNIWERSYTET W BIAŁYMSTOKU. pp. 188–195. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
  41. United Nations. Commission on Narcotic Drugs (1949). Summary of Annual Reports of Governments Relating to Opium and Other Narcotic Drugs. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  42. "Some Arab governments are rethinking harsh cannabis laws". The Economist. 2017-04-12. ISSN   0013-0613. Archived from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2021-06-11.
  43. Dirk J. Korf (1995). Dutch Treat: Formal Control and Illicit Drug Use in the Netherlands. Thesis Publishers. p. 272. ISBN   978-90-5170-369-6.
  44. Africa Analysis: The Fortnightly Bulletin on Financial and Political Trends. Africa Analysis Limited. 2000. p. 36.
  45. Greg Newbold (3 June 2016). Crime, Law and Justice in New Zealand. Routledge. pp. 153–. ISBN   978-1-317-27561-9.
  46. "VKS:2006:1 Seuraamuksen määrääminen huumausaineen käyttörikoksesta" (in Finnish). Finnish Office of the Prosecutor General. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  47. Vietnam Studies: Law at War: Vietnam 1964-1973. LLMC. pp. 120–. GGKEY:L7BC9KNKENA.
  48. "Marihuana og LSD loks bannað hér!" (in Icelandic). No. 235. Tíminn. 25 October 1969. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  49. Martin Booth (1 June 2005). Cannabis: A History. Picador. pp. 338–. ISBN   978-0-312-42494-7.
  50. 1 2 Martin Booth (30 September 2011). Cannabis: A History. Transworld. pp. 325–. ISBN   978-1-4090-8489-1.
  51. Dossiers sur les 30 Chefs d'Etat ou de Gouvernements tués Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  52. Transition, 73 – The Mercenary Position, JSTOR   2935448
  53. "Nasce la New Canapa Economy, aumentano di 10 volte i terreni coltivati". National farmers association Coldiretti. 9 May 2018.
  54. Korea News Review. Korea Herald, Incorporated. 1988. p. 44. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-12-07.
  55. TNI. "Paraguay - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  56. "En Paraguay, la posesión y consumo personal de la marihuana es legal". E'a. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  57. "Drug Abuse: Where is The Way of Remedy? (Part II- Some Dangerous Silent Killers)". DhakaInsider. 2014-06-20. Archived from the original on 2016-11-15. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
  58. "Il referendum sulla cannabis fa male ai clan e salva i giovani". Corriere della Sera newspaper. 16 September 2021.
  59. Réalités. Spectacle du monde. May 1996. p. 354. Les Américains ne lâchant pas prise, le gouvernement libanais interdisait officiellement la culture du pavot et du cannabis en 1992.
  60. "Inside Italy's Push To Decriminalize Recreational Cannabis". Forbes. 13 September 2021.
  61. "Law section". Archived from the original on 2020-05-20. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
  62. Bołtryk, Piotr (2014). KRYMINOLOGICZNE I PRAWNE ASPEKTY POSIADANIA NARKOTYKÓW W POLSCE (NA PRZYKŁADZIE POCHODNYCH KONOPI INNYCH NIŻ WŁÓKNISTE) (PDF) (in Polish). UNIWERSYTET W BIAŁYMSTOKU. pp. 196–197. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
  63. David R. Bewley-Taylor (22 March 2012). International Drug Control: Consensus Fractured. Cambridge University Press. pp. 175–. ISBN   978-1-107-01497-8.
  64. "Marihuana Medical Access Regulations". Justice Laws Canada. 2001. Archived from the original on 2018-10-18. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  65. Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Home Affairs Committee (10 December 2012). Drugs: Breaking the Cycle, Ninth Report of Session 2012-13, Vol. 2: Oral and Written Evidence. The Stationery Office. pp. 135–. ISBN   978-0-215-05095-3.
  66. Robin Room (2010). Cannabis Policy: Moving Beyond Stalemate. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–. ISBN   978-0-19-958148-1.
  67. Police fdrale - CGPR Webteam. "Federale politie - Police fdrale". Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  68. Cannabis legal status vault – Belgium, Erowid.org, archived from the original on 2019-12-15, retrieved 2011-02-17
  69. C.j. Chivers (13 June 2004). "Russia Seeks Balance in Drug-Use Sentencing". New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2004.
  70. Kalvet, Mart. "Decriminalization of Drug Use in Estonia" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2023-01-13. Retrieved 2023-01-13.
  71. TNI. "Chile - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  72. Professor Anita Kalunta-Crumpton (28 June 2015). Pan-African Issues in Drugs and Drug Control: An International Perspective. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 242–. ISBN   978-1-4724-2214-9. Archived from the original on 20 April 2023. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  73. "AFP: Austria allows cannabis for medical purposes". Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
  74. "Ukraine Cannabis Law". Archived from the original on 2023-01-03. Retrieved 2023-01-03.
  75. "Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession". The New York Times. 21 August 2009. Archived from the original on 2018-04-01. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  76. TNI. "Argentina - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  77. Carney, Sean (2009-12-08). "Czech Govt Allows 5 Cannabis Plants For Personal Use From 2010 - Emerging Europe Real Time - WSJ". Blogs.wsj.com. Archived from the original on 2011-04-07. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  78. Danish Medicines Agency (30 September 2016): Cannabis for medicinal use – questions and answers Archived 2017-01-28 at the Wayback Machine .
  79. DR Nyheder (10 October 2016). BAGGRUND Derfor er cannabis-medicin faktisk lovligt Archived 2016-11-09 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  80. "FF 2012 7539" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-05-17. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  81. "Colombia decriminalizes cocaine, marijuana | Public Radio International". Pri.org. 2012-06-30. Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  82. "CROATIA TO DECRIMINALIZE DRUG POSSESSION - Encod.org". Archived from the original on 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  83. Mic. "One Year After Uruguay Legalized Marijuana, Here's What It's Become". Mic. Archived from the original on 2016-11-26. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  84. https://www.ibtimes.com/marijuana-legalization-italy-pot-laws-eased-growers-cultivating-medical-cannabis-2267841%3Famp%3D1?client=safari%5B%5D
  85. "Romania Legalizes Medical Marijuana, Becomes 10th EU Country To Permit Therapeutic Use". Novinite. 6 October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  86. Zdravotnictví prochází změnou. Léčba konopím je nyní legální | Zprávy z domova Archived 2016-11-22 at the Wayback Machine . www.lidovky.cz. Retrieved on 2013-04-17.
  87. Radio Prague – News – 01-04-2013 21:30 Archived 2013-11-06 at the Wayback Machine . Radio.cz. Retrieved on 2013-04-17.
  88. Marie Jamet (6 November 2013). "Legalising or decriminalizing cannabis in France: not that easy". Euronews. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  89. Ann Törnkvist (10 June 2013). "French law on pot-based medicine takes effect". The Local. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  90. "New drugs reform law into force today– what has changed?". MaltaToday.com.mt. 2015-04-15. Archived from the original on 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  91. Paula Carrillo (2015-12-22). "Colombia legalizes medical marijuana". Yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
  92. "Croatia Legalises Marijuana for Medical Use". Balkan Insight. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  93. "Jamaica Lawmakers Decriminalize Small Amounts of 'Ganja'". ABC News. 25 February 2015. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  94. EMCDDA (2017). "Since 2015 cultivation for personal use in places visible to the public is considered an administrative offence". EMCDDA. Archived from the original on 2023-01-21. Retrieved 2023-01-21.
  95. ""Legalisierung light": Cannabis in Kleinstmengen quasi straffrei". 13 November 2015. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  96. "Macedonia: Parliament Legalizes Medical Marijuana". Eurasia Review. 22 April 2015.[ permanent dead link ]
  97. "Medical marijuana is now legal in Australia". Business Insider Australia. 24 February 2016. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  98. "Legalizacja marihuany jest prawnie niemożliwa - Służba zdrowia - rp.pl". Archived from the original on 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
  99. "Behandling med medisinsk cannabis innenfor dagens regelverk". Statens Legemiddelverk. Archived from the original on 2017-12-16. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
  100. "Norms envisaging imprisonment for marijuana use now null and void in Georgia". Agenda.ge. 24 December 2016. Archived from the original on 30 July 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  101. "Doctors rejoice as Germany kicks off medical marijuana prescriptions". 3 March 2017. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  102. Tharoor, Avinash (February 1, 2017). "Cyprus Set to Provide Cannabis Oil to Cancer Patients". Talking Drugs. Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  103. "Marijuana Decriminalization Legislation Passed By House". 7 News Belize. 20 October 2017. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  104. Revesz, Rachael (July 3, 2017). "Greece legalises marijuana for medical purposes" . The Independent. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  105. "Medical marijuana is now legal in Peru" . Independent.co.uk . 21 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07.
  106. "Cannabis médical : l'Exemple de l'Allemagne | le Quotidien". Archived from the original on 2018-01-19. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
  107. "Cannabis for medicinal purposes pilot project - Delano - Luxembourg in English". 8 November 2017. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  108. "SA firm gets green light to grow marijuana in Lesotho". Archived from the original on 2017-12-31. Retrieved 2018-01-13.
  109. "Republic of Georgia Constitutional Court decriminalizes marijuana usage". Archived from the original on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  110. "Lithuania". Eurasian Harm Reduction Association. Archived from the original on 2021-09-18. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  111. Baynes, Chris (30 June 2017). "Catalonia legalises marijuana consumption, cultivation and distribution". Independent. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  112. "Kolding-virksomhed klar med første parti medicinsk cannabis". 2 January 2018.
  113. "Malta has officially legalised medical cannabis". Archived from the original on 2021-07-01. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  114. "South Korea Legislature passes medical cannabis law, first in East Asia". MJ Biz Daily. 26 November 2018. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  115. "Zimbabwe legalises marijuana for medical and scientific use". The Telegraph. 28 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  116. Alina Polianskaya (April 28, 2018), "Zimbabwe legalises marijuana for medicinal use" , The Independent, archived from the original on 2022-05-07
  117. "Government Bill (House of Commons) C-45 (42-1) - Royal Assent - Cannabis Act - Parliament of Canada". Archived from the original on 2018-09-20. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  118. Paddock, Richard C. (2018-12-26). "Thailand to Allow Medical Marijuana, a First in Southeast Asia". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-10-15. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
  119. "South Africa legalises cannabis use". BBC News. 2018-09-18. Archived from the original on 2020-08-06. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  120. Riboulet-Zemouli, Kenzi; Krawitz, Michael Alan (2022-01-01). "WHO's first scientific review of medicinal Cannabis: from global struggle to patient implications". Drugs, Habits and Social Policy. 23 (1): 5–21. doi:10.1108/DHS-11-2021-0060. ISSN   2752-6747.
  121. Finn, Christina. "Access to cannabis for medical reasons is now allowed in Ireland under new law". TheJournal.ie. Archived from the original on 2019-07-15. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
  122. 1 2 staff, T. O. I. "Partial decriminalization of public cannabis use takes effect Sunday night". www.timesofisrael.com. Archived from the original on 2019-06-09. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
  123. "Everything you need to know about new laws allowing Canberrans to possess and grow cannabis". 7NEWS.com.au. 2020-01-31. Archived from the original on 2020-02-01. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  124. "Malawi legalises cannabis amid hopes of fresh economic growth". Guardian.com. 2020-02-28. Archived from the original on 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  125. "Lebanon legalizes cannabis farming for medicinal use". reuters.com. 2020-04-21. Archived from the original on 2020-04-25. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  126. "UN commission reclassifies cannabis, yet still considered harmful". UN News. 2020-12-02. Archived from the original on 2021-01-07. Retrieved 2021-01-09.
  127. "Mexico marijuana: Top court decriminalises recreational use of cannabis". BBC News. 28 June 2021. Archived from the original on 1 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  128. "Rwanda legalises medical use of Cannabis". The East African. 1 July 2021. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  129. Jaeger, Kyle (2021-12-18). "Malta Officially Legalizes Marijuana With President's Signature, Becoming First In Europe To End Cannabis Prohibition". Marijuana Moment. Archived from the original on 2021-12-18. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  130. CHALIDA EKVITTHAYAVECHNUKUL (January 25, 2022). "Thailand first in Asia to move to decriminalize marijuana: Thailand has become the first country in Asia to approve the de facto decriminalization of marijuana". Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022 via ABC News.
  131. "luxembourg-legalizes-cannabis-for-personal-use".
  132. "Switzerland legalized cannabis on trial basis. CNBC".
  133. "Ukraine Legalized Cannabis For Medical use".