Timeline of the Republic of Turkey

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History of the Republic of Turkey

This is a timeline of the Republic of Turkey . To read about the background to these events, see History of the Republic of Turkey. See also the List of presidents of Turkey.


See also Timeline of the Ottoman Empire, a chronology of the predecessor state to the Republic of Turkey.

This timeline is incomplete; some important events may be missing. Please help add to it.

Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923)

One-party period (1923–1945)

1923October 29The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed. [1]
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) was unanimously elected the first President of the Republic of Turkey by secret vote.
October 30The first cabinet of the Republic of Turkey was formed by İsmet İnönü.
1924A new policy was instituted that imams be appointed by the government.
March 3The Ottoman caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
The Union of Education (Tevhid-i Tedrisat) Law was passed.
The Ministry of Religious Affairs and all religious schools were abolished.
March 6Second cabinet, again by İsmet İnönü
April 8Religious courts were abolished and replaced with civil courts.
April 20A new Turkish constitution was accepted.
August 26 Türkiye Is Bankasi was established. [2]
October 30The generals who were also in parliament were asked to choose either military profession or politics but not both. (This event is known as the crisis of generals.)
November 17The second political party in Turkey, the Progressive Republican Party, was formed.
November 22Third cabinet by Ali Fethi Okyar.
1925February 11The Sheikh Said rebellion started in the eastern provinces.
February 25A law separating religion from politics was accepted and passed in the TBMM.
March 4Fourth cabinet by İsmet İnönü
May 5An Armenian named Manok Manukyan was executed in Ankara for planning an assassination attempt on Mustafa Kemal.
June 3The Progressive Republican Party was closed and abolished for exploiting religion for political purposes.
June 29 Sheikh Said and his 46 followers were sentenced to death in Diyarbakır.
August 27Mustafa Kemal came to Kastamonu to initiate the Hat Revolution.
September 1The first Turkish Medical Congress was assembled.
September 4Turkish women entered a beauty contest for the first time.
October 1 Atatürk opened the Bursa textile factory.
November 5Ankara Law School (then the Ankara University Faculty of Law) was opened.
November 25"Hat Law" was issued, abolishing religious dress.
December 26A law was passed which abolished the lunar calendar in favor of the international calendar.
1926February 17A Turkish civil code based on the Swiss Civil Code was accepted. The code granted expanded civil rights to women and prohibited polygamy.
March 1A Turkish criminal code was established based on the Italian Criminal Code.
March 17A law was passed to nationalise the iron industry.
March 24A law was passed to nationalise the petroleum industry.
1927March 7The extraordinary Independence Tribunals were abolished.
October 15Mustafa Kemal Atatürk started his "Nutuk" speech.
The second nationwide congress of the Republican People's Party took place.
October 20The "Nutuk" speech ended.
October 28The first population census counted the population at approximately thirteen and a half million.
November 27Fifth cabinet by İsmet İnönü
December 25The first female Turkish lawyer, Sureyya Agaoglu, began her duty.
1928April 10The article "The official religion of Turkey is Islam" was removed from the constitution.
May 19A law establishing an engineering school was accepted.
November 1A new Turkish alphabet based on the Latin alphabet was accepted.
1929April 3A new municipal law enabled women to enter municipal elections both as voters and as candidates.
April 29The first female Turkish judges were appointed.
May 13A trade law was accepted by the TBMM.
September 1Arabic and Persian courses were abolished replaced by Turkish-only language courses.
1930June 11A law was accepted which established the Turkish Republic Central Bank.
August 12The Free Republican Party, the third party in the republic, was established.
September 27Sixth cabinet by İsmet İnönü
October 27Greek prime minister Venizelos visited Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara.
November 17After the Free Republican Party's cooption by radical religious groups, its leader Fethi Okyar decided to close.
December 30 Kubilay was killed in an anti-republican rebellion.
1931March 16The first female Turkish surgeon, Dr. Suat, received her specialty.
March 26The Measurements Law was accepted, abolishing the former Arabic length and weight measurement units and replacing them with the metric system (kilogram instead of okka, meter instead of endaze, etc.)
April 20Mustafa Kemal Atatürk historically declared the slogan "Peace at home, peace in the world!"
May 4Seventh cabinet by İsmet İnönü
July 25A new press law was accepted.
1932July 18Turkey became a member of the League of Nations.
July 31Turkish woman Keriman Halis Ece was declared the World Beauty Queen at a contest in Belgium.
November 13Dr. Müfide Kazim became the first female Turkish government physician.
December 12Adile Ayda became the first female Turkish civil servant in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
1933February 7The first Turkish-language mosque prayers began in Istanbul.
May 31The 480-year-old Darülfünun was abolished, to be converted into Istanbul University.
JuneSümerbank and Halkbank were established.
October 26Turkish women were granted the right to vote and be elected to Village Councils.
November 18Istanbul University was opened.
December 1The first five-year development plan was accepted.
1934June 21The Surname Law was accepted, abolishing the former titles of Bey, Efendi, Pasha, Sultan, and Hanım as of November 26.
November 24Mustafa Kemal Pasha took the surname Atatürk.
The Hagia Sophia mosque was converted to the Ayasofya (Hagia Sophia) Museum.
December 5Turkish women were granted the right to vote and be elected in Turkish parliamentary elections. (Afterwards, in the first elections, 18 women were elected to the Turkish Grand National Assembly).
1935March 1Eight cabinet by İsmet İnönü.
1936May 29A law determining the size and ratios of the star and crescent in the Turkish flag was accepted.
June 8A labor law was accepted which represented the first step towards the Turkish Social Security System.
1937January 27 Hatay's independence was accepted by the League of Nations in its Geneva meeting.
June 9A law establishing a medical faculty in Ankara was accepted.
September 20 Atatürk opened the first art gallery in his residence, the Dolmabahce Palace.
October 9Atatürk opened the Nazilli Printed Cloth Fabric Factory.
October 25Ninth cabinet by Celal Bayar, former minister of Economy
1938November 10The founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died. He was succeeded by İsmet İnönü, former prime minister and general.
1939World War II: World War II began. Turkey was to remain neutral for most of the war, until a declaration of war against Germany at its end.
July 7The Province of Hatay joined Turkey following a rigged referendum included by the Turkish government. [3] [4]

Multi-party period (1945–)

1950June 25 Korean War : The Korean War began. Turkey was a part of the joint UN operation.
1950 Müfide İlhan mayor of Mersin. First ever woman mayor in Turkey.
1952Turkey became a NATO country strategically important in countering Soviet influence.
1953July 27Korean War: The war ended.
1954Turkey began to host the USAF at the Incirlik Air Base as a deterrent to the Soviet Union.
1955September 6 Istanbul Pogrom : The Istanbul Pogrom started the process of driving many Greeks and Christians from Turkey.
September 7Istanbul Pogrom: The pogrom drew to a close.
1960May 27The 1960 coup d'état took place due to the level of influence the Islamists had gained in the nation. After this clash over the "separation of religion and state/government" between İnönü's Republican People's Party and his opponents, president Celal Bayar and prime minister Adnan Menderes, both former Republican People's Party members, prime minister Adnan Menderes was held responsible and was executed with two of his ministers.
1965OctoberMilitary rule bowed out to civilian rule, the political system was reestablished, and a new constitution was drafted that reaffirmed the "separation of religion and state/government".
1971March 12Military officials forced an advisory committee on the government due to the increasing anarchical situation caused by the Right (fascist/capitalist) – Left (communist) clash and ineffective policies in maintaining order. Although the military were not in charge they had significant influence.
1974Turkey invaded Cyprus in response to a Greek-backed coup on the island.
1980September 12The 1980 coup d'état took place. Martial law was almost immediately established and a quarter of the military (about 475,000) were mobilised to settle the resistance to the coup.
1983November 6After the establishment of a new 1982 Constitution, the military regime dissolved itself.
1991After the ending of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the Incirlik Air Base enforced the northern no-fly zones in Iraq.
1999March 24 Kosovo War : NATO interceded in the Balkans to end a civil war in the region. Turkey was part of the mission.
June 10Kosovo War: The war ended.

21st century

2002JuneTurkey assumed command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan.
2003FebruaryTurkey relinquished command of the ISAF.
2004December 17The European Union (EU) agreed to begin negotiations on the eventual accession of Turkey.
2005February 14Turkey assumed command of the ISAF in Afghanistan for a second time.
October 3The European Union (EU) started accession talks with Turkey. The talks did not start at the desired time due to arguments about Turkey's

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  2. Haber, Tasova net. "Türkiye İş Bankası 99. Yaşını Kutladı". Tasova.net Haber (in Turkish). Retrieved September 13, 2023.
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  4. Jack Kalpakian (2004). Identity, Conflict and Cooperation in International River Systems (Hardcover ed.). Ashgate Publishing. p. 130. ISBN   0-7546-3338-1.