Timeline of the Ottoman Empire

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A map of the territorial expansion of the Ottoman Empire from 1307 to 1683. Emperi Otoman - Expansion territoriala de 1307 a 1683.png
A map of the territorial expansion of the Ottoman Empire from 1307 to 1683.

This article provides a timeline of the Ottoman Empire


This timeline is incomplete; some important events may be missing. Please help add to it.

14th century

c. 1298 The reign of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, began.
1302July 27 Battle of Bapheus. The first war between the Ottomans and Byzantines.
1326 Orhan Gazi's accession to the throne.
1326 Siege of Bursa. The Ottomans conquered Bursa. After the conquest the city was the capital.
1329June 10–11 Battle of Pelekanon. The Ottomans completed their conquest of Bithynia and the north-western corner of Anatolia.
1328-31 Siege of Nicaea. The Ottomans conquered Nicaea.
1362March Orhan Gazi's to death. Murad I accession to the throne.
1365 Battle of Sırp Sındığı. Bulgaria had to pay taxes, and the decline of the Bulgarian Empire.
1369 Edirne was conquered. From 1413 to 1458 the city was the capital.
1371September 27 Battle of Maritsa. Serbia was forced to declare loyalty to the Ottoman Empire.
1385-87 Battle of Pločnik..
1389June 15 Battle of Kosovo. Most of Serbia is conquered. Murad I lost his life in this war. [1] [2] Bayezid I accession to the throne.
1396September 25 Battle of Nicopolis. Bulgaria was conquered.
1399The Bursa great mosque was built by the Bayezid I. The first to be built by the Ottoman Darü'ş-şifa (worship and education center) Bayezid 1.

15th century

1402July 20 Battle of Ankara. Ottomans entered the short-term period of stagnation. The battle is also significant in Ottoman history as being the only time a Sultan has been captured in person. [3]
1402-13 Ottoman Interregnum or Ottoman Civil War. This process Bayezid I 1402 at the Battle of Ankara, Turco-Mongol warlord Tamerlane defeated as a result of falling prisoner appeared. Crumbling Ottoman unity, the year in 1413 was restored by Mehmed I.
1413July 5 Battle of Çamurlu. Mehmed I accession to the throne.
1421May 26 Murad II accession to throne
1422 Siege of Constantinople (1422). The first comprehensive siege of Constantinople by the Ottomans.
1427-28 Germiyanids was conquered by the Ottomans.
1432March 30 Mehmet the Conqueror's birth.
1443-44 Crusade of Varna.
1444November 10 Battle of Varna. Morea and Bulgaria were connected to the Ottoman State. This began to increase the authority of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
1448October 17–20 Battle of Kosovo II. Balkans fully entered Ottoman rule.
1453May 29 Mehmed II (the Conqueror) captures Constantinople, and the final Byzantine emperor Constantine XI dies in the fighting.
1459 Serbia was conquered.
1460 Mehmed II conquers Morea.
1461 Mehmed II conquers Trabzon thus ends Empire of Trebizond.
1461 Isfendiyarids joined the Ottoman lands.
1462 Mehmed II begins to build his Topkapi Palace.
1463 Bosnia was conquered.
1463-79 Ottoman–Venetian War
1473 Battle of Otlukbeli; Mehmed II defeats Uzun Hasan of Akkoyunlu Turkmens.
1475 Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Caffa. Crimea becomes vassal of the Ottoman Empire.
1478 Albania is conquered.
1480 Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Otranto, the southeast corner of Italy as a base for further attacks on Italy (only to evacuate after the death of Mehmet II).
1481May 3 Mehmed II dies. Bayezid II ascended to the throne.
1481 Sultan Cem and Bayezid II has experienced a struggle for the throne between. This event is important for the Ottoman history. There has been standstill and internal conflicts.
1482 Duchy of Saint Sava was conquered.
1485-91 Ottoman–Mamluk War.
1487 Karamanids was conquered.
1498 Zeta was conquered.
1499-1503 Ottoman–Venetian War (1499–1503)

16th century

1512April 24 Selim I, the Inflexible ascension to throne
1514 Battle of Chaldiran; Selim I defeats Ismail I of the Safavids; East Anatolia under Ottoman control for the first time.
1516 Battle of Marj Dabiq; Selim I defeats Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Syria and Palestine under Ottoman rule.
1517 Battle of Ridaniya; Selim I defeats Tuman bay II of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Egypt under Ottoman rule.
1517 Piri Reis; presented the first world map of the Selim I.
1519 Hayreddin Barbarossa, ruler of much of Algeria, agrees to become a provincial governor under the Ottomans.
1519 Jelali revolts.
1520The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) begins.
1521Suleiman I conquers Belgrade.
1522Suleiman I captures Rhodes.
1526 Battle of Mohács. Suleiman I defeats Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia.
1529Suleiman I besieges Vienna.
1532Suleiman I besieges Közseg
1534-6Suleiman I leads the Two Iraqs campaign against the Safavids, annexing Baghdad.
1536 Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha was executed.
1537Suleiman I besieges Korfu
1538The Holy League navy is defeated in the Battle of Preveza.
1541Conquest of Buda and establishment of Ottoman rule over Hungary.
1543Suleiman I besieges Esztergom
1548Campaign to Iran
1551 Siege of Tripoli (1551). Tripoli is taken over.
1552August Capture of Muscat. Muscat in the management of the Portuguese Empire, Seized by the Ottomans.
1553October 6Execution of Şehzade Mustafa, the crown prince during the 12th campaign of Suleyman.
1555 Peace of Amasya signed with the Safavid Empire. Western Armenia (Eastern Anatolia), western Georgia (incl. western Samtskhe), and western Kurdistan fall in Ottoman hands. The latter also gained control over most of Mesopotamia (Iraq). Eastern Armenia, Eastern Georgia (incl. eastern Samtskhe), Dagestan, and Shirvan (present-day Azerbaijan Republic) remain under Safavid rule.
1560 Battle of Djerba.
1565Failed siege of Malta.
1565DecemberThe Ottoman-Macedonian wars begin with the commencement of the Mariovo and Prilep rebellion. The Macedonian revolutionaries

storm through the town of Prilep causing a conflict, the Ottoman janissaries later suppress the revolt.

1566September 6The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) ends. Siege of Szigetvár. Selim II accession to throne
1568The great fire of Istanbul Burns.
1570-73 Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–73). Conquest of Cyprus.
1571 Battle of Lepanto. The Holy League defeat the Ottomans.
1571 Fire of Moscow (1571). Crimean khan Devlet I Giray raided the city of Moscow.
1574 Conquest of Tunis. Selim II death. Murad III accession to the throne.
1575 Selimiye Mosque was built by architect Mimar Sinan between 1569 and 1575.
1578 Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–90). When this war ended, the Ottomans reached the widest extent in the east.
1590 Treaty of İstanbul between Ottoman Empire and the Safavids; Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as western Iran under Ottoman rule. Reaching the widest border in the east of the Ottomans.
1593June 22 Battle of Sisak.
1593-1606 Long Turkish War. The series of wars that lasted 13 years, ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok.
1595January 16 Mehmet III accession to throne
1596October 23–26 Battle of Keresztes.

17th century

1603-18 Ottoman–Safavid War. The Ottomans lost all the lands they won with the Ferhat Pasha Treaty.
1609 Kuyucu Murad Pasha suppresses the Jelali revolts.
1612 Treaty of Nasuh Pasha between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia. Ottoman Empire gives up all gains made by Treaty of Istanbul of 1590.
1618 Treaty of Serav signed with the Safavid Empire after further losses in the Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18).
1622May 20Regicide of Osman II.
Revolt of Abaza Mehmed Pasha.
1639 Treaty of Zuhab signed with the Safavid Empire. Roughly restored the borders as agreed per the Peace of Amasya (1555). Decisive partition of the Caucasus, recognition of Ottoman control of Mesopotamia (Iraq). Western Georgia (incl. all of Samtskhe this time) and Western Armenia decisively fall in Turkish hands. Eastern Georgia, Eastern Armenia, Dagestan, and Shirvan (present-day Azerbaijan Republic) remain under Iranian control.
1648Deposition of Sultan Ibrahim, enthronement of Mehmed IV.
1649May 12 Battle of Focchies.
1651September 2Assassination of Kösem Sultan.
1656 Köprülü Mehmed Pasha is appointed Grand Vizier, inaugurating the Köprülü political dynasty, a family of viziers, warriors, and statesmen who dominated the administration of the empire during the last half of the 17th century, an era known as the Köprülü era (c. 1656–1703).
1658 Köprülü Mehmed carries out extensive purges of the imperial cavalry.
Revolt of Abaza Hasan Pasha.
Ottoman conquest of Ineu (Yanova).
1661Death of Köprülü Mehmed Pasha. His son Fazıl Ahmed Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.
1663-64 Austro-Turkish War. War ended with the Peace of Vasvár.
1669Ottoman conquest of Heraklion (Kandiye).
1672-76 Polish–Ottoman War. Ottoman conquest of Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamaniçe). The war end of the Ottoman Empire reached its maximum size in europe.
1676Death of Fazıl Ahmed Pasha. His brother-in-law Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.
1683September 12 Battle of Vienna. Ottoman defeat.
December 25Execution of Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha.
1686 Buda lost to the Austrian Habsburgs.
1687Deposition of Mehmed IV.
1689October 20An uprising occurs in Ottoman Macedonia, known as the Karposh's Rebellion.
1697September 11 Battle of Zenta. Ottoman defeat. Grand Vizier was killed.
1699Ottomans cede most of Hungary to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz.

18th century

1715 Morea recaptured
1718 Treaty of Passarowitz signed.
1718Beginning of Tulip era (up to 1730)
1729First printing press in Turkish by Ibrahim Muteferrika
1730Revolt of Patrona Halil. End of Tulip era. Ahmet III is dethroned.
1739 Treaty of Belgrade signed.
1770July 5 - 7 Battle of Çeşme, the first of a number of disastrous fleet battles for the Ottomans against Russia.
1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed.
17914 August Treaty of Sistova
17929 January Treaty of Jassy

19th century

1804February 14 First Serbian Uprising : The Serbian Revolution begins.
1807May Kabakçı Mustafa rebellion: Reformist sultan Selim III dethroned.
1808July 21 Alemdar Mustafa Pasha suppresses the rebellion. But Selim III is dead and Mahmut II becomes the new sultan.
1813April 23 Second Serbian Uprising : The Serbs revolt.
1821 Greek War of Independence : The Greek War of Independence begins.
1826June 15 Auspicious Incident: centuries old Janissary corps forcibly disbanded after a rebellion against Mahmud II.
1830 Algeria is conquered by the French.
1831November 11First official newspaper in Turkish published. (Takvim-i Vekayi)
1832July 21 Greek War of Independence : Greek sovereignty is formalized.
1831–1833 Egyptian–Ottoman War.
1833July 8 Treaty of Hunkar Iskelesi Russia helped Ottoman empire against Egyptian threat and confirmed its protection
1838 Anglo-Ottoman Treaty opens the empire to free trade of European powers
1839 Tanzimat period
1853October 4 Crimean War : The Crimean War with Russia begins, with Britain, France and Sardinia joining on the Ottoman side.
1860October 21First private newspaper in Turkish published by Agah Efendi.(Tercümen'ı Ahval).
1862February 5A united Romanian autonomous state is established.
1875October 30Ottomans default on their public debt, having first entered into loan contracts with its European creditors shortly after the beginning of the Crimean War.
1876December 23Opened the 1876–1877 Constantinople Conference, which ends the Tanzimat reforms after they bankrupt the Empire. [4]
1877April 24 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) : Another war with Russia, the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, begins.
1878March 3Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stefano recognizes Romanian and Serbian independence, as well as the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian principality under nominal Ottoman protection. Austria-Hungary occupies Bosnia by default.
June 4 Cyprus is occupied by Britain.
1881 Tunisia becomes a French colony.
1882 Egypt goes under British protection.
1885September 6The province of Eastern Rumelia is transferred to Bulgarian jurisdiction.

20th century

1908 Second Constitutional Era (Young Turk revolution)
October 5 Bulgaria obtains full independence.
October 7 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia by mere declaration.
1911November 11 Italo-Turkish War : The Ottomans are defeated by Italy in a short war, with the Italians gaining Libya and ending the 340-year Ottoman presence in North Africa.
1912October 8 First Balkan War : Albania declares independence
1913May 17First Balkan War: The Ottoman Empire is nearly wiped out from Europe, save for Istanbul and just enough land around to defend it.
1914August 2The Empire enters into World War I on the side of the Central Powers. Cyprus is annexed outright by Britain.
1915April 24The Ottoman Empire initiates forced deportation of Armenians.
1915April 25The Gallipoli Campaign: Under the command of Mustafa Kemal, the Ottoman army successfully repels Britain invasion of the Dardanelles in Turkey.
December 7 Siege of Kut. Ottoman defense just outside of Baghdad, leading to a major defeat for the British. Largest mass surrender of a British army since Yorktown (American revolutionary war). [5]
1917February 23 Russian Revolution occurs, ceasing hostilities in the Caucasus, allowing Enver Pasha to establish the Army of Islam and retake lands in eastern Anatolia from Russia, ultimately to pre-war borders.
1918October 30 Armistice of Mudros, ending hostilities in the Middle Eastern theater of World War I, including Clause VII, stating that "The Allies to have the right to occupy any strategic points in the event of any situation arising which threatens the security of the Allies." [6] This clause was subsequently used by the Greeks, Italians, French, and British to occupy parts of Ottoman lands felt to be in their territorial interests.
1919May 15Greek troops land in and occupy Izmir (classical Smyrna), with Allied approval. Greek atrocities begin on the local Turkish Muslim civilian population, leading to widespread Turkish disaffection.
May 19 Turkish War of Independence commences.
1920August 10 Treaty of Sèvres, marking the beginning of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. Rejected by Turkish nationalists and eventually leads to the abolition of the monarchy by the Government of the Grand National Assembly based in Ankara.
1922November 1 Abolition of the Ottoman dynasty by Republic of Turkey.
1923July 24 Treaty of Lausanne signed.
1924March 3Abolition of the Caliphate by Grand National Assembly of Turkey

See also


See also

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  4. Armstrong, Karen (2001). Islam: A Short History. London: Phoenix. pp. xxvi. ISBN   1-84212-583-4.
  5. "Kut al-Amara | International Encyclopedia of the First World War (WW1)". encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  6. "The Armistice Convention with Turkey" (PDF). germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 3, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2023.