Timothy Holland

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Tim Holland

Dr Timothy Holland FRS.jpg
Timothy Holland at the Royal Society admissions day in London, July 2014
Timothy John Barrington Holland
Alma mater University of Oxford (DPhil)
Awards The Murchison Fund (1995)
Scientific career
Fields Petrology
Institutions University of Cambridge
Thesis Structural and Metamorphic Studies of Eclogites and Associated Rocks in the Central Tauern Region of the Eastern Alps  (1977)
Doctoral advisor Stephen W. Richardson [1] [2]
Website www.esc.cam.ac.uk/directory/tim-holland

Timothy John Barrington Holland FRS is a petrologist and Emeritus Professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Cambridge. [3]



Holland was educated at the University of Oxford where he was awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1977 [1] for research on eclogites in the Tauern region of the Alps supervised by Stephen W. Richardson. [2]

Research and career

Holland's research investigates the computation of petrological phase equilibria. [2] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] His research has been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). [11]

Holland has made fundamental and enduring contributions to petrology. [12] He was the first to show that surface rocks had been buried to over 70 km. [12] He has worked to construct a self-consistent thermodynamic database which describes equilibria among the multi-component mineral phases important in rocks and with full propagation of errors. [12] This work, among the most highly cited in the geosciences, now underpins most petrological research. [12] Recent advances include the calculation of mineral assemblages and compositions as a function of composition, pressure and temperature and the thermodynamic modelling of silicate melts, critical to tectonic interpretations of deeply buried rocks. [12]

Awards and honours

Holland was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2014. [12] He was awarded The Murchison Fund by the Geological Society of London in 1995.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spinel</span> Mineral or gemstone

Spinel is the magnesium/aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. It has the formula MgAl
in the cubic crystal system. Its name comes from the Latin word spinella, which means spine in reference to its pointed crystals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Labradorite</span> Mineral: intermediate member of a solid solution series (50 to 70 % anorthite and albite)

Labradorite ((Ca, Na)(Al, Si)4O8) is a calcium-enriched feldspar mineral first identified in Labrador, Canada, which can display an iridescent effect (schiller).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amphibolite</span> A metamorphic rock containing mainly amphibole and plagioclase

Amphibolite is a metamorphic rock that contains amphibole, especially hornblende and actinolite, as well as plagioclase feldspar, but with little or no quartz. It is typically dark-colored and dense, with a weakly foliated or schistose (flaky) structure. The small flakes of black and white in the rock often give it a salt-and-pepper appearance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coesite</span> Silica mineral, rare polymorph of quartz

Coesite is a form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide Si O2 that is formed when very high pressure (2–3 gigapascals), and moderately high temperature (700 °C, 1,300 °F), are applied to quartz. Coesite was first synthesized by Loring Coes Jr., a chemist at the Norton Company, in 1953.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Komatiite</span> Ultramafic mantle-derived volcanic rock

Komatiite is a type of ultramafic mantle-derived volcanic rock defined as having crystallised from a lava of at least 18 wt% MgO. Komatiites have low silicon, potassium and aluminium, and high to extremely high magnesium content. Komatiite was named for its type locality along the Komati River in South Africa, and frequently displays spinifex texture composed of large dendritic plates of olivine and pyroxene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pelite</span> Metamorphic rock

A pelite or metapelite is a metamorphosed fine-grained sedimentary rock, i.e. mudstone or siltstone. The term was earlier used by geologists to describe a clay-rich, fine-grained clastic sediment or sedimentary rock, i.e. mud or a mudstone, the metamorphosed version of which would technically have been a metapelite. It was equivalent to the now little-used Latin-derived term lutite. A semipelite is defined in part as having similar chemical composition but being of a crystalloblastic nature.

Geothermobarometry is the science of measuring the previous pressure and temperature history of a metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks. Geothermobarometry is a combination of geobarometry, where a pressure of mineral formation is resolved, and geothermometry where a temperature of formation is resolved.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tschermakite</span> Amphibole, double chain inosilicate mineral

The endmember hornblende tschermakite (☐Ca2(Mg3Al2)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2) is a calcium rich monoclinic amphibole mineral. It is frequently synthesized along with its ternary solid solution series members tremolite and cummingtonite so that the thermodynamic properties of its assemblage can be applied to solving other solid solution series from a variety of amphibole minerals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metamorphic facies</span> Set of mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks formed under similar pressures and temperatures

A metamorphic facies is a set of mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks formed under similar pressures and temperatures. The assemblage is typical of what is formed in conditions corresponding to an area on the two dimensional graph of temperature vs. pressure. Rocks which contain certain minerals can therefore be linked to certain tectonic settings, times and places in the geological history of the area. The boundaries between facies are wide because they are gradational and approximate. The area on the graph corresponding to rock formation at the lowest values of temperature and pressure is the range of formation of sedimentary rocks, as opposed to metamorphic rocks, in a process called diagenesis.

In geology ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism (UHT) is extreme crustal metamorphism with metamorphic temperatures exceeding 900 °C. Granulite-facies rocks metamorphosed at very high temperatures were identified in the early 1980s, although it took another decade for the geoscience community to recognize UHT metamorphism as a common regional phenomenon. Petrological evidence based on characteristic mineral assemblages backed by experimental and thermodynamic relations demonstrated that Earth's crust can attain and withstand very high temperatures (900–1000 °C) with or without partial melting.

Jonathan David Blundy FRS is Royal Society Research Professor at the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Oxford and honorary professor at the University of Bristol.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alkali basalt</span> Type of volcanic rock

Alkali basalt or alkali olivine basalt is a dark-colored, porphyritic volcanic rock usually found in oceanic and continental areas associated with volcanic activity, such as oceanic islands, continental rifts and volcanic fields. Alkali basalt is characterized by relatively high alkali (Na2O and K2O) content relative to other basalts and by the presence of olivine and titanium-rich augite in its groundmass and phenocrysts, and nepheline in its CIPW norm.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Subduction zone metamorphism</span> Changes of rock due to pressure and heat near a subduction zone

A subduction zone is a region of the earth's crust where one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate; oceanic crust gets recycled back into the mantle and continental crust gets created by the formation of arc magmas. Arc magmas account for more than 20% of terrestrially produced magmas and are produced by the dehydration of minerals within the subducting slab as it descends into the mantle and are accreted onto the base of the overriding continental plate. Subduction zones host a unique variety of rock types created by the high-pressure, low-temperature conditions a subducting slab encounters during its descent. The metamorphic conditions the slab passes through in this process creates and destroys water bearing (hydrous) mineral phases, releasing water into the mantle. This water lowers the melting point of mantle rock, initiating melting. Understanding the timing and conditions in which these dehydration reactions occur, is key to interpreting mantle melting, volcanic arc magmatism, and the formation of continental crust.

Roger Powell FRS, is a British-born Australian based educator and academic. He is Emeritus professor in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Melbourne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mark S. Ghiorso</span> American geochemist

Mark S. Ghiorso is an American geochemist who resides in Seattle, Washington. He is best known for creating MELTS, a software tool for thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria in magmatic systems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pressure-temperature-time path</span>

The Pressure-Temperature-time path is a record of the pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions that a rock experienced in a metamorphic cycle from burial and heating to uplift and exhumation to the surface. Metamorphism is a dynamic process which involves the changes in minerals and textures of the pre-existing rocks (protoliths) under different P-T conditions in solid state. The changes in pressures and temperatures with time experienced by the metamorphic rocks are often investigated by petrological methods, radiometric dating techniques and thermodynamic modeling.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Petrogenetic grid</span> Pressure-temperature diagram of mineral stability ranges

A petrogenetic grid is a geological phase diagram that connects the stability ranges or metastability ranges of metamorphic minerals or mineral assemblages to the conditions of metamorphism. Experimentally determined mineral or mineral-assemblage stability ranges are plotted as metamorphic reaction boundaries in a pressure–temperature cartesian coordinate system to produce a petrogenetic grid for a particular rock composition. The regions of overlap of the stability fields of minerals form equilibrium mineral assemblages used to determine the pressure–temperature conditions of metamorphism. This is particularly useful in geothermobarometry.

Rebecca Ann Lange is a professor of experimental petrology, magmatism and volcanism at the University of Michigan. Her research investigates how magmatism has shaped the evolution of the Earth, as well as the formation of continental crust. She is a Fellow of the Mineralogical Society of America and was awarded the F.W. Clarke Medal in 1995.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Farmington Gabbro</span>

Located in the Charlotte Belt of North Carolina is the Farmington Gabbro, located in the Mocksville Complex. The Mocksville Complex consist of metamorphosed/unmetamorphosed gabbros, pyroxenites, hornblendites, wehrlites, granites, and diorites. The plutons in this region formed during the Taconic, Acadian, and Alleghanian orogeny starting on the eastern side of Laurentia. These plutons date back to around 400 Ma, consisting of ultramafic, mafic, and felsic rocks but the Farmington Gabbro is the only pluton on the northwest side of the complex that is unmetamorphosed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Red Hill Syenite</span>

The Red Hill Syenite is a layered igneous rock complex in central New Hampshire, about 20 mi (32 km) east of Plymouth. The Red Hill Syenite is part of the White Mountain magma series, which underlays the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Red Hill is roughly oval-shaped, covers just under 7.7 square miles (20 km2), and has a summit elevation of 2,028 feet (618 m).


  1. 1 2 Holland, Timothy John Barrington (1977). Structural and metamorphic evolution of eclogites and associated rocks in the central Tauern region of the eastern Alps (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC   321017954. EThOS   uk.bl.ethos.459466.
  2. 1 2 3 Holland, T. J. B.; Richardson, S. W. (1979). "Amphibole zonation in metabasites as a guide to the evolution of metamorphic conditions". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 70 (2): 143. doi:10.1007/BF00374442.
  3. Timothy Holland publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
  4. "Dr Tim Holland, Department of Earth Sciences". University of Cambridge. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009.
  5. Blundy, J. D.; Holland, T. J. B. (1990). "Calcic amphibole equilibria and a new amphibole-plagioclase geothermometer". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 104 (2): 208. doi:10.1007/BF00306444.
  6. Holland, T. J. B.; Powell, R. (2004). "An internally consistent thermodynamic data set for phases of petrological interest". Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 16 (3): 309. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1998.00140.x.
  7. Holland, T. J. B.; Powell, R. (1990). "An enlarged and updated internally consistent thermodynamic dataset with uncertainties and correlations: The system K₂–Na₂O–CaO–MgO–MnO–FeO–Fe₂O₃–Al₂O₃–TiO₂–SiO₂–C–H₂–O₂". Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 8: 89. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1990.tb00458.x.
  8. Powell, R.; Holland, T. J. B. (1988). "An internally consistent dataset with uncertainties and correlations: 3. Applications to geobarometry, worked examples and a computer program". Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 6 (2): 173. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1314.1988.tb00415.x.
  9. Holland, T.; Blundy, J. (1994). "Non-ideal interactions in calcic amphiboles and their bearing on amphibole-plagioclase thermometry". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 116 (4): 433. doi:10.1007/BF00310910.
  10. Holland, T. J. B. (1990). "Activities of components in omphacitic solid solutions". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 105 (4): 446. doi:10.1007/BF00286831.
  11. UK Government research grants awarded to Timothy Holland via Research Councils UK
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Anon (2014). "Dr Timothy Holland FRS". royalsociety.org. London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where:
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