Timothy Leighton

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Timothy Leighton

Professor Timothy Leighton FREng FRS.jpg
Timothy Leighton at the Royal Society admissions day in London, July 2014
Born
Timothy Grant Leighton

(1963-10-16) 16 October 1963 (age 60) [1]
Blackburn, Lancashire
Education Heversham Grammar School, Cumbria
Alma mater University of Cambridge (MA, PhD)
Known forThe Acoustic Bubble [2] [3]
Awards
Scientific career
Fields
Institutions
Thesis Image intensifier studies of sonoluminescence, with application to the safe use of medical ultrasound  (1988)
Website southampton.ac.uk/engineering/about/staff/tgl.page

Timothy Grant Leighton FRS FREng FMedSci [5] [6] [7] [8] (born 16 October 1963) [1] [2] is the Professor of Ultrasonics and Underwater Acoustics at the University of Southampton. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] He is the inventor-in-chief of Sloan Water Technology Ltd., [15] a company founded around his inventions. He is an academician of three national academies. [5] Trained in physics and theoretical physics, he works across physical, medical, biological, social and ocean sciences, fluid dynamics and engineering. He joined the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research (ISVR) at the University of Southampton in 1992 as a lecturer in underwater acoustics, and completed the monograph The Acoustic Bubble [2] in the same year. He was awarded a personal chair at the age of 35 and has authored over 400 publications. [10] [16] [17]

Contents

Education

He was educated at Heversham Grammar School, Cumbria and Magdalene College, Cambridge where he took the Natural Sciences Tripos and was awarded a double first class Bachelor of Arts degree with honours in physics and theoretical Physics in 1985, obtaining a PhD in 1988 at the Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge. [1] [18] [19] [20] Following his PhD, he was awarded senior and advanced research fellowships at Magdalene College, Cambridge funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). [21]

Early career

He joined the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research (ISVR) at the University of Southampton in 1992 as a lecturer in underwater acoustics, and completed the monograph The Acoustic Bubble [2] in the same year. He was awarded a personal chair at the age of 35.

Research

He founded and leads two research organisations he founded (Global-NAMRIP and HEFUA), is the executive general director and inventor-in-chief of Sloan Water Technology Ltd., [15] and talks extensively to schoolchildren, the public, [22] and on radio and video. [23]

His research covers medical, humanitarian and environmental sciences, beginning with the fundamental mathematics and ending with engineering applications. His research interests cover acoustical oceanography, antimicrobial resistance, [24] [25] biomedical ultrasound, [26] carbon capture and storage, [27] [28] [29] climate change, [28] [30] [31] [32] decontamination, [33] hospital acquired infections, [34] marine zoology, [35] [36] fluid dynamics, ultrasound and underwater acoustics. Working in such fields as cold water cleaning, [34] sound in space, [37] [38] [39] [40] ultrasound in air, [41] [42] BiaPSS, [43] TWIPR, [14] and passive acoustic lithortripsy monitoring, [44] [45] [46] [47] he emphasized the need to push pioneering research into game-changing technology, [48] [49] [50] [51] [19] as opposed to incremental research that is published but falls short of societal benefit: [52]

...We need to work with rigour, imagination, and wonder, unconstrained by the artificial boundaries set in place by discipline names, or the history of projects in which we have previously worked, or the tendency of sponsors to believe they can pick winners, or above all by the belief that we must jump to solutions when we have not yet perceived the real problem. Then, when we eventually do find a solution, we must have the will to push it through all the way to help others, and not simply publish in the expectation that someone will finish the job for us. [16]

He worked as part of the team investigating whether man-made sounds can adversely affect benthic species (marine life that inhabits the seabed). [53] [54] Such species have been overlooked in studies on how man-made sounds affect whales, dolphins and fish: benthic species find it far harder to relocate away from adverse sounds than do these other more mobile species. Furthermore, benthic species play a key role in the health of the marine sediment, turning it over and preventing it stagnating, and are key to the health of coastal marine environments. [35] [55]

With other teams he developed methods to assess which fish species are most at-risk from man-made noise in the oceans, [56] and quantified such noise from shipping. [57] Turning the problem on its head, he worked with other teams on how to use sound as 'underwater acoustic scarecrows' to guide fish away from regions of man-made danger. These might occurs, for example, where industry exacts cooling water from rivers used as migration paths of endangered species (the young of European eel are slim enough for the flow to pull them through grills placed over such extraction points). [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] (key collaborator: Paul White [66] ).

NAMRIP and Global-NAMRIP

The Global Network for AntiMicrobial Resistance and Infection Prevention (Global-NAMRIP), [24] is a multidisciplinary research team of hundreds researchers and end users, across four continents, including engineers, chemists, microbiologists, environmental scientists, veterinary and human medics, clinicians who contribute to international and national antibiotic guidelines for specified conditions, experts in food, ethics and law, crucially networked with economists, geographers, health scientists and experts from other social science disciplines to provide a truly joined up approach to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and infection prevention (offsetting the loss of diversity in pharmaceutical industry research teams). As Leighton said at NAMRIP's 2016 conference:

...Unless preventative measures are found (and no-one in the world currently knows what those will be), AMR will (through the colloquial 'rise of superbugs') by 2050 be killing more people than cancer, and cost the world economy more than the current size of the global economy. We will not be able to feed the world unless we wean our food production industry off its dependence on antibiotics; common medical procedures (minor surgery, childbirth) will become significantly more hazardous; and advances in treatments (such as those for childhood leukaemia) will become reversed.

Global-NAMRIP was set up to search for such solutions and mitigations, with particular emphasis to finding alternatives to the oft-cited route of simply funding drug companies to produce more antibiotics. According to the New Scientist,: [51]

...I looked at all this and realised that even if there was a billion-dollar fund for new antibiotics, it would not sort out the problem; it might just buy us an extra decade. We need a new approach – a step change like the one antibiotics gave us when they first came in. [51]

...In many parts of the world, climate change and flooding, war, corruption, politics, received wisdom, traditions and religious practices, and the supply of fuel and money, play a far greater role in food, water, waste treatment, healthcare and the transport of microbes from one host to another, than do the outputs of the drug companies. The twin potential catastrophes are global, and so are the causes. The solutions lie with scientists and engineers to develop new technologies and embed new practices in the public and workforce; they lie with farmers, plumbers, office workers, water and sewage workers, medical practitioners, food retailers, innovators in business … indeed most of us. And they lie with those who are responsible for shaping behaviour across the world – not just the pharmaceutical companies. [50]

Global-NAMRIP creates new research teams, [67] commissions new research, [68] engaging with industry [69] to roll out solutions to society, and engaging with the public and policymakers to conduct outreach, education and dialogue. [70] The award-winning Public Engagement [70] and Policymaker Engagement [71] programmes that Leighton devised and leads have been mentioned in Parliament by the Under-Secretary of State for Health on 16 November 2017. [72] [73] and Leighton has addressed the Parliamentary and Scientific Committee on his approach to addressing the threat of AMR. [74] [75]

Global-NAMRIP particularly supports Low/Middle Income Countries with not-for-profit interventions, [25] for example with initiatives in urban [76] and rural Ghana (infection being the primary cause of death in rural Ghana). [77] In Uganda in 2019, Global-NAMRIP members from Uganda, Liberia, Malawi, Kenya, Ghana, Ethiopia and the UK met to compare, for the first time, the national AMR strategies of their respective countries, to share best practice. The meeting also produced significant impact in education, support for young innovators, and responded to a request from the Ugandan Minister for Health to write for him the 'Kampala Declaration on AMR'. [78]

Health Effects of Ultrasound in Air

In 2015, Leighton founded the research group Health Effects of Ultrasound in Air (HEFUA). [79] [80] [81] His aim was to map the increasing use of ultrasound in public places, and to investigate whether or not this increase is having adverse effects on some humans (following an investigation which revealed that the use of ultrasound in public places is increasing, and that guidelines were inadequate prior to the 2016 report).

His 2016 report [41] that first raised the issues was, in the first 2 years, downloaded over 20,000 times from the Royal Society website, leading to requests for a follow-up, [42] a journal special issue, [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] and numerous conference sessions worldwide as the importance of this topic was realised. [89] [90] [91] Scientists, engineers and the public around the world are now logging the location and type of device that emits ultrasound. [92] [86] Leighton became an acknowledged world expert [93] on such public exposures, and on the claims of 'sonic attacks' on US Embassy staff in Cuba and China. [83] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] His expertise on the effect on humans of ultrasound in air provided the scientific basis that was cited by Giles Watling MP (Clacton, Conservative) in the Motion for leave to bring in a Bill (Standing Order No. 23) on "Anti-loitering Devices (Regulation)" (17 July 2018 Volume 645, 2.06 pm). [99] [100]

In 2018, Leighton published an editorial that identified flaws in the way the statistical analysis was conducted on those identified as victims of the claimed attacks, which set up the tests in such a way that even unexposed people would, for the most part, be identified as suffering adverse health effects from the exposure. [83] In 2023, the US Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) agreed with this assessment, stating ‘that initial medical studies that led experts to believe that the AHIs [anomalous health incidents] “represented a novel medical syndrome or consistent pattern of injuries” suffered from “methodological limitations”’. Consequently, it reported that an inter-agency intelligence analysis from 7 agencies concluded that 5 considered it ‘very unlikely’ (one judging it ‘unlikely’, and one abstaining from an opinion) that a foreign adversary had deployed a weapon in the attacks. [101]

He currently serves on the Scientific Expert Group of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection [102] to support appropriate protections for people (particularly children) exposed to airborne ultrasound.

Extraterrestrial acoustics

Marine mammal acoustics

Leighton's explanation of how humpback whales use sound when feeding in bubble nets is now a staple explanation on whale tour boats. [115] [116] [117] [118] He explained how dolphins can echolocate while producing bubble nets to hunt, a process that should blind their sonar. [14] [119] [115]

Inventions

Medical and healthcare

Leighton invented systems for:

and assisted the Institute of Cancer Research with technology for tumour therapy monitoring (2010). [137]

Two billion people have been scanned in the womb under the guidelines he helped co-author for the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology guidelines for foetal ultrasonic scanning. [26] [138]

He served on the Government of the United Kingdom's Working Group of the Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Sub Group [139] [140] and advised the Health Protection Agency [9] and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection [102] on the safety of ultrasound.

Other medical and healthcare inventions and breakthroughs are listed below under Sloan Water Technology Ltd., [15] Global-NAMRIP and HEFUA.

Comparison of standard sonar and TWIPS in finding a target in bubbly water. Adapted from TWIPS picture 2.png
Comparison of standard sonar and TWIPS in finding a target in bubbly water. Adapted from

Humanitarian

Leighton invented:

and, in collaboration with the National Oceanography Centre, one sold by Kongsberg [148] [149] [150] [151] for archaeological and civil engineering purposes. Various collaborations are looking at ways of providing clean water from waste in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, [152] including mentorships of young entrepreneurs in Africa. [153]

Methodology by which active (red) and passive (yellow) sonar can be used to detect and quantify leaks from natural seeps or carbon capture and storage Facilities, taken from ref. Seeps.png
Methodology by which active (red) and passive (yellow) sonar can be used to detect and quantify leaks from natural seeps or carbon capture and storage Facilities, taken from ref.

Environmental and Safety

Leighton:

Sloan Water Technology Ltd.

In the late 1980s, Leighton [178] discovered a new ultrasonic signal [178] [179] [180] [181] that he identified as due to surface waves on the walls of gas bubbles in liquids. [182] [183] [184] Multidisciplinary research in the following 11 parallel streams of work [185] turned this discovery into Sloan Water Technology Ltd:

  1. Theory of how to stimulate these surface waves; [186] [187]
  2. measurement of the liquid convection and shear they generate; [115] [2] [9] [188] [33] theory on how sound causes the bubbles to generate cracks; [2] [189] [190]
  3. theory for acoustics in porous materials (leading to the first theory to show why passing ultrasound through different directions in the human ankle could monitor osteoporosis); [120] [125] [126] [121] [124] [122] [123]
  4. the world's first measurements of the bubble size distribution for industry and in the ocean surf zone, [191] [192] leading to ocean measurements necessary to predict the climatological significance of the transfer of carbon dioxide between atmosphere and ocean. [154] It also provided techniques for measurement in industrial pipelines [193] [194] which led to sensors for the oil and gas, [27] carbon capture and storage, [27] [28] [29] ceramics [195] and nuclear [175] [173] [107] industries.
  5. measurement of the liquid convection and shear from these surface waves; [115] [2] [9] [188] [33] theory on how sound causes the bubbles to generate cracks; [2] [189] [190]
  6. acoustic losses in water surrounded on all sides by air and containing microscopic natural particles; [196] [197] [198]
  7. acoustic propagation down straight columns of liquid with pressure release walls, and the effect of bubbles within such columns; [193]
  8. acoustic propagation down curved columns of fluid, and how horns could facilitate this; [39] [104] [40] [108] [199]
  9. use of acoustic pulses to enhance bubble activity; [2] [200] [201] [202] [203] [204]
  10. controlled bubble generation; [205]
  11. how these bubbles affect living cells [2] [206] and surfaces. [207] [34] [208] [205] [209] [210]

These 11 streams of fundamental research represented the knowledge on which Sloan Water Technology Ltd. was founded. [15] Having purchased Professor Leighton's patent suite from the University of Southampton in 2018, the Allen family chose to name the new R&D facilities ‘The Leighton Laboratories’, [211] consisting of physical science labs, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering labs, workshops, and microbiology and tissue laboratories, co-locating multiple disciplines as Professor Leighton had advocated to address unsolved problems of a societal scale (food and water security, anti-microbial resistance). [74] [75] The company is currently producing technology for cleaning and changing surfaces using only cold water, air bubbles and sound (without chemicals or drugs). [212] [213] [33] [188] This reduces the use of water and electricity, [214] reduces pollution and has run-off that is easier to convert back to drinking water, and reduces the threat of ‘superbugs’. [51] [75]

Sloan Water Technology Ltd. has invented technology for cleaning surgical instruments [215] [216] Food cleaning inventions have been developed for salad (which cannot be sterilized by heat treatment, and each year results in serious illness and even death from E. Coli contamination) [217] [218] and hay (to reduce respiratory illness contracted through animal feed). [219] In the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, when it was not known if the transmission route was airborne or through touch surfaces, Sloan Water Technology developed devices to clean touch surfaces. [220] Sloan Water Technology's most significant product is aimed at reducing the suffering from chronic wounds, which cause huge suffering and costs the UK NHS over £5-billion per year. [221] [222]

Awards and honours

Leighton has been awarded the following medals and distinctions:

Medals

The citation of the 2006 Paterson Medal of the Institute of Physics states that:

Timothy Leighton's contribution is outstanding in both breadth and depth. He is an acknowledged world leader in four fields... He has delivered over 70 pioneering advances, from devices now used in hospitals to the world's first count of bubbles in the surf zone (crucial to our understanding of atmosphere-ocean gas flux, coastal erosion and the optimisation of military sonar). Behind these advances lies rigorous physics. [231]

Awards

  • 2019 Doctor of Science, University of Cambridge [234]
  • 2018 Royal Society's Lord Leonard and Lady Estelle Wolfson Foundation Translation Award for the StarHealer [235]
  • the 2014 'Best new product of the year' award for StarStream [236] [237] [238] [239]
  • the 2012 Institute of Chemical Engineering Award for Water Management and Supply [240]
  • the 2011 Royal Society Brian Mercer Award for Innovation [241] [242]
  • the 2008 'Medical & Healthcare' award from 'The Engineer' [128] [243]
  • the inaugural 2001 International Medwin Prize for Acoustical Oceanography from the Acoustical Society of America [244]

Fellowships

Leighton is an Academician of three National Academies. [5] He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2014. [245] [6] [246] His nomination reads:

Timothy Leighton is distinguished for his research on the acoustical physics of bubbles, especially their nonlinear behaviour; for his inventions and discoveries including bubble measurements in the surf zone, pipelines and methane seeps; for shock wave lithotripsy monitoring, disease detection in cancellous bone and needle free injection; for sonar systems that overcome bubble masking and numerous industrial applications. His seminal monograph The Acoustic Bubble has become the primary reference on bubble physical acoustics. [6]

In 2018 he was elected to Fellowship of the Academy of Medical Sciences, the citation reading for 'harnessing the physical sciences for the benefit of patients' as:

an outstanding academic inventor whose leadership in acoustical physics of bubbles has led to the development of new medical devices and procedures. His research has dominated the field of acoustic bubbles since the appearance of his monograph in 1994, ‘The Acoustic Bubble’, which was published at the age of 29. In this, he laid out the mathematical foundation upon which much of the recent cutting edge research on ultrasonic contrast agents, drug delivery, and focused ultrasound surgery has been based. He has exceptional ability to deliver engineering solutions to real world problems from conceptualisation to product development embracing an advanced practical knowledge of IP strategy. [5]

Leighton was elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering (FREng) [8] in 2012 [1] for his services to Engineering and society. [247] He was elected a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (FInstP) in 2000, [248] [ circular reference ] Fellowship of Institute of Acoustics in 1999, [249] Fellowship of the Acoustical Society of America in 1998, [250] and Fellowship of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1988. [251] He is a Visiting Fellow of the Institute of Advanced Studies of Loughborough University. [252]

In 2018 the International Institute of Acoustics and Vibration (IIAV), of which he had not been a member, undertook a change to its Bylaws, and vote of all IIAV members, to create new rank of Distinguished Fellow. It is the highest rank for individual IIAV members of this international body, and Professor Leighton was the recipient in its inaugural year. [253]

Outreach, TV and radio work

Leighton has developed and conducted multiply-award-winning outreach activities to the public, and to encourage of young men and women to engage, and possibly follow careers in, science and engineering, with school visits, science fairs, exhibits, games, and appearances on TV and radio. [12] [254] [255] His public engagement work regarding his invention, “The most dangerous game in the world”, which he designed to communicate with the public on the issue of superbugs and how they can protect themselves and society, was mentioned by Steve Brine MP, the Under-Secretary of State for Health on 16 November 2017. [72] [73] The IMDb and "Who's Who" have collated entries for Professor Leighton. [256] [1] In his 2014 book 'Sonic Wonderland', the broadcaster Trevor Cox described Professor Leighton as 'a middle-aged Harry Potter'. [257]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acoustics</span> Branch of physics involving mechanical waves

Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer. The application of acoustics is present in almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sonar</span> Acoustic sensing method

Sonar is a technique that uses sound propagation to navigate, measure distances (ranging), communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ultrasound</span> Sound waves with frequencies above the human hearing range

Ultrasound is sound with frequencies greater than 20 kilohertz. This frequency is the approximate upper audible limit of human hearing in healthy young adults. The physical principles of acoustic waves apply to any frequency range, including ultrasound. Ultrasonic devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sonication</span> Application of sound energy

Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample, for various purposes such as the extraction of multiple compounds from plants, microalgae and seaweeds. Ultrasonic frequencies (> 20 kHz) are usually used, leading to the process also being known as ultrasonication or ultra-sonication.

In chemistry, the study of sonochemistry is concerned with understanding the effect of ultrasound in forming acoustic cavitation in liquids, resulting in the initiation or enhancement of the chemical activity in the solution. Therefore, the chemical effects of ultrasound do not come from a direct interaction of the ultrasonic sound wave with the molecules in the solution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Focused ultrasound</span> Non-invasive therapeutic technique

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive therapeutic technique that uses non-ionizing ultrasonic waves to heat or ablate tissue. HIFU can be used to increase the flow of blood or lymph or to destroy tissue, such as tumors, via thermal and mechanical mechanisms. Given the prevalence and relatively low cost of ultrasound generation mechanisms, the premise of HIFU is that it is expected to be a non-invasive and low-cost therapy that can at least outperform care in the operating room.

Throat singing refers to several vocal practices found in different cultures worldwide. These vocal practices are generally associated with a certain type of guttural voice that contrasts with the most common types of voices employed in singing, which are usually represented by chest (modal) and head registers. Throat singing is often described as producing the sensation of more than one pitch at a time, meaning that the listener perceives two or more distinct musical notes while the singer is producing a single vocalization.

Sound from ultrasound is the name given here to the generation of audible sound from modulated ultrasound without using an active receiver. This happens when the modulated ultrasound passes through a nonlinear medium which acts, intentionally or unintentionally, as a demodulator.

The angular spectrum method is a technique for modeling the propagation of a wave field. This technique involves expanding a complex wave field into a summation of infinite number of plane waves of the same frequency and different directions. Its mathematical origins lie in the field of Fourier optics but it has been applied extensively in the field of ultrasound. The technique can predict an acoustic pressure field distribution over a plane, based upon knowledge of the pressure field distribution at a parallel plane. Predictions in both the forward and backward propagation directions are possible.

A parametric array, in the field of acoustics, is a nonlinear transduction mechanism that generates narrow, nearly side lobe-free beams of low frequency sound, through the mixing and interaction of high frequency sound waves, effectively overcoming the diffraction limit associated with linear acoustics. The main side lobe-free beam of low frequency sound is created as a result of nonlinear mixing of two high frequency sound beams at their difference frequency. Parametric arrays can be formed in water, air, and earth materials/rock.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bessel beam</span> Non-diffractive wave

A Bessel beam is a wave whose amplitude is described by a Bessel function of the first kind. Electromagnetic, acoustic, gravitational, and matter waves can all be in the form of Bessel beams. A true Bessel beam is non-diffractive. This means that as it propagates, it does not diffract and spread out; this is in contrast to the usual behavior of light, which spreads out after being focused down to a small spot. Bessel beams are also self-healing, meaning that the beam can be partially obstructed at one point, but will re-form at a point further down the beam axis.

The ASA Silver Medal is an award presented by the Acoustical Society of America to individuals, without age limitation, for contributions to the advancement of science, engineering, or human welfare through the application of acoustic principles or through research accomplishments in acoustics. The medal is awarded in a number of categories depending on the technical committee responsible for making the nomination.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phonophoresis</span>

Phonophoresis, also known as sonophoresis, is the method of using ultrasound waves to increase skin permeability in order to improve the effectiveness of transdermal drug delivery. This method intersects drug delivery and ultrasound therapy. By assisting transdermal drug delivery, phonophoresis can be a painless treatment and an alternative to a needle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Floyd Dunn</span>

Floyd Dunn was an American electrical engineer who made contributions to all aspects of the interaction of ultrasound and biological media. Dunn was a member of Scientific Committee 66 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements as well as many FDA, NIH, AIUM, and ASA committees. He collaborated with scientists in the UK, Japan, China and Post-Soviet states.

Acoustic radiation force (ARF) is a physical phenomenon resulting from the interaction of an acoustic wave with an obstacle placed along its path. Generally, the force exerted on the obstacle is evaluated by integrating the acoustic radiation pressure over its time-varying surface.

Acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) is a method of spectroscopy in the acoustic region, primarily the sonic and ultrasonic regions. ARS is typically much more rapid than HPLC and NIR. It is non destructive and requires no sample preparation as the sampling waveguide can simply be pushed into a sample powder/liquid or in contact with a solid sample. To date, the AR spectrometer has successfully differentiated and quantified sample analytes in various forms;. It has been used to measure and monitor the progression of chemical reactions, such as the setting and hardening of concrete from cement paste to solid. Acoustic spectrometry has also been used to measure the volume fraction of colloids in a dispersion medium, as well as for the investigation of physical properties of colloidal dispersions, such as aggregation and particle size distribution. Typically, these experiments are carried out with sinusoidal excitation signals and the experimental observation of signal attenuation. From a comparison of theoretical attenuation to experimental observation, the particle size distribution and aggregation phenomena are inferred.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mathias Fink</span> French physicist

Mathias Fink, born in 1945 in Grenoble, is a French physicist, professor at ESPCI Paris and member of the French Academy of Sciences.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Helen Czerski</span> British physicist, oceanographer, and television presenter

Helen Czerski is a British physicist and oceanographer and television presenter. She is an associate professor in the department of mechanical engineering at University College London. She was previously at the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research at the University of Southampton.

In acoustics, acoustic attenuation is a measure of the energy loss of sound propagation through an acoustic transmission medium. Most media have viscosity and are therefore not ideal media. When sound propagates in such media, there is always thermal consumption of energy caused by viscosity. This effect can be quantified through the Stokes's law of sound attenuation. Sound attenuation may also be a result of heat conductivity in the media as has been shown by G. Kirchhoff in 1868. The Stokes-Kirchhoff attenuation formula takes into account both viscosity and thermal conductivity effects.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Floyd R. Watson</span> American experimental physicist (1872–1974)

Floyd Rowe Watson was an American experimental physicist, known for his research on acoustics and the acoustical design of buildings.

References

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  26. 1 2 Barnett, S., Ziskin, M., Maeda, K., Nyborg, W., ter Harr, G., Rott, H-D., Bang, J., Carstensen, E., Delius, M., Duck, F., Edmonds, P., Frizzell, F., Hogaki, M., Ide, M., Leighton, T., Mille, D., Preston, R., Stratmeyer, M., Takeuchi, H., Takeuchi, Y., Williams, R. (1998). "World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Task Group Report for Safety Committee of the WFUMB: Conclusions and recommendations on thermal and non-thermal mechanisms for biological effects of ultrasound" (PDF). Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 24 Supplement 1: 1–59.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Leighton, T.G. and White, P.R. (2012). "Quantification of undersea gas leaks from carbon capture and storage facilities, from pipelines and from methane seeps, by their acoustic emissions". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 468 (2138): 485–510. Bibcode:2012RSPSA.468..485L. doi: 10.1098/rspa.2011.0221 .{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  28. 1 2 3 4 Blackford, J., Stahl, H., Bull, J., Berges, B., Cevatoglu, M., Lichtschlag, A., Connelly, D., James, R., Kita, J., Long, D., Naylor, M., Shitashima, K., Smith, D., Taylor, P., Wright, I., Akhurst, M., Chen, B., Gernon, T., Hauton, C., Hayashi, M., Kaieda, H., Leighton, T., Sato, T., Sayer, M., Suzumura, M., Tait, K., Vardy, M., White, P., and Widdicombe, S. (28 September 2014). "Detection and impacts of leakage from sub-seafloor deep geological carbon dioxide storage" (PDF). Nature Climate Change. 4 (11): Published online. Bibcode:2014NatCC...4.1011B. doi:10.1038/nclimate2381. S2CID   54825193.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. 1 2 3 Berges, B. J. P, Leighton, T.G. and White, P.R. (2015). "Passive acoustic quantification of gas fluxes during controlled gas release experiments". International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 38: 64–79. Bibcode:2015IJGGC..38...64B. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.02.008.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  30. 1 2 Brooks, I.M., Yelland, M.J., Upstill-Goddard, R.C., Nightingale, P.D., Archer, S., D'Asaro, E., Beale, R., Beatty, C., Blomquist, B., Bloom, A. A., Brooks, B. J., Cluderay, J., Coles, D., Dacey, J., DeGrandpre, M., Dixon, J., Drennan, W. M., Gabriele, J., Goldson, L., Hardman-Mountford, N., Hill, M. K., Horn, M., Hsueh, P.-C., Huebert, B., de Leeuwuw, G., Leighton, T. G., Liddicicoat, M., Lingard, J. J. N., McNeil, C., McQuaid, J. B., Moat, B. I., Moore, G., Neill, C., Norris, S. J., O-Doherty, S., Pascal, R. W., Prytherch, J., Rebozo, M., Sahlee, E., Salter, M., Schuster, U., Skjelvan, I., Slagter, H., Smith, M. H., Smith, P. D., Srokosz, M., Stephens, J. A., Taylor, P. K., Telszewski, M., Walsh, R., Ward, B., Woolf, D. K., Young, D. and Zemmmmelink, H. (2009). "Physical Exchanges at the Air-Sea Interface: UK-SOLAS Field Measurements". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 90 (5): 629–644. Bibcode:2009BAMS...90..629B. doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2578.1 . hdl: 1912/4016 .{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  31. 1 2 Brooks, I.M., Yelland, M.J., Upstill-Goddard, R.C., Nightingale, P.D., Archer, S., D'Asaro, E., Beale, R., Beatty, C., Blomquist, B., Bloom, A. A., Brooks, B. J., Cluderay, J., Coles, D., Dacey, J., DeGrandpre, M., Dixon, J., Drennan, W. M., Gabriele, J., Goldson, L., Hardman-Mountford, N., Hill, M. K., Horn, M., Hsueh, P.-C., Huebert, B., de Leeuwuw, G., Leighton, T. G., Liddicicoat, M., Lingard, J. J. N., McNeil, C., McQuaid, J. B., Moat, B. I., Moore, G., Neill, C., Norris, S. J., O-Doherty, S., Pascal, R. W., Prytherch, J., Rebozo, M., Sahlee, E., Salter, M., Schuster, U., Skjelvan, I., Slagter, H., Smith, M. H., Smith, P. D., Srokosz, M., Stephens, J. A., Taylor, P. K., Telszewski, M., Walsh, R., Ward, B., Woolf, D. K., Young, D. and Zemmmmelink, H. (2009). "Electronic supplement to: Physical Exchanges at the Air-Sea Interface: UK-SOLAS Field Measurements". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 90 (5): ES9–ES16. doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2578.2 . hdl: 1912/4017 .{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  32. 1 2 Pascal, R. W.; Yelland, M. J.; Srokosz, M. A.; Moat, B. I.; Waugh, E. M.; Comben, D. H.; Cansdale, A. G.; Hartman, M. C.; Coles, D. G. H.; Chang Hsueh, P.; Leighton, T. G. (2011). "A Spar Buoy for High-Frequency Wave Measurements and Detection of Wave Breaking in the Open Ocean". Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 28 (4): 590–605. Bibcode:2011JAtOT..28..590P. doi: 10.1175/2010JTECHO764.1 .
  33. 1 2 3 4 Leighton, T. G. (1 January 2017). "The acoustic bubble: Ocean, cetacean and extraterrestrial acoustics, and cold water cleaning". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 797 (1): 012001. Bibcode:2017JPhCS.797a2001L. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/797/1/012001 . ISSN   1742-6596.
  34. 1 2 3 Birkin P.R., Offin D.G., Vian C.J.B., Howlin R.P., Dawson J.I., Secker T.J., Herve R.C., Stoodley P., Oreffo R.O.C., Keevil C.W. and Leighton T.G. (2015). "Cold water cleaning of brain proteins, biofilm and bone – harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream". Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 17 (32): 20574–20579. Bibcode:2015PCCP...1720574B. doi:10.1039/C5CP02406D. PMID   26200694.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. 1 2 Solan, Martin; Hauton, Chris; Godbold, Jasmin A.; Wood, Christina L.; Leighton, Timothy G.; White, Paul (5 February 2016). "Anthropogenic sources of underwater sound can modify how sediment-dwelling invertebrates mediate ecosystem properties". Scientific Reports. 6 (1): 20540. Bibcode:2016NatSR...620540S. doi:10.1038/srep20540. ISSN   2045-2322. PMC   4742813 . PMID   26847483.
  36. Leighton, T. G.; Finfer, D. C.; White, P. R. (2007). "Cavitation and cetacean" (PDF). Revista de Acustica. 38: 37–81.
  37. 1 2 3 Leighton, T; Petculescu, A (1 August 2016). "Guest editorial: Acoustic and related waves in extraterrestrial environments". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 140 (2): 1397–1399. Bibcode:2016ASAJ..140.1397L. doi: 10.1121/1.4961539 . ISSN   0001-4966. PMID   27586765.
  38. 1 2 Leighton, Timothy G.; Finfer, Daniel C.; White, Paul R. (2008). "The problems with acoustics on a small planet". Icarus. 193 (2): 649–652. Bibcode:2008Icar..193..649L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.10.008.
  39. 1 2 3 4 Leighton, Timothy G.; Petculescu, Andi (2009). "The Sound of Music and Voices in Space Part 1: Theory". Acoustics Today. 5 (3): 17–26. doi:10.1121/1.3238123. ISSN   1557-0215.
  40. 1 2 3 Leighton, T; Banda, N; Berges, B; Joseph, P; White, P (1 August 2016). "Extraterrestrial sound for planetaria: A pedagogical study". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 140 (2): 1469–1480. Bibcode:2016ASAJ..140.1469L. doi: 10.1121/1.4960785 . ISSN   0001-4966. PMID   27586771.
  41. 1 2 Leighton, Timothy (2016). "Are some people suffering as a result of increasing mass exposure of the public to ultrasound in air?". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 472 (2185): 20150624. Bibcode:2016RSPSA.47250624L. doi:10.1098/rspa.2015.0624. PMC   4786042 . PMID   26997897.
  42. 1 2 Leighton, Timothy (2016). "Comment on: 'Are some people suffering as a result of increasing mass exposure of the public to ultrasound in air?'". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 473 (2199): 20160828. doi:10.1098/rspa.2016.0828. PMC   5378247 . PMID   28413349.
  43. 1 2 Leighton, T. G.; Chua, G. H.; White, P. R. (2012). "Do dolphins benefit from nonlinear mathematics when processing their sonar returns?". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 468 (2147): 3517–3532. Bibcode:2012RSPSA.468.3517L. doi: 10.1098/rspa.2012.0247 .
  44. Coleman, A.J.; Choi, M.J.; Saunders, J.E.; Leighton, T.G. (1992). "Acoustic emission and sonoluminescence due to cavitation at the beam focus of an electrohydraulic shock wave lithotripter" (PDF). Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 18 (3): 267–281. doi:10.1016/0301-5629(92)90096-s. PMID   1595133.
  45. Coleman, A. J.; Whitlock, M.; Leighton, T.; Saunders, J. E. (1993). "The spatial distribution of cavitation induced acoustic emission, sonoluminescence and cell lysis in the field of a shock wave lithotriptor" (PDF). Physics in Medicine and Biology. 38 (11): 1545–1560. Bibcode:1993PMB....38.1545C. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/38/11/001. PMID   8272431. S2CID   250856680.
  46. 1 2 Leighton, T. G.; Fedele, F; Coleman, A. J.; McCarthy, C; Ryves, S; Hurrell, A. M.; De Stefano, A; White, P. R. (2008). "A passive acoustic device for real-time monitoring of the efficacy of shockwave lithotripsy treatment". Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. 34 (10): 1651–65. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2008.03.011. PMID   18562085.
  47. 1 2 Leighton, T. G.; Turangan, C. K.; Jamaluddin, A. R.; Ball, G. J.; White, P. R. (2012). "Prediction of far-field acoustic emissions from cavitation clouds during shock wave lithotripsy for development of a clinical device". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 469 (2150): 20120538. Bibcode:2012RSPSA.46920538L. doi: 10.1098/rspa.2012.0538 .
  48. "Deep dive: Should we be more pessimistic about the apocalypse?". Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  49. "Evidence to Policy: Are you sufficiently worried about superbugs?". Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  50. 1 2 Leighton, Timothy (2015). "We need more than just new antibiotics to fight superbugs". The Conversation (15 July 2015).
  51. 1 2 3 4 "Resistance fighter takes the battle to the microbes". Author: J. Webb, New Scientist (26 March 2016, pp. 32–33) published online entitled "I'm finding new ways to beat antibiotic resistance". Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  52. Leighton, T. G. (2020). "From research to engagement to translation: Words are cheap. Part 1 - research funding and its consequences". Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing. 98 (4): 161–164. doi:10.1080/00202967.2020.1777765. S2CID   221054676.
  53. Solan, Martin; Hauton, Chris; Godbold, Jasmin A.; Wood, Christina L.; Leighton, Timothy G.; White, Paul (2016). "Anthropogenic sources of underwater sound can modify how sediment-dwelling invertebrates mediate ecosystems properties". Scientific Reports . 6: 20540, DOI: 10.1038/srep20540. Bibcode:2016NatSR...620540S. doi:10.1038/srep20540. PMC   4742813 . PMID   26847483.
  54. "Man-made underwater sound may have wider ecosystem effects than previously thought". University of Southampton. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  55. "Man-made underwater sound may have wider ecosystem effects than previously thought | Engineering and the Environment | University of Southampton". University of Southampton. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  56. Neenan, Sarah T. V.; White, Paul R.; Leighton, Timothy G.; Shaw, Peter J. (2016). "Modeling vessel noise emissions through the accumulation and propagation of Automatic Identification System data" (PDF). Fourth International Conference on the Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, Dublin, Ireland, 10-16 July 2016. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics. Vol. 27. 070017. doi:10.1121/2.0000338. ePrints Soton 415944.
  57. Li, Jianghui; White, Paul R.; Roche, Ben; Davis, John W.; Leighton, Timothy G. (2019). "Underwater radiated noise from hydrofoils in coastal water" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 146 (5): 3552–3561. Bibcode:2019ASAJ..146.3552L. doi:10.1121/1.5134779. PMID   31795704. S2CID   208627472.
  58. Deleau, Mathias J. C.; White, Paul R.; Peirson, Graeme; Leighton, Timothy G.; Kemp, Paul S. (2019). "Use of acoustics to enhance the efficiency of physical screens designed to protect downstream moving European eel (Anguilla anguilla)" (PDF). Fisheries Management and Ecology. 27: 1–9. doi:10.1111/fme.12362. S2CID   202013108.
  59. Piper, Adam T.; White, Paul R.; Wright, Rosalind M.; Leighton, Timothy G.; Kemp, Paul S. (2019). "Response of seaward-migrating European eel (Anguilla anguilla) to an infrasound deterrent" (PDF). Ecological Engineering. 127: 480–486. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.12.001. S2CID   104312044.
  60. Deleau, Mathias J. C.; White, Paul R.; Peirson, Graeme; Leighton, Timothy G.; Kemp, Paul S. (2020). "The response of anguilliform fish to underwater sound under an experimental setting". River Res. Applic. 36 (3): 441–451. Bibcode:2020RivRA..36..441D. doi:10.1002/rra.3583. S2CID   214379503.
  61. Currie, Helen A. L.; White, Paul R.; Leighton, Timothy G.; Kemp, Paul S. (2020). "Group behavior and tolerance of Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) in response to tones of differing pulse repetition rate". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 147 (3): 1709–1718. Bibcode:2020ASAJ..147.1709C. doi:10.1121/10.0000910. PMID   32237844. S2CID   214772014.
  62. Short, Matt; White, Paul R.; Leighton, Timothy G.; Kemp, Paul S. (2020). "Influence of acoustics on the collective behaviour of a shoaling freshwater fish". Freshwater Biology. 65 (12): 2186–2195. Bibcode:2020FrBio..65.2186S. doi: 10.1111/fwb.13612 . S2CID   225148034.
  63. Currie, Helen A.L.; White, Paul R.; Leighton, Timothy G.; Kemp, Paul S. (2021). "Collective behaviour of the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) is influenced by signals of differing acoustic complexity". Behavioural Processes. 189: 104416. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2021.104416. PMID   33971249. S2CID   234361388.
  64. Flores Martin, Nicholas; Leighton, Timothy G.; White, Paul R.; Kemp, Paul S. (2021). "The response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to insonified bubble curtains". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 150 (5): 3874–3888. Bibcode:2021ASAJ..150.3874F. doi: 10.1121/10.0006972 . PMID   34852591. S2CID   244516449.
  65. Holgate, A.; White, P. R.; Leighton, T. G.; Kemp, P. S. (2023). "Applying appropriate frequency criteria to advance acoustic behavioural guidance systems for fish". Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing House). 13 (1): 8075. Bibcode:2023NatSR..13.8075H. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-33423-5. PMC   10195784 . PMID   37202429.
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  74. 1 2 "Prof Leighton addresses Parliamentary and Scientific Committee". The University of Southampton. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
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  76. "Global-NAMRIP 2018 conference". The University of Southampton. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  77. "Africa's first StarStream heads to Navrongo in northern Ghana". The University of Southampton. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
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  84. Fletcher, Mark D.; Lloyd Jones, Sian; White, Paul R.; Dolder, Craig N.; Leighton, Timothy G.; Lineton, Benjamin (2018). "Effects of very high-frequency sound and ultrasound on humans. Part I: Adverse symptoms after exposure to audible very-high frequency sound" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144 (4): 2511–2520. Bibcode:2018ASAJ..144.2511F. doi: 10.1121/1.5063819 . PMID   30404512.
  85. Fletcher, Mark D.; Lloyd Jones, Sian; White, Paul R.; Dolder, Craig N.; Leighton, Timothy G.; Lineton, Benjamin (2018). "Effects of very high-frequency sound and ultrasound on humans. Part II: A double-blind randomized provocation study of inaudible 20-kHz ultrasound" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144 (4): 2521–2531. Bibcode:2018ASAJ..144.2521F. doi: 10.1121/1.5063818 . PMID   30404504.
  86. 1 2 Fletcher, Mark D.; Lloyd Jones, Sian; White, Paul R.; Dolder, Craig N.; Lineton, Benjamin; Leighton, Timothy G. (2018). "Public exposure to ultrasound and very high-frequency sound in air" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144 (4): 2554–2564. Bibcode:2018ASAJ..144.2554F. doi: 10.1121/1.5063817 . PMID   30404460.
  87. Dolder, Craig N.; Fletcher, Mark D.; Lloyd Jones, Sian; Lineton, Benjamin; Dennison, Sarah R.; Symmonds, Michael; White, Paul R.; Leighton, Timothy G. (2018). "Measurements of ultrasonic deterrents and an acoustically branded hairdryer: Ambiguities in guideline compliance" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144 (4): 2565–2574. Bibcode:2018ASAJ..144.2565D. doi: 10.1121/1.5064279 . PMID   30404457.
  88. Van Wieringen, A.; Glorieux, C. (2018). "Frequency bands for ultrasound, suitable for the consideration of its health effects" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144 (4): 2490–2500. doi: 10.1121/1.5063987 . PMID   30404517.
  89. Leighton, T. G. (2019). "Ultrasound-in-Air: New applications need improved measurement methods and procedures, and appreciation of any adverse effects on humans" (PDF). Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics (9 to 13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany). paper 000434: 6363–6367.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  90. "Exposure levels for parametric arrays in light of guideline ambiguities" (PDF). Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics (9 to 13 September 2019, Aachen, Germany). paper 000724. 2019: 6394–6397.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  91. "Minneapolis 2018 Acoustical Society of America streamed sessions". 20 June 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  92. Martin, H. (2019). "Open map of ultrasonic sources in air in Japan". Google maps.
  93. "M. Chan (New York Times)". Twitter. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  94. Leighton, T. G. (19 June 2018). "Hearing things? A process of elimination casts doubt on reports of 'sonic attacks' in Cuba and China". Asia & the Pacific Policy Society.
  95. Leighton, T. G. (22 June 2018). "Talk of 'Sonic Attacks' at US Embassies Rings Hollow".{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  96. Saey, T. (1 June 2018). "Here's why scientists are questioning whether 'sonic attacks' are real".{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  97. Kessel, J. M.; Chan, M.; Woo, J. (May 2018). "How an Alleged Sonic Attack Shaped U.S. Policy on Cuba (Leighton interview is from 4.15-4.40 and 5.15-5.40 )". The New York Times.
  98. "International Edition 2330 EDT (Leighton interview is from 12.24 until 17.25)". Voice of America. May 2018.
  99. "Parliament live TV (17 July 2018 Volume 645, 2.06 pm - Leighton's work mentioned 14:10:47)". House of Commons, UK. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  100. "House of Commons Hansard (17 July 2018 Volume 645)". House of Commons, UK. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  101. Wong, Julia Carrie (March 2023). "'Havana syndrome' not caused by foreign adversary, US intelligence says". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  102. 1 2 "Scientific Expert Group of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection" . Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  103. Leighton, T.G. and White, P.R. (2004). "The Sound of Titan: A role for acoustics in space exploration". Acoustics Bulletin. 29 (4): 16–23.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  104. 1 2 3 Leighton, Timothy G.; Petculescu, Andi (2009). "The Sound of Music and Voices in Space Part 2: Modeling and Simulation". Acoustics Today. 5 (3): 27–29. doi:10.1121/1.3238123. ISSN   1557-0215.
  105. Leighton, T.G., White, P.R. and Finfer, D.C. (2012). "The opportunities and challenges in the use of extra-terrestrial acoustics in the exploration of the oceans of icy planetary bodies". Earth, Moon, and Planets. 109 (1–4): 99–116. Bibcode:2012EM&P..109...91L. doi:10.1007/s11038-012-9399-6. S2CID   120569869.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  106. "Bizarre space experiment reveals what Bach sounds like when played on Venus and Mars". inverse.com. BDG Media, Inc. 11 May 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  107. 1 2 3 Jiang, J; Baik, K; Leighton, T.G. (2011). "Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes II: Simulation for Spallation Neutron Sources and planetary exploration". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 130 (2): 695–706. Bibcode:2011ASAJ..130..695J. doi:10.1121/1.3598463. PMID   21877784. S2CID   386262.
  108. 1 2 Leighton, T.G. (2009). "Fluid loading effects for acoustical sensors in the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, Titan, and Jupiter". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 125 (5): EL214–9. Bibcode:2009ASAJ..125L.214L. doi: 10.1121/1.3104628 . PMID   19425625.
  109. Ainslie, M. A.; Leighton, T. G. (2009). "Near resonant bubble acoustic cross-section corrections, including examples from oceanography, volcanology, and biomedical ultrasound". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 126 (5): 2163–75. Bibcode:2009ASAJ..126.2163A. doi:10.1121/1.3180130. PMID   19894796.
  110. Ainslie, M. A.; Leighton, T. G. (2016). "Sonar equations for planetary exploration". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 140 (2): 1400–1419. Bibcode:2016ASAJ..140.1400A. doi: 10.1121/1.4960786 . PMID   27586766.
  111. "Hoe klinkt jouw stem op Mars?". kijkmagazine.nl. Roularta Media Netherlands. 12 May 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  112. "Planetary Acoustics: A Brand New Sense with which to Explore Atmospheres in our Solar System". The International Space Science Institute. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  113. Chide, Baptiste; Jacob, Xavier; Petculescu, Andi; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Seel, Fabian; Schröder, Susanne; Wiens, Roger C.; Gillier, Martin; Murdoch, Naomi; Lanza, Nina L.; Bertrand, Tanguy; Leighton, Timothy G.; Joseph, Phillip; Pilleri, Paolo; Mimoun, David; Stott, Alexander; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; Hueso, Ricardo; Munguira, Asier; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Martinez, German; Larmat, Carène; Lasue, Jérémie; Newman, Claire; Pla-Garcia, Jorge; Bernardi, Pernelle; Harri, Ari-Matti; Genzer, Maria; Lepinette, Alain (2023). "Measurements of sound propagation in Mars' lower atmosphere". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 615: 118200. Bibcode:2023E&PSL.61518200C. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2023.118200 . S2CID   258906536.
  114. "Microphones in space: Why scientists want to listen in on alien worlds". space.com. Future IS Inc. 3 October 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  115. 1 2 3 4 5 Leighton, T.G. (2004). "From seas to surgeries, from babbling brooks to baby scans: The acoustics of gas bubbles in liquids". International Journal of Modern Physics. 18 (25): 3267–3314. doi:10.1142/s0217979204026494.
  116. Leighton, T.G., Finfer, D., Grover, E. and White, P.R. (2007). "An acoustical hypothesis for the spiral bubble nets of humpback whales and the implications for whale feeding". Acoustics Bulletin. 22 (1): 17–21.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  117. Leighton, T.G., Richards, S.D. and White, P.R. (2004). "Trapped within a 'wall of sound': A possible mechanism for the bubble nets of the humpback whales". Acoustics Bulletin. 29 (1): 24–29.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  118. Qing, X., White, P. R., Leighton, T. G., Liu, S., Qiao, G. and Zhang, Y. (2019). "Three-dimensional finite element simulation of acoustic propagation in spiral bubble net of humpback whale" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 146 (3): 1982–1995. Bibcode:2019ASAJ..146.1982Q. doi:10.1121/1.5126003. PMID   31590519. S2CID   203925157.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  119. 1 2 Leighton, T. G.; Finfer, D. C.; Chua, G. H.; White, P. R.; Dix, J. K. (2011). "Clutter suppression and classification using twin inverted pulse sonar in ship wakes". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 130 (5): 3431–7. Bibcode:2011ASAJ..130.3431L. doi:10.1121/1.3626131. PMID   22088017.
  120. 1 2 "Osteoporosis breakthrough" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  121. 1 2 Hughes, E. R.; Leighton, T. G.; Petley, G. W.; White, P. R. (1999). "Ultrasonic propagation in cancellous bone: A new stratified model". Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 25 (5): 811–21. doi:10.1016/s0301-5629(99)00034-4. PMID   10414898.
  122. 1 2 Hughes, E. R.; Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.; Petley, G. W. (2007). "Investigation of an anisotropic tortuosity in a biot model of ultrasonic propagation in cancellous bone". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 121 (1): 568–74. Bibcode:2007ASAJ..121..568H. doi:10.1121/1.2387132. PMID   17297810.
  123. 1 2 Lee, K. I.; Hughes, E. R.; Humphrey, V. F.; Leighton, T. G.; Choi, M. J. (2007). "Empirical angle-dependent Biot and MBA models for acoustic anisotropy in cancellous bone". Physics in Medicine and Biology. 52 (1): 59–73. Bibcode:2007PMB....52...59L. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/52/1/005. PMID   17183128. S2CID   40448489.
  124. 1 2 Hughes, E. R.; Leighton, T. G.; Petley, G. W.; White, P. R.; Chivers, R. C. (2003). "Estimation of critical and viscous frequencies for Biot theory in cancellous bone". Ultrasonics. 41 (5): 365–8. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.621.4532 . doi:10.1016/s0041-624x(03)00107-0. PMID   12788218.
  125. 1 2 Leighton, T.G, Petley, G.W., White, P.R. and Hughes, E.R. (2002). "A sound diagnosis" (PDF). EPSRC Newsline. 21: 18–19.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  126. 1 2 Hughes, E.R., Leighton, T.G., Petley, G.W. and White, P.R. (2001). "Ultrasonic assessment of bone health". Acoustics Bulletin. 26 (5): 17–23.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  127. Hughes, E.R., Leighton, T.G., Petley, G.W., White, P.R. (2001). "A review of scattering models for ultrasonic propagation in the trabecular bone" (PDF). ISVR Technical Report (293).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  128. 1 2 "The 'Medical & Healthcare' award by 'The Engineer'" (PDF). Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  129. 1 2 Leighton, T. G. (2011). "Innovation to Impact in a Time of Recession". Journal of Computational Acoustics. 19: 1–25. doi:10.1142/S0218396X11004298.
  130. Jamaluddin, A.R., Ball, G.J., Turangan, C.K. and Leighton, T.G. ( (2011). "The collapse of single bubbles and calculations of the far-field acoustic emissions for cavitation induced by shock wave lithotripsy" (PDF). Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 677: 305–341. doi:10.1017/jfm.2011.85. S2CID   52242960.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  131. Turangan, C.K., Jamaluddin, A.R., Ball, G.J. and Leighton, T.G. (2008). "Free-Lagrange simulations of the expansion and jetting collapse of air bubbles in water". Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 598: 1–25. Bibcode:2008JFM...598....1T. doi:10.1017/s0022112007009317. S2CID   18465532.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  132. Leighton, T.G., Fedele, F., Coleman, A., McCarthy, C., Jamaluddin, A.R., Turangan, C.K., Ball, G., Ryves, S., Hurrell, A., De Stefano, A. and White, P.R. (2008). "The development of a passive acoustic device for monitoring the effectiveness of shockwave lithotripsy in real time" (PDF). Hydroacoustics. 11: 159–180.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  133. Leighton, T. G.; Cox, B. T.; Phelps, A. D. (2000). "The Rayleigh-like collapse of a conical bubble". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 107 (1): 130–42. Bibcode:2000ASAJ..107..130L. doi:10.1121/1.428296. PMID   10641626.
  134. Leighton, T.G., Phelps, A.D., Cox, B.T. and Ho, W.L. (1998). "Theory and preliminary measurements of the Rayleigh-like collapse of a conical bubble". Acustica with ActaAcustica. 84 (6): 1014–1024.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  135. Leighton, T. G.; Ho, W. L.; Flaxman, R. (1997). "Sonoluminescence from the unstable collapse of a conical bubble". Ultrasonics. 35 (5): 399–405. doi:10.1016/S0041-624X(97)00014-0.
  136. Leighton, T.G., Cox, B.T., Birkin, P.R. and Bayliss, T. (1999) [Forum Acusticum 99, integrating the 25th German Acoustics DAGA Conference]. "The Rayleigh-like collapse of a conical bubble: Measurements of meniscus, liquid pressure, and electrochemistry". Proceedings of the 137th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the 2nd Convention of the European Acoustics Association. Berlin, Paper 3APAB_1, 4pp.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  137. McLaughlan, J., Rivens, I., Leighton, T.G. and terHaar, G. (2010). "A study of bubble activity generated in ex-vivo tissue by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)" (PDF). Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 36 (8): 1327–1344. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2010.05.011. PMID   20691922.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  138. "University of Southampton The extraordinary potential of bubble acoustics" . Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  139. Bryant, G., Hewitt, P., Hope, J., Howard, C., Ironside, J., Knight, R., Manson, J., Mead, S., Medley, G., Minor, P., Ridgway, G., Salmon, R., Ashcroft, P., Bennett, P., Bent, A., Burke, P., Cardigan, R., Connor, N., Riley, A., Cutts, D., Gadd, E., Gauci, E., Gauci, T., Grimley, P., Hidderley, A., Hill, I., Kirby, C., Mitchell, L., Noterman, M., Pride, J., Pryer, D., Singh, J., Stanton, G., Tomlinson, N., Wight, A., Bradley, R., Griffin, G., Jones, P., Jeffries, D., Matthews, D., May, D., McConnell, I., Painter, M., Smith, P., Spellman, R., Taylor, D., Wyatt., T., Adams, R., Allison, M., Archyangelio, A., Barker, J., Barlow, T., Barnass, S., Bedi, R., Bethel, N. Bountiff, L., Bradley, C., Bramble, M., Bruce, M., Caterall, J., Chow, Y., Christie, P., Cobbold, A., Conroy, A., Craig, G., Crawford, P., Crook, P., Cumming, R., Elliot, D., Fraise, A., Gray, R., Griffiths, H., Herve, R., Holmes, S., Holton, J., Langdon, J., Leighton, T., Jones, A., Keevil, W., Latham, B., Lucas, S., Lumley, J., McCardle, L., Marsh, H., Martin, M., Murphy, J., Perrett, D., Richards, K., Reader, N., Revesz, T., Sjogren, G., Smith, A., Smith, G., Stephenson, J., Sutton, M., Treasure, E., Walker, J., Watkins, G., Will, R., Woodhead, K. "Minimise transmission risk of CJD and vCJD in healthcare settings. Report on the Prevention of CJD and vCJD by Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens' Transmission Spongiform Encephalopathy (ACDP TSE) Subgroup" (PDF). Published as Part of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD): Guidance, Data and Analysis Reports by the UK Government Department of Health (22 October 2015). Crown Copyright 2015.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  140. Term of Service ended as committee completed work and submitted final report
  141. 1 2 Leighton, T. G.; Finfer, D. C.; White, P. R.; Chua, G. – H.; Dix, J. K. (2010). "Clutter suppression and classification using twin inverted pulse sonar (TWIPS)". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 466 (2124): 3453–3478. Bibcode:2010RSPSA.466.3453L. doi: 10.1098/rspa.2010.0154 .
  142. Leighton, T. G.; Evans, R. C. P. (1 May 2008). "The detection by sonar of difficult targets (including centimetre-scale plastic objects and optical fibres) buried in saturated sediment". Applied Acoustics. The detection of buried marine targets. 69 (5): 438–463. doi:10.1016/j.apacoust.2007.05.002.
  143. Leighton, Timothy; Evans, Ruthven (2007). Studies into the detection of buried objects (particularly optical fibres) in saturated sediment. Part 1: Background (PDF). University of Southampton. pp. 1–40.
  144. Leighton, Timothy; Evans, Ruthven (2007). Studies into the detection of buried objects (particularly optical fibres) in saturated sediment. Part 2: Design and commissioning of test tank (PDF). University of Southampton. pp. 1–68.
  145. Evans, Ruthven; Leighton, Timothy (2007). Studies into the detection of buried objects (particularly optical fibres) in saturated sediment. Part 3: Experimental investigation of acoustic penetration of saturated sediment (PDF). University of Southampton. pp. 1–43.
  146. Evans, Ruthvan; Leighton, Timothy (2007). Studies into the detection of buried objects (particularly optical fibres) in saturated sediment. Part 4: Experimental investigations into the acoustic detection of objects buried in saturated sediment (PDF). University of Southampton. pp. 1–81.
  147. Evans, Ruthven; Leighton, Timothy (2007). Studies into the detection of buried objects (particularly optical fibres) in saturated sediment. Part 5: An acousto-optic detection system (PDF). University of Southampton. pp. 1–50.
  148. Kongsberg. "Kongsberg GeoAcoustics GeoChirp 3D sub-bottom profiler delivered to China".
  149. Gutowski, M; Bull, J; Dix, J; Henstock, T; Hogarth, P; White, P; Leighton, T (2005). "Chirp sub-bottom profiler source signature design and field testing". Marine Geophysical Researches. 26 (2–4): 157–169. Bibcode:2005MarGR..26..157B. doi:10.1007/s11001-005-3715-8. S2CID   111282308.
  150. Bull, Jonathan M.; Gutowski, Martin; Dix, Justin K.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Hogarth, Peter; Leighton, Timothy G.; White, Paul R. (1 June 2005). "Design of a 3D Chirp Sub-bottom Imaging System" (PDF). Marine Geophysical Researches. 26 (2–4): 157–169. Bibcode:2005MarGR..26..157B. doi:10.1007/s11001-005-3715-8. ISSN   0025-3235. S2CID   111282308.
  151. Gutowski, Martin; Bull, Jonathan M.; Dix, Justin K.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Hogarth, Peter; Hiller, Tom; Leighton, Timothy G.; White, Paul R. (1 March 2008). "3D high-resolution acoustic imaging of the sub-seabed". Applied Acoustics. 69 (3): 262–271. doi:10.1016/j.apacoust.2006.08.010.
  152. "Clean water from waste". Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  153. "Timothy Kayondo and team mentored by for Africa Prize". Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  154. 1 2 Leighton, T.G., Coles, D.C.H., Srokosz, M., White, P.R. and Woolf, D.K. (2018). "Asymmetric transfer of CO2 across a broken sea surface". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 8301. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.8301L. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-25818-6. PMC   5974314 . PMID   29844316.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  155. Hannis, S., Chadwick, A., Pearce, J., Jones, D., White, J., Wright, I., Connelly, D., Widdicombe, S., Blackford, J., White, P., Leighton, T. (2015). "Review of Offshore Monitoring for CCS Projects" (PDF). IEAGHG Technical Report 2015-02 (July 2015): Copyright 2016 IEAGHG.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  156. Hannis, S., Chadwick, A., Connelly, D., Blackford, J., Leighton, T., Jones, D., White, J., White, P.R., Wright, I., Widdicombe, S., Craig, J. and Dixon, T. (2017). "Review of offshore CO2 storage monitoring: Operational and research experiences of meeting regulatory and technical requirements". Energy Procedia. 114: 5967–5980. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1732 .{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  157. Li, J., White, P.R., Bull, J. M. and Leighton, T. G. (2019). "A noise impact assessment model for passive acoustic measurements of seabed gas fluxes" (PDF). Ocean Engineering. 183: 294–304. doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.03.046. S2CID   182529435.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  158. Li, J., White, P.R., Roche, B., Bull, J. M., Davis, J. W., Leighton, T. G, Depont, M., Gordini, E. and Cotterle, D. (2019). "Natural seabed gas leakage -- variability imposed by tidal cycles" (PDF). Oceans 2019 MTS/IEEE Seattle. Proceedings of MTS-IEEE Oceans 2019 (Seattle, October 27–31, 2019). pp. 1–6. doi:10.23919/OCEANS40490.2019.8962746. ISBN   978-0-578-57618-3. S2CID   208094097.{{cite conference}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  159. Li, J., White, P.R., Bull, J. M., Leighton, T. G. and Roche, B. (2019). "A model for variations of sound speed and attenuation from seabed gas emissions" (PDF). Oceans 2019 MTS/IEEE Seattle. Proceedings of MTS-IEEE Oceans 2019 (Seattle, October 27–31, 2019). pp. 1–9. doi:10.23919/OCEANS40490.2019.8962861. ISBN   978-0-578-57618-3. S2CID   199865473.{{cite conference}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  160. Li, J., Roche, B., Bull, J., White, P., Leighton, T., Provenzano, G., Dewar, M. and Henstock, T. (2020). "Broadband acoustic inversion for gas flux quantification - application to a methane plume at Scanner Pockmark, central North Sea". Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 125 (9): e2020JC016360. Bibcode:2020JGRC..12516360L. doi: 10.1029/2020JC016360 . S2CID   225352398.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  161. Flohr, A., Schaap, A., Achterberg, E.P., Alendal, G., Arundell, M., Berndt, C., Blackford, J., Bottner, C., Borisov, S.M., Brown, R., Bull, J.M., Carter, L., Chen, B., Dale, A.W., de Beer, D., Dean, M., Deusner, C., Dewar, M., Durden, J.M., Elsen, S., Esposito, M., Faggetter, M., Fischer, J.P., Gana, A., Gros, J., Haeckel, M., Hanz, R., Holtappels, M., Hosking, B., Huvenne, V.A.I., James, R.H., Koopmans, D., Kossel, E., Leighton, T.G., Li, J., Lichtschlag, A., Linke, P., Loucaides, S., Martinez-Cabanas, M., Matter, J.M., Mesher, T., Monk, S., Mowlem, M., Oleynik, A., Papadimitriou, S., Paxton, D., Pearce, C.R., Peel, K., Roche, B., Ruhl, H.A., Saleem, U., Sands, C., Saw, K., Schmidt, M., Sommer, S., Strong, J.A., Triest, J., Ungerbock, B., Walk, J., White, P., Widdicombe, S., Wilson, R.E., Wright, H., Wyatt, J. and Connelly, D. (2021). "Towards improved monitoring of offshore carbon storage: A real-world field 1 experiment detecting a controlled sub-seafloor CO2 release". International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 106: 103237. Bibcode:2021IJGGC.10603237F. doi: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2020.103237 . hdl: 11250/2992008 . S2CID   233391860.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  162. Li, J., White, P. R., Bull, J. M., Leighton, T. G., Roche, B. and Davis, J. W. (2021). "Passive acoustic localisation of undersea gas seeps using beamforming". International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 108: 103316. Bibcode:2021IJGGC.10803316L. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2021.103316. S2CID   233555181.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  163. Li, J., White, P. R., Roche, B., Bull, J. M., Leighton, T. G., Davis, J. W. and Fone, J. (2021). "Acoustic and optical determination of bubble size distributions - quantification of seabed gas emissions". International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 108: 103313. Bibcode:2021IJGGC.10803313L. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2021.103313. S2CID   233654868.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  164. Roche, B., Bull, J. M., Marin-Moreno, H., Suarez, I. F., White, P. R., Faggetter, M., Provenzano, G. and Tholen, M. (2021). "Time-lapse imaging of CO2 migration within near-surface sediment during a controlled sub-seabed release experiment". International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 109: 103363. Bibcode:2021IJGGC.10903363R. doi: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2021.103363 . hdl: 11250/2982006 . S2CID   236262368.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  165. Roche, B., White, P. R., Bull, J. M., Leighton, T. G., Li, J., Christie, C. and Fone, J. (2022). "Methods of acoustic gas flux inversion – investigation into the initial amplitude of bubble excitation". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 152 (2): 799–806. Bibcode:2022ASAJ..152..799R. doi: 10.1121/10.0013220 . PMID   36050165. S2CID   251273171.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  166. Connelly, D. P., Bull, J. M., Flohr, A., Schaap, A., Koopmans, D., Blackford, J. C., White, P. R., James, R. H., Pearce, C., Lichtschlag, A., Achterberg, E. P., de Beer, D., Roche, B. , Li, J., Saw, K., Alendal, G., Avlesen, H., Brown, R., Borisov, S. M., Bottner, C., Cazenave, P. W., Chen, B., Dale, A. W., Dean, M., Dewar, M., Esposito, M., Gros, J., Hanz, R., Haeckel, M., Hosking, B., Huvenne, V., Karstens, J., Le Bas, T., Leighton, T. G., Linke, P., Loucaides, S., Matter, J. M., Monk, S., Mowlem, M. C., Oleynik, A., Omar, A. M., Peel, K., Provenzano, G., Saleem, U., Schmidt, M., Schramm, B., Sommer, S., Strong, J. (2022). "Assuring the integrity of offshore carbon dioxide storage". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 166: 112670. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2022.112670 . hdl: 11250/3023870 . S2CID   249615764.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  167. Leighton, T. G. (1 September 2007). "Theory for acoustic propagation in marine sediment containing gas bubbles which may pulsate in a non-stationary nonlinear manner". Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (17): L17607. Bibcode:2007GeoRL..3417607L. doi: 10.1029/2007GL030803 . ISSN   1944-8007.
  168. Mantouka, A; Dogan, H; White, P; Leighton, T (1 July 2016). "Modelling acoustic scattering, sound speed, and attenuation in gassy soft marine sediments" (PDF). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 140 (1): 274–282. Bibcode:2016ASAJ..140..274M. doi:10.1121/1.4954753. ISSN   0001-4966. PMID   27475152.
  169. Dogan, H; White, P; Leighton, T (1 March 2017). "Acoustic wave propagation in gassy porous marine sediments: The rheological and the elastic effects" (PDF). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 141 (3): 2277–2288. Bibcode:2017ASAJ..141.2277D. doi:10.1121/1.4978926. ISSN   0001-4966. PMID   28372087.
  170. Leighton, T. G., Dogan, H., Fox, P., Mantouka, A., Best, A. I., Robb, G. B. R. and White, P. R. (2021). "Acoustic propagation in gassy intertidal marine sediments: an experimental study". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 150 (4): 2705–2716. Bibcode:2021ASAJ..150.2705L. doi:10.1121/10.0006530. PMID   34717471. S2CID   240356447.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  171. Leighton, T. G.; Robb, G. B. N. (2008). "Preliminary mapping of void fractions and sound speeds in gassy marine sediments from subbottom profiles". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 124 (5): EL313–20. Bibcode:2008ASAJ..124L.313L. doi: 10.1121/1.2993744 . PMID   19045684.
  172. Leighton, T. G.; Meers, S. D.; White, P. R. (2004). "Propagation through nonlinear time-dependent bubble clouds and the estimation of bubble populations from measured acoustic characteristics". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 460 (2049): 2521–2550. Bibcode:2004RSPSA.460.2521L. doi:10.1098/rspa.2004.1298. S2CID   17334755.
  173. 1 2 Baik, K., Leighton, T. G and Jiang, J. (2014). "Investigation of a method for real time quantification of gas bubbles in pipelines" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 136 (2): 502–513. Bibcode:2014ASAJ..136..502B. doi:10.1121/1.4881922. PMID   25096085.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  174. Baik, K.; Jiang, J.; Leighton, T. G. (2013). "Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes III: Nonaxisymmetric propagation and circumferential modes in lossless conditions". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 133 (3): 1225–36. Bibcode:2013ASAJ..133.1225B. doi:10.1121/1.4773863. PMID   23463995.
  175. 1 2 Leighton, T. G.; Baik, K.; Jiang, J. (2012). "The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 468 (2145): 2461–2484. Bibcode:2012RSPSA.468.2461L. doi: 10.1098/rspa.2012.0053 .
  176. Leighton, T. G.; Jiang, J.; Baik, K. (2012). "Demonstration comparing sound wave attenuation inside pipes containing bubbly water and water droplet fog". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 131 (3): 2413–21. Bibcode:2012ASAJ..131.2413L. doi:10.1121/1.3676732. PMID   22423788. S2CID   32710397.
  177. Leighton, T.G., Jiang, J. and Baik, K (2011). "A TV demonstration of sound absorption connecting the space shuttle to submarines". Acoustics Bulletin. 36 (4): 35–40.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  178. 1 2 Leighton, T.G., Lingard, R.J., Walton, A.J. and Field, J.E. (1991). "Acoustic bubble sizing by the combination of subharmonic emissions with an imaging frequency" (PDF). Ultrasonics. 29 (4): 319–323. doi:10.1016/0041-624X(91)90029-8.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  179. Leighton T.G. (1994). "Acoustic bubble detection. I. The detection of stable gas bodies" (PDF). Environmental Engineering. 7: 9–16.
  180. Leighton, T.G., Phelps, A.D., Ramble, D.G. and Sharpe, D.A. (1996). "Comparison of the abilities of eight acoustic techniques to detect and size a single bubble" (PDF). Ultrasonics. 34 (6): 661–667. doi:10.1016/0041-624X(96)00053-4.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  181. Leighton, T.G., Ramble, D.G. and Phelps, A.D (1997). "The detection of tethered and rising bubbles using multiple acoustic techniques" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 101 (5): 2626–2635. Bibcode:1997ASAJ..101.2626L. doi:10.1121/1.418503. S2CID   121963740.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  182. Phelps, A.D. and Leighton, T.G. (1996). "High-resolution bubble sizing through detection of the subharmonic response with a two frequency excitation technique" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 99 (4): 1985–1992. Bibcode:1996ASAJ...99.1985P. doi:10.1121/1.415385. S2CID   123164654.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  183. Phelps, A.D. and Leighton, T.G. (1997). "The subharmonic oscillations and combination-frequency emissions from a resonant bubble: their properties and generation mechanisms" (PDF). Acta Acustica. 83: 59–66.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  184. Ramble D.G., Phelps, A.D. and Leighton, T.G. (1998). "On the relation between surface waves on a bubble and the subharmonic combination-frequency emission" (PDF). Acustica with Acta Acustica. 84 (5): 986–988.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  185. Leighton, T. G. (2020). "From research to engagement to translation: Words are cheap. Part 2 - a case study". Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing. 98 (5): 217–220. doi: 10.1080/00202967.2020.1805187 . S2CID   221666813.
  186. Maksimov, A.O. and Leighton, T.G. (2001). "Transient processes near the threshold of acoustically driven bubble shape oscillations" (PDF). Acta Acustica. 87 (3): 322–332.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  187. Maksimov, A.O. and Leighton, T.G. (2012). "Pattern formation on the surface of a bubble driven by an acoustic field" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 468 (2137): 57–75. Bibcode:2012RSPSA.468...57M. doi: 10.1098/rspa.2011.0366 . S2CID   119852707.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  188. 1 2 3 Leighton, T.G. (2016). The acoustic bubble: Oceanic bubble acoustics and ultrasonic cleaning. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics. Vol. 24. p. 070006. doi: 10.1121/2.0000121 .
  189. 1 2 Leighton, T.G., Walton, A.J. and Pickworth, M.J.W. (1990). "Primary Bjerknes forces" (PDF). European Journal of Physics. 11 (1): 47–50. Bibcode:1990EJPh...11...47L. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/11/1/009. S2CID   250881462.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  190. 1 2 Maksimov, A.O. and Leighton, T.G. (2018). "Acoustic radiation force on a parametrically distorted bubble" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 143 (1): 296–305. Bibcode:2018ASAJ..143..296M. doi:10.1121/1.5020786. PMID   29390754.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  191. Phelps, A.D., Ramble, D.G. and Leighton, T.G. (1997). "The use of a combination frequency technique to measure the surf zone bubble population" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 101 (4): 1981–1989. Bibcode:1997ASAJ..101.1981P. doi:10.1121/1.418199. S2CID   123086338.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  192. Phelps, A.D. and Leighton, T.G. (1998). "Oceanic bubble population measurements using a buoy-deployed combination frequency technique" (PDF). IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering. 23 (4): 400–410. Bibcode:1998IJOE...23..400P. doi:10.1109/48.725234.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  193. 1 2 Leighton, T.G., Ramble, D.G., Phelps, A.D., Morfey, C.L. and Harris, P.P. (1998). "Acoustic detection of gas bubbles in a pipe" (PDF). Acustica with Acta Acustica. 84 (5): 801–814.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  194. Leighton, T.G., White, P.R., Morfey, C.L., Clarke, J.W.L., Heald, G.J., Dumbrell, H.A. and Holland, K.R. (2002). "The effect of reverberation on the damping of bubbles" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 112 (4): 1366–1376. Bibcode:2002ASAJ..112.1366L. doi:10.1121/1.1501895. PMID   12398444.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  195. Yim, G.-T. and Leighton, T.G. (2010). "Real-time on-line monitoring of ceramic "slip" in pottery pipe-lines using ultrasound" (PDF). Ultrasonics. 50 (1): 60–67. doi:10.1016/j.ultras.2009.07.008. PMID   19709710.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  196. Richards, S.D., Leighton, T.G. and Brown, N.R. (2003). "Visco-inertial absorption in dilute suspensions of irregular particles" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 459 (2038): 2153–2167. Bibcode:2003RSPSA.459.2153R. doi:10.1098/rspa.2003.1126. S2CID   137585578.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  197. Richards, S.D., Leighton, T.G. and Brown, N.R. (2003). "Sound absorption by suspensions of nonspherical particles: Measurements compared with predictions using various particle sizing techniques" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 114 (4): 1841–1850. Bibcode:2003ASAJ..114.1841R. doi:10.1121/1.1610449. PMID   14587585.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  198. Brown, N.R., Leighton, T.G., Richards, S.D. and Heathershaw, A.D. (1998). "Measurement of viscous sound absorption at 50-150 kHz in a model turbid environment" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 104 (4): 2114–2120. Bibcode:1998ASAJ..104.2114B. doi:10.1121/1.423725.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  199. "T.G. Leighton, lecture, University of Southampton Multidisciplinary Research Week 2013". YouTube . Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  200. Leighton, T.G., Pickworth, M.J.W., Walton, A.J. and Dendy, P.P. (1988). "Studies of the cavitational effects of clinical ultrasound by sonoluminescence: 1 correlation of sonoluminescence with the standing-wave pattern in an acoustic field produced by a therapeutic unit" (PDF). Physics in Medicine and Biology. 33 (11): 1239–1248. Bibcode:1988PMB....33.1239L. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/33/11/002. S2CID   240285566.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  201. Pickworth, M.J.W., Dendy, P.P., Leighton, T.G. and Walton, A.J. (1988). "Studies of the cavitational effects of clinical ultrasound by sonoluminescence: 2 Thresholds for sonoluminescence from a therapeutic ultrasound beam and the effect of temperature and duty cycle" (PDF). Physics in Medicine and Biology. 33 (11): 1249–1260. Bibcode:1988PMB....33.1249P. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/33/11/003. S2CID   250766457.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  202. Leighton, T.G. (1989). "Transient excitation of insonated bubbles" (PDF). Ultrasonics. 27 (1): 50–53. doi:10.1016/0041-624X(89)90009-7.
  203. Leighton, T.G., Walton, A.J. and Field, J.E. (1989). "High-speed photography of transient excitation" (PDF). Ultrasonics. 27 (6): 370–373. doi:10.1016/0041-624X(89)90036-X.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  204. Pickworth, M.J.W., Dendy, P.P., Leighton, T.G., Worpe, E. and Chivers, R.C. (1989). "Studies of the cavitational effects of clinical ultrasound by sonoluminescence: 3 Cavitation from pulses a few microseconds in length" (PDF). Physics in Medicine and Biology. 34 (9): 1139–1151. Bibcode:1989PMB....34.1139P. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/34/9/001. S2CID   250835936.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  205. 1 2 Birkin, P.R., Offin, D.G., Vian, C.J.B. and Leighton, T.G. (2015). "Electrochemical 'bubble swarm' enhancement of ultrasonic surface cleaning". Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 17 (33): 21709–21715. Bibcode:2015PCCP...1721709B. doi:10.1039/c5cp02933c. PMID   26234563.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  206. Leighton, T.G., Pickworth M.J.W., Tudor, J. and Dendy, P.P. (1990). "Search for sonoluminescence in vivo in the human cheek" (PDF). Ultrasonics. 28 (3): 181–184. doi:10.1016/0041-624X(90)90083-Z. PMID   2339477.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  207. Howlin R.P., Fabbri S., Offin D.G., Symonds N., Kiang K.S., Knee R.J., Yoganantham D.C., Webb J.S., Birkin P.R., Leighton T.G., Stoodley P. (2015). "Removal of dental biofilms with a novel ultrasonically-activated water stream". Journal of Dental Research. 94 (9): 1303–1309. doi:10.1177/0022034515589284. PMID   26056055. S2CID   25192202. ePrints Soton 377535.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  208. Birkin, P.R., Offin, D.G., and Leighton, T.G. (2016). "An activated fluid stream - new techniques for cold water cleaning". UltrasonicsSonochemistry. 29: 612–618. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.10.001 . PMID   26522990.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  209. Salta, M; Goodes, L R; Maas, B J; Dennington, S P; Secker, T J; Leighton, T G (2016). "Bubbles versus biofilms: a novel method for the removal of marine biofilms attached on antifouling coatings using an ultrasonically activated water stream". Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. 4 (3): 034009. Bibcode:2016SuTMP...4c4009S. doi:10.1088/2051-672x/4/3/034009. S2CID   54540132.
  210. Goodes, L., Harvey, T., Symonds, N. and Leighton, T.G. (2016). "A comparison of ultrasonically activated stream and ultrasonic bath immersion cleaning of railhead leaf-film contaminant". Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. 4 (3): 034003. doi:10.1088/2051-672X/4/3/034003. S2CID   99433277.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  211. "Grand Opening of The Leighton Laboratories". Sloan Water Technology Ltd. Retrieved 31 October 2023.
  212. Leighton, Timothy (2014). "Bubble Acoustics: From whales to other worlds". Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics. 36 (3): 58–86.
  213. Leighton, Timothy (2018). "Cold water cleaning in the preparation of food and beverages: The power of shimmering bubbles" (PDF). Baking Europe. Summer 2018: 8–12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  214. Leighton, Timothy (2017). "Climate change, dolphins, spaceships and anti-microbial resistance - The impact of bubble acoustics". Proceedings of the International Congress on Sound and Vibration. 24: 1–16.
  215. Secker, T. J., Leighton, T. G., Offin, D. G., Birkin, P. R., Herve, R. C. and Keevil, C. W. (2020). "A cold water, ultrasonic activated stream efficiently removes proteins and prion-associated amyloid from surgical stainless steel". Journal of Hospital Infection. 106 (4): 649–456. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2020.09.021. PMC   7501313 . PMID   32956784.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  216. "Reducing infection risk when cleaning surgical instruments" . Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  217. Chong, W. Y., Secker, T. J., Dolder, C. N., Keevil, C. W. and Leighton, T. G. (2021). "The possibilities of using Ultrasonically Activated Streams to reduce the risk of foodborne infection from salad". Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 46 (6): 1616–1630. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.01.026. PMID   33640170. S2CID   232078170.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  218. "Reducing human illness and fatalities through novel ultrasonic cleaning of salad" . Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  219. Chong, W. Y., Cox, C., Secker, T. J., Keevil, C. W. and Leighton, T. G. (2021). "Improving livestock feed safety and infection prevention: Removal of bacterial contaminants from hay using cold water, bubbles and ultrasound". Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 61: 105372. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105372. PMC   7786572 . PMID   33128950.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  220. Malakoutikhah, M., Dolder, C. N., Secker, T. J., Zhu, M., Harling, C. C., Keevil, C. W. and Leighton, T. G. (2020). "Industrial lubricant removal using an ultrasonically activated water stream, with potential application for Coronavirus decontamination and infection prevention for SARS-CoV-2" (PDF). Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing. 98 (5): 258–270. doi:10.1080/00202967.2020.1805221. S2CID   221666533.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  221. Secker, T. J., Harling, C. C., Hand, C., Voegeli, D., Keevil, C. W. and Leighton, T. G. (2022). "A proof-of-concept study of the removal of early and late phase biofilm from skin wound models using a liquid acoustic stream". International Wound Journal. 19 (8): 2124–2135. doi:10.1111/iwj.13818. PMC   9705188 . PMID   35470982.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  222. "Healing wounds using just air, sound and water: pilot lab tests published" . Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  223. "Engineering professor honoured with Royal Society award" . Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  224. "Royal Society medal awarded to T G Leighton (18 July 2017)". University of Southampton. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  225. "Royal Society Paterson Medal Lecture (5 September 2018)". YouTube . Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  226. "Prestigious acoustics medal for Southampton Professor". Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  227. "FRS award" (PDF). Institute of Acoustics. Retrieved 4 September 2016.[ permanent dead link ]
  228. "Citation for the Helmholtz-Rayleigh Interdisciplinary Silver Medal (Acoustical Society of America)" (PDF). Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  229. "The Helmholtz-Rayleigh Interdisciplinary Silver Medal (Acoustical Society of America)" . Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  230. "The RWB Stephens Medal awarded to Professor T G Leighton" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  231. 1 2 "The Paterson Medal awarded to Professor T G Leighton" . Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  232. "The Clifford Paterson Medal awarded to Professor T G Leighton" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  233. "1994 A B Wood Medal" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  234. "Southampton professor Tim Leighton honoured as Doctor of Science" . Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  235. "Royal Society Award to NAMRIP team for StarHealer" . Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  236. "Best New Product". LabMate. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  237. "Southampton 'StarStream' cleaning technology wins prestigious award". University of southampton, chemistry. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  238. "Ultrasonic device which enhances water's ability to clean wins 'Product of the Year'" . Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  239. "ITV News - University demonstrates pioneering device for cleaning medical instruments" . Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  240. "The 2012 Institute of Chemical Engineering Award for 'Water Management and Supply'" . Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  241. "Royal Society Brian Mercer Award video". YouTube . Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  242. "Royal Society Brian Mercer Award clippings" . Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  243. "The Engineer Magazine 2008 Technology and innovation awards 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  244. "Inaugural Medwin Prize in Acoustical Oceanography awarded to Professor T G Leighton" (PDF). Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  245. "Worldwide Universities Network - Southampton professor receives prestigious Fellowship of the Royal Society". May 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  246. "Acoustics Today - ASA fellow Timothy G. Leighton – Radar System TWIPR". 20 August 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  247. Univ. of South Hampton (20 July 2012). "Major honor for Professor Leighton".