Temporal range: Tortonian
|Holotype skull in lateral view|
|Genus:||† Tiucetus |
Marx, Lambert & De Muizon 2017
Tiucetus is an extinct genus of cetotheriid baleen whale known from the Late Miocene Pisco Formation of Peru.
Tiucetus is distinct from other cetotheriids in having a squamosal cleft; from eomysticetids in having comparatively short nasals, a more anteriorly projected supraoccipital and parietal, and a tympanic bulla that is rotated so that the inner posterior prominence faces dorsally.
Tiucetus falls basally in Cetotheriidae, less derived than Joumocetus and Cephalotropis .
Other marine mammals found in the Pisco Formation include another cetotheriid, Piscobalaena , the odd dolphin Odobenocetops , the killer sperm whale Acrophyseter , the long-necked seal Acrophoca , and aquatic sloth Thalassocnus .
Neobalaenidae is a family of baleen whales including the extant pygmy right whale. Although traditionally considered related to balaenids, a recent phylogenetic study by Fordyce and Marx (2013) recovered the living pygmy right whale as a member of Cetotheriidae, making it the only extant cetotheriid, but not all authors agree with this argument.
Thalassocnus is an extinct genus of semiaquatic ground sloths from the Miocene and Pliocene of the Pacific South American coast. It is monotypic within the subfamily Thalassocninae. The five species—T. antiquus, T. natans, T. littoralis, T. carolomartini, and T. yuacensis—represent a chronospecies, a population gradually adapting to marine life in one direct lineage. They are the only known aquatic sloths, but they may have also been adapted to a terrestrial lifestyle. They have been found in the Pisco Formation of Peru, the Tafna Formation of Argentina, and the Bahía Inglesa, Coquimbo, and Horcón formations of Chile. Thalassocninae has been placed in both the families Megatheriidae and Nothrotheriidae.
The Colloncuran age is a period of geologic time within the Middle Miocene epoch of the Neogene, used more specifically within the SALMA classification in South America. It follows the Friasian and precedes the Laventan age.
The Mayoan age is a period of geologic time from 11.8 to 10 Ma, within the Middle to Late Miocene epoch of the Neogene, used more specifically within the SALMA classification in South America. It follows the Laventan and precedes the Chasicoan age.
The Chasicoan age is a period of geologic time from 10–9 Ma within the Late Miocene epoch of the Neogene, used more specifically within the SALMA classification in South America. It follows the Mayoan and precedes the Huayquerian age.
Joumocetus is a genus of extinct baleen whale in the family Cetotheriidae containing the single species Joumocetus shimizui. The species is known only from a partial skeleton found in Miocene age sediments of Japan.
Livyatan is an extinct genus of macroraptorial sperm whale containing one known species: L. melvillei. The genus name was inspired by the biblical sea monster Leviathan, and the species name by Herman Melville, the author of the famous novel Moby-Dick about a white bull sperm whale. It is mainly known from the Pisco Formation of Peru during the Tortonian stage of the Miocene epoch, about 9.9–8.9 million years ago (mya); however, finds of isolated teeth from other locations such as Chile, Argentina, United States (California), South Africa and Australia imply that either it or a close relative survived into the Pliocene, around 5 mya, and may have had a global presence. It was a member of a group of macroraptorial sperm whales and was probably an apex predator, preying on whales, seals and so forth. Characteristically of raptorial sperm whales, Livyatan had functional, enamel-coated teeth on the upper and lower jaws, as well as several features suitable for hunting large prey.
Acrophyseter is a genus of extinct sperm whales that lived in the Late Miocene off the coast of Peru comprising two species: A. deinodon and A. robustus. It is part of a group of macroraptorial sperm whales which all shared several features for the purpose of hunting large prey, such as deeply-rooted and thick teeth. Acrophyseter measured 4–4.5 metres (13–15 ft), making it the smallest raptorial sperm whale. Because of its short pointed snout, and its strong curved front teeth, it probably fed on the large marine vertebrates of its time, such as seals and other whales.
Cetotheriidae is a family of baleen whales. The family is known to have existed from the Late Oligocene to the Early Pleistocene before going extinct. Although some phylogenetic studies conducted by Fordyce & Marx 2013 recovered the living pygmy right whale as a member of Cetotheriidae, making the pygmy right whale the only living cetotheriid, other authors either dispute this placement or recover Neobalaenidae as a sister group to Cetotheriidae.
Piscobalaena is an extinct genus of cetaceans, which lived from the Middle to Late Miocene epochs in Peru and Florida. Its fossils have been found in the Pisco Formation of Peru and the Bone Valley Formation of Florida. At least some individuals of this diminutive whale were preyed on by the shark C. megalodon.
Scaldicetus is an extinct genus of highly predatory macroraptorial sperm whale. Although widely used for a number of extinct physeterids with primitive dental morphology consisting of enameled teeth, Scaldicetus as generally recognized appears to be a wastebasket taxon filled with more-or-less unrelated primitive sperm whales.
Miocaperea is an extinct genus of pygmy right whale from the Late Miocene Pisco Formation of Peru. Its type species is Miocaperea pulchra.
Peripolocetus is a genus of balaenid baleen whale from the middle Miocene of Kern County, California.
Huaridelphis is an extinct genus of river dolphins from the Early Miocene. The type species is H. raimondii, found in the Chilcatay Formation of the Pisco Basin.
The Pisco Formation is a geologic formation located in Peru, on the southern coastal desert of Ica and Arequipa. The approximately 640 metres (2,100 ft) thick formation was deposited in the Pisco Basin, spanning an age from the Middle Miocene up to the Early Pleistocene, roughly from 15 to 2 Ma. The tuffaceous sandstones, diatomaceous siltstones, conglomerates and dolomites were deposited in a lagoonal to near-shore environment, in bays similar to other Pacific South American formations as the Bahía Inglesa and Coquimbo Formations of Chile.
Scaphokogia is an extinct genus of pygmy sperm whales that lived off the coasts of Mexico and Peru, South America during the Late Miocene to Late Pliocene. Only the type species S. cochlearis has been described. Fossils of Scaphokogia have been found in the Tirabuzon Formation of Baja California and the Pisco Formation of Peru. Scaphokogia existed about 5 million years ago, and were relatively rare animals.
Mystacodon is a genus of toothed baleen whale from the Late Eocene Yumaque Formation of the Pisco Basin in southwestern Peru. It is the oldest known baleen whale, and was probably a suction feeder of small prey on the seafloor.
Incakujira is an extinct genus of rorqual from the Late Miocene Pisco Formation in western Peru.
Balaenoptera siberi is an extinct species of baleen whale from the Late Miocene, described by Pilleri and Pilleri in 1989, based on fossils found in the Pisco Formation of the Pisco Basin in southwestern Peru.
Pisco Basin is a sedimentary basin extending over 300 kilometres (190 mi) in southwestern Peru. The basin has a 2 kilometres (6,600 ft) thick sedimentary fill, which is about half the thickness of more northern foreland basins in Peru.