|Genus:|| Tristramella |
Tristramella is a genus of oreochromines, freshwater fishes in the cichlid family. The members of this genus prefer standing waters and their native range is restricted to the Jordan River system, including Lake Tiberias (Kinneret), in Israel and Syria, with introduced populations in a few other places in Syria.Its members are among the few cichlids native to Western Asia, the others being Astatotilapia flaviijosephi , Coptodon zillii , Iranocichla , Oreochromis aureus , O. niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus .
Locally, T. simonis remains common and an important part of fisheries, but overall it has declined and it is considered threatened.In contrast, T. sacra has been extinct since 1989–90, possibly due to the disappearance of its breeding habitat, marshes in Lake Tiberias.
Tristramella reach up to 25–28 cm (10–11 in) in total length. Overall they resemble typical tilapias and the Tristramella species differ from each other mainly in details of their teeth, the proportional size of their head and the length of their jaw. They feed mostly on phyto– and zooplankton, but also take other small invertebrates, tiny fish, macrophytes and detritus. They are mouthbrooders that lay a relatively small number (up to 250) of relatively large eggs. Although hybrids are well-known among tilapias, hybrids between Tristramella and other tilapias are unknown. Despite both living in Lake Tiberias and them being close relatives, hybridization between T. simonis and the now-extinct T. sacra also is not known to have occurred.
The generic name Tristramella honours the English clergyman and naturalist Henry Baker Tristram (1822-1906) who collected cichlids in Palestine for the British Museum of Natural History.In the past they were included in the genus Tilapia instead.
There are currently two recognized species in this genus:
Two other extinct populations, intermidia of Lake Hula and magdelainea of the vicinity of Damascus,are of uncertain taxonomic status. In the past, they were recognized as subspecies of T. simonis by FishBase and they are still recognized as valid, separate species by the IUCN, which however has not reviewed their status since 2006. Today FishBase and Catalog of Fishes consider both intermidia and magdelainea as synonyms of T. simonis.
The Sea of Galilee, also called Lake Tiberias, Kinneret or Kinnereth, is a freshwater lake in Israel. It is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second-lowest lake in the world, at levels between 215 metres (705 ft) and 209 metres (686 ft) below sea level. It is approximately 53 km (33 mi) in circumference, about 21 km (13 mi) long, and 13 km (8.1 mi) wide. Its area is 166.7 km2 (64.4 sq mi) at its fullest, and its maximum depth is approximately 43 metres (141 ft). The lake is fed partly by underground springs but its main source is the Jordan River, which flows through it from north to south and exits the lake at the Degania Dam.
Heterotilapia buttikoferi, also known as the zebra tilapia, is a West African species of cichlid.
Cyrtocara moorii, commonly known as the hump-head, is a species of haplochromine cichlid endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa where they prefer areas with sandy substrates. It can grow to a length of 20 centimetres (7.9 in) TL. The species is popular among aquarium keepers where it is known as the hump-head cichlid, blue dolphin cichlid, Malawi dolphin or simply as moorii. It is currently the only known member of its genus. The specific name honours the English cytologist and biologist John Edmund Sharrock Moore (1870-1947).
Neolamprologus leleupi is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it occurs throughout the lake. It is a recess-dweller, inhabiting cracks and crevices. It feeds on invertebrates living in the rich biocover of the substrate. This species reaches a length of 10 centimetres (3.9 in) TL. The color of this fish ranges from bright yellow to deep brown. Both color variations exist at each location where this species is found. This relatively small cichlid is a substrate spawner. It is easily confused with the very similar N. longior a fish also endemic to Lake Tanganyika. The specific name honours the Belgian entomologist Narcisse Leleup (1912-2001), who collected the type.
Acanthobrama terraesanctae, the Kinneret bream or Kinneret bleak, is a species of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae. It is known from two lakes: Lake Tiberias, Israel, and Lake Muzarib, Syria. This is a small planktivorous fish, typically about 14 cm long, occurring near surface in large schools. It is very abundant in Lake Tiberias, whereas there is little information on the other lake, which is small (0.5 km2) and can hold a small population anyway.
Copadichromis mbenjii is a species of haplochromine cichlid which is endemic to Lake Malawi. It is only found around Mbenje Island from where it takes its specific name.
Docimodus evelynae is a species of haplochromine cichlid. It is endemic to Lake Malawi; it is widespread in the lake and found in Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania. This species has unusual feeding habits: it feeds upon the flank scales of cichlids or cyprinids and the skin of catfishes. The specific name honours Evelyn Axelrod, the wife of the publisher Herbert R. Axelrod (1927-2017).
Astatotilapia flaviijosephi, the Jordan mouthbrooder, is a vulnerable species of freshwater fish in the family Cichlidae (cichlids). It is found in the central Jordan River system, including Lake Tiberias (Kinneret), in Israel, Jordan and Syria, making it the only haplochromine cichlid to naturally range outside of Africa. This species is too small to be of significant importance to fisheries, unlike the only other cichlids native to the Levant, the economically important tilapias.
Haplochromis howesi is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Victoria. This species can reach a length of 16.3 centimetres (6.4 in) SL. The specific name honours the British taxonomist Gordon J. Howes (1938-2013) of the British Museum.
Labidochromis freibergi is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Malawi where it is only known to occur around Likoma Island in areas with rocky substrates. This species grows to a length of 8 centimetres (3.1 in) TL. The specific name of this species honours the American fish importer Jacob Freiberg.
The kotso is a species of cichlid fish from northwestern Madagascar. Currently rated as data deficient by the IUCN, this species is virtually unknown. The only known specimen is a juvenile that was collected more than 80 years ago. It is not entirely clear where it was collected, but likely from the Maintimaso River or Lake Ambanja, which both are part of the Betsiboka River drainage. Erroneously, the name P. petiti has often been applied to members of a different species, P. dambabe. The specific name honours the French zoologist and anatomist Georges Petit (1892-1973) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, who collected type.
Spathodus marlieri is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it is only known from the northern portion of the lake. This species prefers areas with rocky substrates in very shallow waters to a depth of about 2 metres (6.6 ft). This species can reach a length of 10 centimetres (3.9 in) TL. It can also be found in the aquarium trade. The specific name honours the Belgian zoologist Georges Marlier.
The redbreast tilapia is a species of fish in the family Cichlidae. It is found widely in the southern half of Africa. Its natural habitats are freshwater lakes and freshwater marshes. It is known as the redbreast kurper in South Africa.
Tristramella intermedia is an extinct species of fish in the family Cichlidae. It was endemic to Lake Hula in northern Israel. This taxon was considered to be a subspecies of T. simonis in FishBase and considered a synonym of T. simonis by Catalog of Fishes, a view with which FishBase now concurs. This species reached a length of 22.9 centimetres (9.0 in) TL.
Tristramella magdelainae is an extinct species of cichlid fish. It was endemic to the vicinity of Damascus in Syria. It was last recorded in the 1950s, has not been recorded since and is presumed extinct. Drought, pollution and water extraction may have destroyed its habitat. This taxon is considered to be a subspecies of T. simonis in FishBase and considered a synonym of T. simonis by Catalog of Fishes, a view that FishBase now (2018) concurs with. This species reached a standard length of 13 cm (5.1 in).
Tristramella sacra, the long jaw tristramella, is a species of cichlid fish that was endemic to the Sea of Galilee in Israel. It has not been recorded since 1990, despite searches both of the lake and in local markets, and it is regarded as extinct by the IUCN. This species could reach a total length of up to 28 cm (11 in).
Tristramella simonis, the short jaw tristramella, is a vulnerable species of cichlid fish from the Jordan River system, including Lake Tiberias (Kinneret), in Israel and Syria, with introduced populations in the Nahr al-Kabir and Orontes basins in Syria. It prefers waters with little or no movement. Along with other tilapias, T. simonis is commonly caught as a food fish in parts of its range and it is commercially important in Lake Tiberias.
Tropheus brichardi is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it is found in areas with substrates of solid rock in the central portion of the lake. This species can reach a length of 10 cm (3.9 in). It can be found in the aquarium trade. The specific name honours Pierre Brichard (1921-1990) the aquarium fish exporter who provided the authors with the type.
Tropheus duboisi, the white spotted cichlid, is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika. It can reach a length of 12 cm (4.7 in).
The Dead Sea toothcarp is a subspecies of the Arabian toothcarp that is endemic to the Dead Sea basin, although molecular evidence suggests that it should be regarded as a species. It is threatened by water fluctuation, and the introduction of cichlids and Gambusia. The sub-specific name of this fish honours the Scottish surgeon and naturalist John Richardson (naturalist) (1787-1865) who first reported killifish in the Dead Sea basin.