Trypanosoma antiquus

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Trypanosoma antiquus
Temporal range: Burdigalian
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Trypanosoma antiquus in fecal droplet of Triatoma dominicana.jpg
T. antiquus in Triatoma dominicana fecal droplet
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Phylum: Euglenozoa
Class: Kinetoplastea
Order: Trypanosomatida
Family: Trypanosomatidae
Genus: Trypanosoma
Subgenus: Schizotrypanum
Species:
T. antiquus
Binomial name
Trypanosoma antiquus
Poinar, 2005

Trypanosoma antiquus is an extinct species of kinetoplastid (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic [1] group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa.

The genus name is derived from the Greek trypano (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion, and the species name from antiquua (old) reflecting the age of the specimen. [2] All trypanosomes are heteroxenous (requiring more than one obligatory host in order to complete life cycle) or are transmitted through some variation of a vector.

The species was described in 2005 by George Poinar Jr. in the journal Vector-Borne & Zoonotic Diseases from metatrypanosomes preserved in several fecal pellets encased in Hymenaea protera amber. [2] The fossil was recovered in the Dominican Republic from early Miocene Burdigalian stage deposits on the island of Hispaniola. [2] [3] Included with the pellets and thought to be the origin for them, is the extinct kissing bug Triatoma dominicana . [2] This association is the oldest known example of the vector association between Triatoma and Trypanosoma . The holotype, deposited in the Oregon State University as specimen number P-3-3, was mined from the La Toca mine in the Dominican Republic. T. dominicana and T. antiquus lived in an environment similar to modern moist tropical rain forests. [2] The preserved metatrypanosomes range in size from 11 to 20 µm with the average length being 15 µm. The species is placed in the Trypanosoma subgenus Schizotrypanum , and is identifiable by age and the average length being shorter than that of other Schizotrypanum species. Based on the contents of the amber specimen including three hematophagous insects, it is likely to have been formed in a tree cavity. [2] Associated with the insects are several mammal hairs from an unidentified Chiropteran, the likely host for T. dominicana. The pellets are thought to have been deposited after the T. dominicana finished feeding on the host bat. [2] Modern bat-hosted trypanosomes in the region are considered a vector for the fatal Chagas disease in humans. [2]

Related Research Articles

Trypanosomatida Order of flagellate protists in the kinetoplastid excavates

Trypanosomatida is a group of kinetoplastid excavates distinguished by having only a single flagellum. The name is derived from the Greek trypano (borer) and soma (body) because of the corkscrew-like motion of some trypanosomatid species. All members are exclusively parasitic, found primarily in insects. A few genera have life-cycles involving a secondary host, which may be a vertebrate, invertebrate or plant. These include several species that cause major diseases in humans.

<i>Trypanosoma</i> Genus of parasitic flagellate protist in the Kinetoplastea class

Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids, a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. Trypanosoma is part of the phylum Sarcomastigophora. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion. Most trypanosomes are heteroxenous and most are transmitted via a vector. The majority of species are transmitted by blood-feeding invertebrates, but there are different mechanisms among the varying species. Some, such as Trypanosoma equiperdum, are spread by direct contact. In an invertebrate host they are generally found in the intestine, but normally occupy the bloodstream or an intracellular environment in the mammalian host.

Dominican amber

Dominican amber is amber from the Dominican Republic. Resin from the extinct tree Hymenaea protera is the source of Dominican amber and probably of most amber found in the tropics.

<i>Triatoma dominicana</i> species of insect

Triatoma dominicana is an extinct species of assassin bug in the subfamily Triatominae, the kissing bugs known from early Miocene Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits on the island of Hispaniola.

<i>Termitaradus mitnicki</i> species of insect (fossil)

Termitaradus mitnicki is an extinct species of true bug in the family Termitaphididae known only from early Miocene Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits on the island of Hispaniola.

Palaeoraphe is an extinct genus of palms, represented by one species, Palaeoraphe dominicana from early Miocene Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits on the island of Hispaniola. The genus is known from a single, 10.8 millimetres (0.43 in) diameter, full flower. The holotype is currently deposited in the collections of the Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon, as number "Sd–9–158", where it was studied and described by Dr George Poinar. Dr Poinar published his 2002 type description for Palaeoraphe in the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society volume number 139. The genus name is a combination of the Greek word palaios meaning "ancient" and Raphia a genus of palm, while the species name dominicana references the Dominican Republic where the fossil was discovered. The type specimen was excavated from the La Toca mine northeast of Santiago de los Caballeros.

Roystonea palaea is an extinct species of palm known from fossil flowers found in the early Miocene Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits on the island of Hispaniola. The species is known from a single staminate flower and a single pistillate flower both preserved in the same piece of amber. The amber specimen bearing the holotype and paratype is currently deposited in the collections of the Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon, as number "Sd–9–101", where it was studied and described by Dr George Poinar. Dr Poinar published his 2002 type description for R. palaea in the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 139. The species' second name is taken from the Greek word palaios meaning "ancient". The amber specimen bearing the flowers was excavated from the La Toca mine northeast of Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic.

<i>Coprinites</i> species of fungus

Coprinites is an extinct monotypic genus of gilled fungus in the Agaricales family Agaricaceae. At present it contains the single species Coprinites dominicana.

Aureofungus is an extinct monotypic genus of gilled fungus in the order Agaricales. At present it contains the single species Aureofungus yaniguaensis.

<i>Protomycena</i> species of fungus

Protomycena is an extinct monotypic genus of gilled fungus in the family Mycenaceae, of order Agaricales. At present it contains the single species Protomycena electra, known from a single specimen collected in an amber mine in the Cordillera Septentrional area of the Dominican Republic. The fruit body of the fungus has a convex cap that is 5 mm (0.2 in) in diameter, with distantly spaced gills on the underside. The curved stipe is smooth and cylindrical, measuring 0.75 mm (0.030 in) thick by 10 mm (0.39 in) long, and lacks a ring. It resembles extant species of the genus Mycena. Protomycena is one of only five known agaric fungus species known in the fossil record and the second to be described from Dominican amber.

<i>Palaeoagaracites</i> species of fungus

Palaeoagaracites is an extinct monotypic genus of gilled fungus in the order Agaricales. It contains the single species Palaeoagaracites antiquus.

<i>Lutzomyia adiketis</i> species of insect (fossil)

Lutzomyia adiketis is an extinct species of sandfly in the moth fly subfamily Phlebotominae. L. adiketis is a vector of the extinct Paleoleishmania neotropicum and both species are solely known from early Miocene Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits on the island of Hispaniola.

<i>Paleoleishmania</i> Extinct genus of parasitic flagellate protist in the Kinetoplastea class

Paleoleishmania is an extinct genus of kinetoplastids, a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. At present it is placed in the family Trypanosomatidae. The genus contains two species, Paleoleishmania neotropicum and the type species Paleoleishmania proterus.

Pintomyia falcaorum is an extinct species of sandfly in the moth fly subfamily Phlebotominae. P. falcaorum is solely known from early Miocene Burdigalian stage Dominican amber deposits on the island of Hispaniola.

Mycetophagites is an extinct fungal genus of mycoparasitic in the order Hypocreales. A monotypic genus, it contains the single species Mycetophagites atrebora.

Entropezites is an extinct monotypic genus of hypermycoparasitic fungus in the order Hypocreales. At present it contains the single species Entropezites patricii.

<i>Vetufebrus</i> genus of protists

Vetufebrus is an extinct genus of haemospororida in the family Plasmodiidae. At the time of its description the new genus was comprised of a single species Vetufebrus ovatus known from a single Miocene Dominican amber fossil found on Hispaniola. V. ovatus was vectored by Enischnomyia stegosoma, the first fossil steblid bat fly described from a fossil, and the only member of the subfamily Nycterophiliinae described from Hispaniola. V. ovatus is the first instance of a Streblidae bat fly as a host for a malarial parasite.

Termitaradus dominicanus is an extinct species of termite bug in the family Termitaphididae known from a Miocene fossil found on Hispaniola. T. dominicanus is the third species in the genus Termitaradus to have been described from fossils found in Dominican amber after Termitaradus avitinquilinus and Termitaradus mitnicki.

Syndesus ambericus is an extinct species of stag beetles in the subfamily Syndesinae known from a single possibly Miocene fossil found on Hispaniola. S. ambericus is the first species of stag beetle to have been described from fossils found in Dominican amber and is one of four species from amber, and the only stag beetle species known from the Caribbean.

<i>Enischnomyia</i> extinct genus of bat fly

Enischnomyia is an extinct genus of bat fly in the family Streblidae. At the time of its description the new genus was comprised of a single species, Enischnomyia stegosoma, known from a single Miocene fossil found on Hispaniola. E. stegosoma was the first fossil steblid bat fly described from a fossil, and the only member of the subfamily Nycterophiliinae described from Hispaniola. The species is host for the plasmodiid Vetufebrus ovatus preserved in its salvary glands and midgut.

References

  1. Hamilton PB, Stevens JR, Gaunt MW, Gidley J, Gibson WC (2004). "Trypanosomes are monophyletic: evidence from genes for glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and small subunit ribosomal RNA". Int. J. Parasitol. 34 (12): 1393–404. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2004.08.011. PMID   15542100.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Poinar, G. (2005). "Triatoma dominicana sp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), and Trypanosoma antiquus sp. n. (Stercoraria: Trypanosomatidae), the First Fossil Evidence of a Triatomine-Trypanosomatid Vector Association". Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 5 (1): 72–81. doi:10.1089/vbz.2005.5.72. PMID   15815152.
  3. Iturralde-Vinent, M.A.; MacPhee, R.D.E. (1996). "Age and Paleogeographical Origin of Dominican Amber". Science. 273 (5283): 1850–1852. doi:10.1126/science.273.5283.1850.