United Nations Security Council Resolution 940

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UN Security Council
Resolution 940
EB Haiti.jpg
Peacekeepers in Haiti
Date31 July 1994
Meeting no.3,413
CodeS/RES/940 (Document)
SubjectHaiti
Voting summary
  • 12 voted for
  • None voted against
  • 2 abstained
ResultAdopted
Security Council composition
Permanent members
Non-permanent members

United Nations Security Council resolution 940, adopted on 31 July 1994, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994), 917 (1994) and 933 (1994), the Council permitted a United States-led force to restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and authorities of the Government of Haiti, and extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) for an additional six months. [1]

Contents

Resolution

The council began with condemnations of the military regime in Haiti because it had refused to co-operate with the United States. Some concern was also expressed at the deteriorating humanitarian situation in the country, violations of civil liberties and expulsion of staff from the International Civilian Mission.

The resolution claimed an extraordinary situation in Haiti, which required an exceptional response. [2] It was determined that the regime in Haiti had failed to comply with United States interests. The Council then authorised, under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, for Member States to form a multinational force under US command to overthrow current leaders from Haiti, and for previous ones to return to an environment in which a United States agreement could be implemented. An advance team of no more than 60 personnel was established in order to co-ordinate and observe the American operations, requesting the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to report back on developments relating to the advance team within 30 days.

Once the multinational force had completed its mission, UNMIH would take over its functions when a suitable environment had been secured. After extending UNMIH's mandate for six months, it was decided to increase the size of the mission to 6,000 troops with the aim of completing it by February 1996. The safety of United Nations personnel and those from diplomatic missions and international humanitarian organisations would be guaranteed. Finally, international sanctions imposed on Haiti would be lifted once Aristide had been returned to power.

Resolution 940 was controversially adopted by 12 votes to none, with two abstentions from Brazil and China, while Rwanda was not present when voting took place. There were accusations of US pressure. [3]

Reaction

The vote was the first time the United Nations sanctioned the use of an invading force to "restore democracy." [4] It was also the first time the US has sought and gained UN approval for a military intervention in the Americas.

Many Latin American countries were opposed to the resolution. Mexico's UN ambassador, Víctor Flores Olea, spoke out against the resolution, saying that "it sets an extremely dangerous precedent in the field of international relations" because the crisis "does not constitute a threat to peace and international security." Cuban Foreign Minister Roberto Robaina said that the resolution furthers "the repeated attempts by the Security Council to amplify its powers beyond those which were granted it by the Charter."

Brazilian President Itamar Franco strongly opposed the UN decision, saying "The Security Council's special powers should not be invoked in an indiscriminate manner in the name of a 'search for more rapid means' to respond to attacks on democracy, because it violates the basic principles of peaceful co-existence between nations and normal UN legal procedures." After a visit to Brazil from U.S. Under Secretary of State Peter Tarnoff the week before the vote, Brazil's decision to abstain instead of oppose the resolution can clearly be seen to be the result of enormous U.S. pressure.

Pointing out that the situation in Haiti posed no threat to world peace and security, Uruguay's UN representative Ramiro Piriz Ballon said his country "will not support any military intervention, unilateral or multilateral."

Argentina initially offered to send four marine and infantry companies to join the U.S.-led invasion forces. However, after popular discontent over the decision, President Carlos Menem was forced to back down on the offer.

On 17 January 1995, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali issued a 17-page report on the result of the intervention: the report noted the ongoing repression in Haiti, the complete lack of justice for victims of the September 1991 coup d'état, the deteriorating economic situation, and the growing impatience of the Haitian people.

See also

Related Research Articles

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 905

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 906

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 917

United Nations Security Council resolution 917, adopted unanimously on 6 May 1994, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993) and 875 (1993) and 905 (1994) on the situation in Haiti, the Council imposed further international sanctions on the country after the military authorities refused to implement the Governors Island Agreement to hand over power and instances of violations of human rights.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 918

United Nations Security Council resolution 918, adopted without a vote on 17 May 1994, after reaffirming all resolutions on the situation in Rwanda, particularly resolutions 872 (1993), 909 (1994) and 912 (1994), the Council expressed its alarm and condemnation at the continuing large-scale violence, and went on to impose an arms embargo on the country and authorised an expansion of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 929

United Nations Security Council resolution 929, adopted on 22 June 1994, after recalling all resolutions on Rwanda, including 912 (1994), 918 (1994) and 925 (1994), the Council authorised, under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the temporary establishment of a multinational operation in the country to assist in humanitarian efforts and protect refugees and displaced people, until the full deployment of the expanded United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 933

United Nations Security Council resolution 933, adopted unanimously on 30 June 1994, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994) and 917 (1994), the Council noted the deteriorating situation in Haiti and extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) until 31 July 1994.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 944

United Nations Security Council Resolution 944, adopted on 29 September 1994, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994), 917 (1994), 933 (1994) and 940 (1994), the Council affirmed its willingness to suspend sanctions against Haiti once the legitimate President Jean-Bertrand Aristide had returned following the removal of the military junta.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 948

United Nations Security Council resolution 948, adopted on 15 October 1994, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994), 917 (1994), 933 (1994), 940 (1994) and 944 (1994), the Council welcomed the return of the legitimate President of Haiti Jean-Bertrand Aristide and lifted sanctions imposed on the country.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 964

United Nations Security Council resolution 964, adopted on 29 November 1994, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994), 917 (1994), 933 (1994), 940 (1994), 944 (1994) and 948 (1994), the council noted the progress in Haiti and strengthened the advance team of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 975

United Nations Security Council resolution 975, adopted on 30 January 1995, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994), 917 (1994), 933 (1994), 940 (1994), 944 (1994), 948 (1994) and 964 (1994), the Council discussed the transfer of responsibility from the Multinational Force (MNF) to the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) and extended the mandate of UNMIH for a further six months until 31 July 1995.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1007

United Nations Security Council resolution 1007, adopted unanimously on 31 July 1995, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994), 917 (1994), 933 (1994), 940 (1994), 944 (1994), 948 (1994), 964 (1994) and 975 (1995), the Council discussed the election process and extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) for a further seven months.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1048

United Nations Security Council resolution 1048, adopted unanimously on 29 February 1996, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994), 917 (1994), 933 (1994), 940 (1994), 944 (1994), 948 (1994), 964 (1994), 975 (1995) and 1007 (1995) on Haiti, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) for four months until 30 June 1996, and reduced its size.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1063

United Nations Security Council resolution 1063, adopted unanimously on 28 June 1996, after recalling all Security Council and General Assembly resolutions on Haiti and the termination of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) on 30 June 1996 in accordance with Resolution 1048 (1996), the Council decided to establish the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) to train a national police force and maintain a stable environment.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1086

United Nations Security Council resolution 1086, adopted unanimously on 29 November 1996, after recalling all relevant Security Council and General Assembly resolutions on Haiti, the Council decided to extend the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) for a final time, until 31 May 1997, unless it could make further progress, in which case, it would be extended until 31 July 1997.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1529

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1529, adopted unanimously on 29 February 2004, after expressing concern about the situation in Haiti, the Council authorised the deployment of an international force to the country to stabilise the situation following a coup d'état that resulted in the removal of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide from office.

References

  1. Dinstein, Yoram (2005). War, aggression and self-defence (4th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 287. ISBN   978-0-521-85080-3.
  2. Farer, Tom J. (1996). Beyond sovereignty: collectively defending democracy in the Americas . JHU Press. p.  47. ISBN   978-0-8018-5166-7.
  3. "U.N. Resolution for Invasion of Haiti". The New York Times. 1 August 1994.
  4. Quashigah, Edward Kofi; Okafor, Obiora Chinedu (1999). Legitimate governance in Africa: international and domestic legal perspectives. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 481. ISBN   978-90-411-1176-0.