Venues of the 1972 Winter Olympics

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For the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, Japan, a total of twelve sports venues were used. A thirteenth venue which was a reserved luge course was constructed, but never used in actual competition. Construction on all but of the venues used took place between 1968 and early 1971 in time for the test events. The Tsuskisamu Indoor Skating Rink was not completed until late 1971 or early 1972 because the number of teams scheduled to compete at the 1972 Games was not known. At the actual luge venue used, a malfunctioning starting gate during the first run led to the results being cancelled and rerun being ordered. The results of this event led to the only tie in Olympic luge history. The ski jumps at Miyanomori and Okurayama served as host venues for the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships thirty-five years later.

The 1972 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XI Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was held from February 3 to February 13, 1972, in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. It was the first Winter Olympics to be held outside Europe and North America, and only the third game held outside those regions overall, after Melbourne and Tokyo.

Sapporo Designated city in Hokkaido, Japan

Sapporo is the fifth largest city of Japan by population, and the largest city on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. It is the capital city of Hokkaido Prefecture and Ishikari Subprefecture. It is an ordinance-designated city.

Japan Constitutional monarchy in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

Contents

Venues

City

VenueSportsCapacityRef.
Makomanai Biathlon site Biathlon Not listed. [1]
Makomanai Cross-country site Cross-country skiing, Nordic combined (cross-country skiing)Not listed. [1]
Makomanai Ice Arena Figure skating, Ice hockey, Closing ceremonies11,500 [2]
Makomanai Speed Skating Rink Opening ceremonies, Speed skating 30,000 [3]
Mikaho Indoor Skating Rink Figure skating12,000 [4]
Tsukisamu Indoor Skating Rink Ice hockey6,000 [5]

A reserve luge course was constructed 9 km (5.6 mi) south of Sapporo's Olympic village at the Fujino ski area, but was never used. Constructed between June 1968 and November 1971, the track cost ¥106 million to build. It was 1,000 m (3,300 ft) long for men's singles and 924.55 m (3,033.3 ft) long for women's singles and men's doubles, had 14 turns for all three luge disciplines, and had a 10% average gradient for the track. No turn names were given. [6]

Japanese yen Official currency of Japan

The yen is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar and the euro. It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, the euro, and the pound sterling.

Mountain

VenueSportsCapacityRef.
Miyanomori Jumping Hill Nordic combined (ski jumping), Ski jumping (normal hill)Not listed. [7]
Mount Eniwa Downhill Course Alpine skiing (downhill)Not listed. [8]
Mt. Teine Alpine Skiing courses Alpine skiing (slalom, giant slalom)Not listed. [9]
Mt. Teine Bobsleigh Course Bobsleigh Not listed. [9]
Mt. Teine Luge Course Luge Not listed. [9]
Okurayama Jumping Hill Ski jumping (large hill)50,000 [10]

Before the Olympics

At the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the decision to award the 1940 Winter Olympics was suspended. This was because of an issue with amateurism between the IOC and the International Ski Federation. Three years earlier, at an IOC meeting in Oslo, Japan had expressed an interest in hosting the Winter Olympics, with Sapporo and Nikkō as possible locations, though four other sites were also considered. Because Tokyo had been awarded host of the 1940 Summer Olympics, the IOC awarded Japan the 1940 Winter Games. This was confirmed by the IOC at the 1937 meeting in Cairo on the condition that the 1940 Games would be given to Norway if Japan could not organize the preparations by the fall of 1938. One of the venues of the 1940 Winter Games that would be included in the 1972 Winter Olympics was the Mount Okura ski jump. [11] In July 1937, Japan's second invasion of China began, and despite being awarded the 1940 Winter Olympics, Sapporo was forced to withdraw from hosting the 1940 Winter Olympics as was Tokyo with the 1940 Summer Olympics. [12]

1936 Winter Olympics 4th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) in 1936

The 1936 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1936 in the market town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany. Germany also hosted that year's Summer Olympics in Berlin. 1936 is the last year in which the Summer and Winter Games were both held in the same country.

Garmisch-Partenkirchen Place in Bavaria, Germany

Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a ski town in Bavaria, southern Germany. It is the seat of government of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region, which borders Austria. Nearby is Germany's highest mountain, Zugspitze, at 2,962 m (9,718 ft.).

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Okurayama was constructed using private funds in 1931. [13]

At the 1959 IOC Meeting in Munich, Tokyo was selected to host the 1964 Summer Olympics. [12] This inspired Sapporo to try to host the 1968 Winter Olympics. [12] Sapporo submitted its bid in 1963 to the IOC. [12] On 29 January 1964 at the IOC Meeting in Innsbruck, Sapporo finished a distant fourth to winner Grenoble for the 1968 Winter Games. [14] Following observations of the 1964 Summer Games in Tokyo, an aggressive public relations campaign began with Sapporo and the IOC to bring the 1972 Winter Games to Sapporo. [15] This campaign proved fruitful when Sapporo was awarded the 1972 Winter Games at the April 1966 IOC meeting in Rome. [15]

Munich Place in Bavaria, Germany

Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna.

1964 Summer Olympics Games of the XVIII Olympiad, celebrated in Tokyo in 1964

The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964. Tokyo had been awarded the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honour was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's invasion of China, before ultimately being cancelled because of World War II.

1968 Winter Olympics 10th edition of Winter Olympics, held in Grenoble (France) in 1968

The 1968 Winter Olympics, officially known as the X Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1968 in Grenoble, France, and opened on 6 February. Thirty-seven countries participated.

Venue construction began in 1968 and all but the Tsukisamu Indoor rink was completed in time for the test events at Sapporo in February 1971. Tsukisamu was not completed until late 1971 or early 1972 due to not knowing how many teams would compete at the 1972 Olympic ice hockey tournament. [16]

During the Olympics

During the men's 5000 m speed skating event, Ard Schenk of the Netherlands won the event despite a snowstorm. [17] It was the first of Schenk's three gold medals at the games. [17]

The only noted venue issue was at the Mt. Teine Luge Course was in the men's doubles event when a malfunctioning starting gate cancelled the results of the first run. [18] Italy, whose doubles team of Paul Hildgartner and Walter Plaikner won the first run, protested to event officials the results should stand since all contestants had suffered equally, but to no avail. [18] After the protest was denied, a rerun was ordered. [18] Hildgartner and Plaikner won the first run of the rerunned event while the East German team of Horst Hörnlein and Reinhard Bredow had the fastest second run. [19] The combined times were equal for the only time in Winter Olympic luge history. [19] The International Luge Federation consulted with IOC President Avery Brundage on this matter, and gold medals were awarded to both teams as a result. [18] By the time of the 1976 Winter Olympics, artificial track luge would be timed in thousandths of a second (0.001) rather than hundredths of a second (0.01) in an effort to avoid ties. [20] That would prove effective until the FIL European Luge Championships 2008 at Cesana, when another tie occurred. [21] This tie was again in the men's doubles event and it again involved Italy and Germany (East and West Germany reunified in 1990) only this time it was for a bronze medal rather than gold. [21]

After the Olympics

The biathlon and cross-country skiing venues at Makomanai were temporary venues and torn down after the Olympics. [1] The bobsleigh and luge tracks were used for recreational purposes, but no other competitions after the Olympics were held there. [22] When Nagano was awarded the 1998 Winter Olympics in June 1991, the tracks were dismantled. [22]

Okurayama and Miyanomori would serve as the ski jumping venues for the ski jumping and the ski jumping portion of the Nordic combined events when Sapporo hosted the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in 2007. [23] [24] [25] [26] It has been on the Ski Jumping World Cup circuit on an almost annual basis since 1980. [27]

Mount Teine remains a popular alpine skiing site that has been in use since the 1972 Games. [28]

See also

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Okurayama Ski Jump Stadium

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For the 1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix, France, a total of three sports venues were used. The main stadium was used for all but two sports and part of a third. It was the first ski jump used for the Winter Olympics. A bobsleigh track was prepared for use.

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Venues of the 1976 Winter Olympics

For the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria, a total of eight sports venues were used. The games were originally awarded to Denver, Colorado in the United States in 1970, but they withdrew in the wake of Colorado residents voting against it for environmental and cost reasons in November 1972. This led to the International Olympic Committee opening up the bids for the games again, eventually awarding them to Innsbruck in February 1973. The Austrian city, having hosted the Winter Olympics in 1964, was in the process of having the venues used for those Games before Denver's with clear cutting of the alpine skiing venues, lessening of the amount of cross-country skiing routes, upgrading the ski jumps, adding lighting in the indoor sports arena to accommodate color television, and the construction of a combination bobsleigh and luge track. After the 1976 Games, the venues have remained in use, hosting events in Nordic skiing and the sliding sports. They hosted some of the events for the Winter Universiade in 2005 and seven of the eight venues served as host for the first Winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012.

Venues of the 1980 Winter Olympics

For the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York, United States, a total of seven sports venues were used. All five of the venues used for the 1932 Winter Olympics were also used at the 1980 Winter Games with adjustments. These adjustments included electronic scoreboards, increased refrigeration, and the addition of a separate luge track. This was the last Winter Olympics where there were separate bobsleigh and luge tracks. The closest finish in Olympic history in cross-country skiing led skiing officials to time future events in hundredths of a second rather than tenths of a second. This would also apply to biathlon events. Eric Heiden of the United States won five gold medals at the speed skating oval while the "Miracle on Ice" took place between Americans and Soviets at the Olympic Center. In the late 1990s, the luge track was demolished and a new combination track was constructed in time for the only Winter Goodwill Games held. The sliding venue was named to the American National Register of Historical Places in February 2010.

For the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, a total of nine sports venues were used. The idea for the Games came around from a 1968 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development study on promoting winter tourism in Yugoslavia. After Sarajevo was awarded the 1984 Games in 1978, venue construction and renovation took place between 1979 and 1983. Weather postponed the men's downhill alpine skiing event three times before it was finally run. The men's cross-country skiing 30 km event was run during a blizzard. After the games, all but one of the venues were damaged during the Bosnian War and the Siege of Sarajevo. After the war, Zetra Ice Hall was rebuilt and is in use as of 2010.

Venues of the 1988 Winter Olympics

For the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, a total of nine sports venues were used. Calgary tried twice to host the Winter Olympics in the 1960s without success before finally winning the 1988 Winter Games in 1981. Stampede Corral was built in 1950 while McMahon Stadium was built in 1960. When the National Hockey League (NHL) Flames franchise was relocated from Atlanta, Georgia in the United States during the summer of 1980, a new arena was needed. The Saddledome construction was underway in late 1981 when Calgary was awarded the 1988 Games. Completed in 1983, the Olympic Saddledome has played host to the Flames ever since, including three Stanley Cup Finals and the NHL All-Star Game in 1985. An innovation for the games was the first indoor long-track speed skating venue which has served as a model for future Olympics. The bobsleigh and luge track was the first combination track in North America and was noted for the Jamaican bobsleigh team crash during the four-man event. Both the Oval and the bobsleigh/luge track continue to host the World Championships in their respective sports since the 1988 Winter Olympics.

Venues of the 1998 Winter Olympics

For the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, a total of fifteen sports venues were used. Nagano had attempted twice to host the Winter Olympics, losing out to Sapporo, host of the 1972 Winter Olympics. The third time, in 1991, Nagano edged out Salt Lake City to host the 1998 Games. The biathlon venue was adjusted in accordance with the Washington Convention over endangered species. The biggest venue controversy was at Happo'one resort on the length of the men's downhill and the battle that ensued to the point where skiing officials threatened to pull the event entirely before a compromise was reached three months before the Olympics. M-Wave has hosted three World Speed Skating Championships since the Olympics while the Spiral has hosted a couple of World championships in bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton.

Sapporo Teine

Sapporo Teine (サッポロテイネ) is a recreational center in Teine-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. It comprises many facilities, such as the ski resort, the Teineyama Ropeway, and the Sapporo Teine Golf Club fields.

Miyanomori Ski Jump Stadium

The Miyanomori Ski Jump Stadium, also known as the Miyanomori-Schanze is a ski jumping venue located in the Miyanomori area in Chūō-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. The stadium has hosted a number of winter sports events including 1972 Winter Olympics and FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2007.

The Doubles luge competition at the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo was held on 10 February, at Sapporo Teine. A malfunctioning starting gate cancelled the results of the first run. Italy, whose doubles team of Paul Hildgartner and Walter Plaikner won the first run, protested to event officials the results should stand since all contestants had suffered equally, but to no avail. After the protest was denied, a rerun was ordered.

References

  1. 1 2 3 1972 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 253-64. Accessed 6 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  2. 1972 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 256-8. Accessed 6 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  3. 1972 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 253-5. Accessed 6 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  4. 1972 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 285-7. Accessed 6 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  5. 1972 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 286-7. Accessed 6 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
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  9. 1 2 3 1972 Olympic Winter Games official report. pp. 129, 252, 273-80. Accessed 6 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  10. 1972 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 265-7. Accessed 6 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  11. 1940 Summer Olympics official report. pp. 127-30. Accessed 7 November 2010.
  12. 1 2 3 4 1972 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 100-1. Accessed 7 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  13. Okurayama ski jump profile. Accessed 7 November 2010.
  14. 1972 Winter Olympics official report. p. 102. Accessed 7 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  15. 1 2 1972 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 102-4. Accessed 7 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  16. 1972 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 246-8. Accessed 7 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  17. 1 2 Wallechinsky, David and Jaime Loucky (2009). "Speed Skating, Men: 5000 Meters". The Complete Book of the Winter Olympics:2010 Edition. London: Aurum Press Limited. p. 113.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Wallechinsky, David and Jaime Loucky (2009). "Luge (Toboggan): Two-Seater". In The Completed Book of the Winter Olympics: 2010 Edition. London: Aurum Press Limited. pp. 173-4.
  19. 1 2 1972 Winter Olympics official report. p. 495. Accessed 7 November 2010. (in English) & (in French)
  20. 1976 Winter Olympics official report. Archived 2008-02-26 at the Wayback Machine . pp. 144-5, 147, 149-51. Accessed 7 November 2010. (in English), (in French), & (in German)
  21. 1 2 FIL European Luge Championships Cesana 12 January 2008 men's doubles results. Accessed 7 November 2010.
  22. 1 2 Yamasa.org Ski and snowboarding information at Mt. Teine, mentioning the separate bobsleigh and luge tracks. Accessed 7 November 2010.
  23. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Sapporo-Okurayama 24 February 2007 ski jumping men's individual large hill results. Accessed 7 November 2010.
  24. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Sapporo-Miyanomori 3 March 2007 ski jumping men's individual normal hill results. Accessed 7 November 2010.
  25. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Sapporo-Okurayama 23 February 2007 men's nordic combined 7.5 km sprint ski jumping results. Accessed 7 November 2010.
  26. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Sapporo-Miyanomori 3 March 2007 men's nordic combined 15 km individual Gundersen ski jumping results. Accessed 7 November 2010.
  27. FIS Ski Jumping World Cup Sapporo 12 January 1980 event information. Accessed 7 November 2010.
  28. Sapporo-Teine official website. Accessed 7 November 2010. (in Chinese), (in English), (in Japanese), & (in Korean)