Temporal range: 45–Present Ma
|Subfamily:|| Xylocopinae |
The subfamily Xylocopinae (family Apidae) occurs worldwide, and includes the large carpenter bees (tribe Xylocopini), the small carpenter bees (tribe Ceratinini), the allodapine bees (tribe Allodapini), and the relictual genus Manuelia (tribe Manueliini).
The Tribes of Xylocopinae are:
Some Xylocopinae have a cavity between the thorax and abdomen, called acarinarium, which provides accommodation for a colony of predatory mites, cleaning their hosts of external parasites.
The vast majority of the Xylocopinae species make nests in dead wood, stems, or pith, and while many are solitary, many are also communal or primitively social. Some genera of Allodapines commonly form eusocial colonies.
Apidae is the largest family within the superfamily Apoidea, containing at least 5700 species of bees. The family includes some of the most commonly seen bees, including bumblebees and honey bees, but also includes stingless bees, carpenter bees, orchid bees, cuckoo bees, and a number of other less widely known groups. Many are valuable pollinators in natural habitats and for agricultural crops.
Carpenter bees are species in the genus Xylocopa of the subfamily Xylocopinae. The genus includes some 500 bees in 31 subgenera. The common name "carpenter bee" derives from their nesting behavior; nearly all species burrow into hard plant material such as dead wood or bamboo. The main exceptions are species in the subgenus Proxylocopa; they dig nesting tunnels in suitable soil.
Nomadinae is a subfamily of bees in the family Apidae. They are known commonly as cuckoo bees.
The Apinae are the subfamily that includes the majority of bees in the family Apidae. It includes the familiar "corbiculate" bees—bumblebees, honey bees, orchid bees, stingless bees, and the extinct genus Euglossopteryx. It also includes all but two of the groups that were previously classified in the family Anthophoridae.
Xylocopa virginica, more commonly known as the eastern carpenter bee, extends through the eastern United States and into Canada. They nest in various types of wood and eat pollen and nectar. The eastern carpenter bee is similar to most other bee species in that it does not have a queen; in Xylocopa virginica, females are responsible for reproduction, foraging, and nest construction, though they may sometimes have help from their daughters. Xylocopa virginica is sympatric with Xylocopa micans in the southeastern United States.
Xylocopa violacea, the violet carpenter bee, is the common European species of carpenter bee, and one of the largest bees in Europe. It is also native to Asia.
Allodapula is a genus of bees in the family Apidae, subfamily Xylocopinae. They are similar in appearance, around 7mm in length, with swarthy head and thorax, contrasting with the brown abdomen. After the removal of a number of former species into other genera, the genus as presently defined occurs only in Africa.
Xylocopa sonorina, the valley carpenter bee or Hawaiian carpenter bee, is a species of carpenter bee found from western Texas to northern California, and the eastern Pacific islands. Females are black while males are golden-brown with green eyes.
The Allodapini is a tribe of bees in the subfamily Xylocopinae, family Apidae. They occur throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, and Australasia. There is also a rare genus, Exoneuridia, that occurs in isolated regions of Turkey, Iraq, Lebanon and Iran.
Xylocopa bombylans, the peacock carpenter bee, is a species of carpenter bee found in Australia. It gets its common name by its habit of burrowing into wood.
Protea roupelliae is a species of Protea in the large family Proteaceae, and was named to commemorate Arabella Elizabeth Roupell (1817-1914) who spent two years in Cape Town and painted local flowers for her own pleasure.
Manuelia is a genus of bees in the subfamily Xylocopinae, the only genus in the tribe Manueliini. There are three species.
Ceratina cyanea, common name blue carpenter bee, is a species of bee belonging to the family Apidae, subfamily Xylocopinae.
Sphecodopsis is a genus of cleptoparasitic "cuckoo" bees in the family Apidae. Endemic to southern Africa, the wasp-like bees of this genus are generally small, varying from 3.9 to 9 mm in length, and mostly black, with orange-ish or reddish colouring of the metasoma in some of the species. The bee genus Scrapter is recognised as a host for the cleptoparasitic life cycle of some Sphecodopsis, but further data regarding preferred hosts is not available for most of the species.
Xylocopa caffra is a species of Afrotropical carpenter bee that ranges from west to central and southern Africa, besides Madagascar and some Indian Ocean archipelagos.
Xylocopa caerulea, the blue carpenter bee, is a species of carpenter bee.
Xylocopa aestuans, or Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) aestuans, is a species of carpenter bee. It is widely distributed in Southeast Asia.
The Oriental carpenter bee, Xylocopa nasalis, or Xylocopa (Biluna) nasalis, is a species of carpenter bee. It is widely distributed in Southeast Asian countries. It is a major pollinator within its ecosystem, and is often mistaken for a bumblebee. The species leads a solitary lifestyle with a highly female-biased colony in the nest.
Xylocopa sulcatipes is a large Arabian carpenter bee. These multivoltine bees are known to take part in social nesting and cooperative nesting. These metasocial carpenter bees nest in thin dead branches. One or more cooperating females build many brood cells. They have been extensively studied in Saudi Arabia and Israel.
Braunsapis is a genus of bees in the tribe Allodapini. It is the largest genus of the tribe and is known for its array of social behaviors. The genus is distributed in Africa, Asia, and Australasia.
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