|Introduced||17 December 1986|
|TLD type||Country code top-level domain|
|Intended use||Entities connected with Finland|
|Actual use||Very popular in Finland, also can be used for a domain examples include Spoti.fi.|
|Registered domains||514 293 (9 April 2021)|
|Structure||Registrations are taken directly at second level|
|Documents||1986 delegation application|
|Dispute policies||Names can be suspended or revoked by registry if suspected of infringement of another's name|
.fi is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Finland. It is operated by TRAFICOM, the Finnish Transport and Communications Agency.
On 4 December 1986, an application to register a top-level domain for Finland was sent by the Finnish Unix Users Group from Tampere. The application was accepted and the administration of .fi TLD was granted to Tampere University of Technology. Later the administration was transferred first to FICIX and later to TRAFICOM.
In the past TRAFICOM regulated .fi domains very strictly. Domain names were only admitted to company names or companies that owned trademarks. This policy led to Finnish companies applying for domains under other top-level domains. The policy was changed on 1 September 2003. Since September 2016 anyone worldwide is permitted to register domain names under the .fi TLD.
.fi was once best known among non-Finnish internet users as the TLD of the Penet remailer (anon.penet.fi), a privately operated server which enabled users to post e-mail and Usenet messages anonymously in the early 1990s.Another popular .fi address in the early 1990s was nic.funet.fi, one of the largest public file servers at the time which made Finland the only country outside the US that sent out more data than it received.
Since 1 September 2005, .fi domains may contain Scandinavian letters (ä, å, ö), though they are not recommended to be used as the primary domain. Since 1 March 2006, private persons have also been able to apply for a domain name. Some restrictions still apply, for example, company names or trademarks can only be applied for by the companies concerned.
It can also be (although not popular) be used for domain hacking as well. Examples like Spotify who has a domain hack called Spoti.fi FICORA began supporting Domain Name System Security (DNSSEC) on .fi domain names in late 2010.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical and decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most prominently, it translates more readily memorized domain names to the numerical IP addresses needed for locating and identifying computer services and devices with the underlying network protocols. By providing a worldwide, distributed directory service, the Domain Name System has been an essential component of the functionality of the Internet since 1985.
A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet after the root domain. The top-level domain names are installed in the root zone of the name space. For all domains in lower levels, it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the last non empty label of a fully qualified domain name. For example, in the domain name www.example.com., the top-level domain is com. Responsibility for management of most top-level domains is delegated to specific organizations by the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) an Internet multi-stakeholder community, which operates the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and is in charge of maintaining the DNS root zone.
An anonymous remailer is a server that receives messages with embedded instructions on where to send them next, and that forwards them without revealing where they originally came from. There are cypherpunk anonymous remailers, mixmaster anonymous remailers, and nym servers, among others, which differ in how they work, in the policies they adopt, and in the type of attack on the anonymity of e-mail they can resist. Remailing as discussed in this article applies to e-mails intended for particular recipients, not the general public. Anonymity in the latter case is more easily addressed by using any of several methods of anonymous publication.
The Penet remailer was a pseudonymous remailer operated by Johan "Julf" Helsingius of Finland from 1993 to 1996. Its initial creation stemmed from an argument in a Finnish newsgroup over whether people should be required to tie their real name to their online communications. Julf believed that people should not—indeed, could not—be required to do so. In his own words:
A pseudonymous remailer or nym server, as opposed to an anonymous remailer, is an Internet software program designed to allow people to write pseudonymous messages on Usenet newsgroups and send pseudonymous email. Unlike purely anonymous remailers, it assigns its users a user name, and it keeps a database of instructions on how to return messages to the real user. These instructions usually involve the anonymous remailer network itself, thus protecting the true identity of the user.
The Internet uses the Domain Name System (DNS) to associate numeric computer IP addresses with human-readable names. The top level of the domain name hierarchy, the DNS root, contains the top-level domains that appear as the suffixes of all Internet domain names. The most widely used DNS root is administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). In addition, several organizations operate alternative DNS roots, often referred to as alt roots. These alternative domain name systems operate their own root name servers and commonly administer their own specific name spaces consisting of custom top-level domains.
.uk is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom. It was first registered in July 1985, seven months after the original generic top-level domains such as .com and the first country code after .us.
.se, formerly branded as .SE, is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Sweden. The top domain is operated by The Internet Foundation in Sweden but domains must be registered through one of the approved registrars. The Internet Foundation in Sweden is managed on the basis of its charter of foundation and its statutes. The Foundation is managed by a Board of Directors, whose decisions are executed by the executive management.
A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs.
.sa is the Latin alphabet Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) of Saudi Arabia. Domains of this type can be registered through SaudiNIC, a department of the Communications and Information Technology Commission. The Arabic alphabet ccTLD of Saudi Arabia is السعودية.
.cl is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Chile. It was created in 1987 and is administered by the University of Chile. Registration of second-level domains under this TLD is open to anyone, as established by the current regulation for the operation of the Domain Name Registration .CL since December 2013, which eliminated the requirement for foreign registrants to have a local contact with a RUN, the Chilean national identification number.
.la is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Laos.
.ly is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Libya.
.ly is also the file name extension of the LilyPond format.
.na is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Namibia corresponding to the two letter code from the ISO-3166 standard.
Johan "Julf" Helsingius, born in 1961 in Helsinki, Finland, started and ran the Anon.penet.fi internet remailer.
DNS spoofing, also referred to as DNS cache poisoning, is a form of computer security hacking in which corrupt Domain Name System data is introduced into the DNS resolver's cache, causing the name server to return an incorrect result record, e.g. an IP address. This results in traffic being diverted to the attacker's computer.
An anonymizer or an anonymous proxy is a tool that attempts to make activity on the Internet untraceable. It is a proxy server computer that acts as an intermediary and privacy shield between a client computer and the rest of the Internet. It accesses the Internet on the user's behalf, protecting personal information of the user by hiding the client computer's identifying information.
The domain name .рф is the Cyrillic country code top-level domain for the Russian Federation, in the Domain Name System of the Internet. In the Domain Name System it has the ASCII DNS name xn--p1ai. The domain accepts only Cyrillic subdomain applications, and is the first Cyrillic implementation of the Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) system. The domain became operational on 13 May 2010. As of 2014 it is the most used internationalized country code top-level domain, with around 900,000 domain names.
.at is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Austria. It is administered by nic.at.