Last updated

DotFi domain logo.png
Introduced17 December 1986
TLD type Country code top-level domain
Intended useEntities connected with Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Actual useVery popular in Finland, also can be used for a domain examples include Spoti.fi.
Registered domains514 293 (9 April 2021) [1]
StructureRegistrations are taken directly at second level
Documents 1986 delegation application
Dispute policiesNames can be suspended or revoked by registry if suspected of infringement of another's name
Registry website fi-domain

.fi is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Finland. It is operated by TRAFICOM, the Finnish Transport and Communications Agency. [2]


On 4 December 1986, an application to register a top-level domain for Finland was sent by the Finnish Unix Users Group from Tampere. The application was accepted and the administration of .fi TLD was granted to Tampere University of Technology. Later the administration was transferred first to FICIX and later to TRAFICOM.

In the past TRAFICOM regulated .fi domains very strictly. Domain names were only admitted to company names or companies that owned trademarks. This policy led to Finnish companies applying for domains under other top-level domains. The policy was changed on 1 September 2003. Since September 2016 anyone worldwide is permitted to register domain names under the .fi TLD. [3]

.fi was once best known among non-Finnish internet users as the TLD of the Penet remailer (anon.penet.fi), a privately operated server which enabled users to post e-mail and Usenet messages anonymously in the early 1990s. [4] Another popular .fi address in the early 1990s was nic.funet.fi, one of the largest public file servers at the time which made Finland the only country outside the US that sent out more data than it received.

Since 1 September 2005, .fi domains may contain Scandinavian letters (ä, å, ö), though they are not recommended to be used as the primary domain. Since 1 March 2006, private persons have also been able to apply for a domain name. Some restrictions still apply, for example, company names or trademarks can only be applied for by the companies concerned.

It can also be (although not popular) be used for domain hacking as well. Examples like Spotify who has a domain hack called Spoti.fi FICORA began supporting Domain Name System Security (DNSSEC) on .fi domain names in late 2010. [5] [6]

See also

Related Research Articles

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A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet after the root domain. The top-level domain names are installed in the root zone of the name space. For all domains in lower levels, it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the last non empty label of a fully qualified domain name. For example, in the domain name www.example.com., the top-level domain is com. Responsibility for management of most top-level domains is delegated to specific organizations by the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) an Internet multi-stakeholder community, which operates the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and is in charge of maintaining the DNS root zone.

An anonymous remailer is a server that receives messages with embedded instructions on where to send them next, and that forwards them without revealing where they originally came from. There are cypherpunk anonymous remailers, mixmaster anonymous remailers, and nym servers, among others, which differ in how they work, in the policies they adopt, and in the type of attack on the anonymity of e-mail they can resist. Remailing as discussed in this article applies to e-mails intended for particular recipients, not the general public. Anonymity in the latter case is more easily addressed by using any of several methods of anonymous publication.

The Penet remailer was a pseudonymous remailer operated by Johan "Julf" Helsingius of Finland from 1993 to 1996. Its initial creation stemmed from an argument in a Finnish newsgroup over whether people should be required to tie their real name to their online communications. Julf believed that people should not—indeed, could not—be required to do so. In his own words:

A pseudonymous remailer or nym server, as opposed to an anonymous remailer, is an Internet software program designed to allow people to write pseudonymous messages on Usenet newsgroups and send pseudonymous email. Unlike purely anonymous remailers, it assigns its users a user name, and it keeps a database of instructions on how to return messages to the real user. These instructions usually involve the anonymous remailer network itself, thus protecting the true identity of the user.

The Internet uses the Domain Name System (DNS) to associate numeric computer IP addresses with human-readable names. The top level of the domain name hierarchy, the DNS root, contains the top-level domains that appear as the suffixes of all Internet domain names. The most widely used DNS root is administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). In addition, several organizations operate alternative DNS roots, often referred to as alt roots. These alternative domain name systems operate their own root name servers and commonly administer their own specific name spaces consisting of custom top-level domains.

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.se Internet country code top-level domain for Sweden

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  1. "Fi-verkkotunnushaku". Traficom (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  2. "Fi-domain". www.traficom.fi. TRAFICOM. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  3. Fi-domain names now available for everyone all around the world , read 7 September 2016, published 5 September 2016.
  4. Helmers, Sabine (September 1997). "A Brief History of anon.penet.fi - The Legendary Anonymous Remailer".
  5. "FICORA tests DNSSEC on fi TLD". Blog.anta.net. 21 June 2010. ISSN   1797-1993. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
  6. Husa, Ari-Matti (2016). ".fi and DNSSEC" (PDF). TREX.