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The bare-necked umbrellabird (Cephalopterus glabricollis) is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found in the Talamancan montane forests of Costa Rica and Panama. Umbrellabird populations moved from highlands to lowlands and vice versa, as was proposed by Stiles (1985, 1988), and supported previous observations that male umbrellabirds return to the same breeding area every year. Bare-necked Umbrellabirds live only in forests and their diet consists mainly of fruits.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming.
The Talamancan montane forests ecoregion, in the tropical moist broadleaf forest biome, are in montane Costa Rica and Panama in Central America.
Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. It has a population of around 5 million in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers. An estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, San José with around 2 million people in the surrounding metropolitan area.
This is the largest passerine in its range and among the largest members of the cotinga family, although the Amazonian umbrellabird is slightly larger. Males, at 41 cm (16 in) and 450 g (1 lb) are larger than females, at 36 cm (14 in) and 320 g (11.3 oz).
The cotingas are a large family, Cotingidae, of suboscine passerine birds found in Central America and tropical South America. Cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges, that are primary frugivorous. They all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. They range in size from 12–13 cm (4.7–5.1 in) of the fiery-throated fruiteater up to 48–51 cm (19–20 in) of the Amazonian umbrellabird.
The Amazonian umbrellabird is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae native to the Amazon basin with a separate population on the eastern slopes of the Andes. The male bird is entirely black, with a black crest and inflatable wattle on the throat, and at 48 to 55 cm, may be the largest passerine bird in South America. The female is slightly smaller. Both have an undulating flight, described as woodpecker-like, and the male has a loud, booming call.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. It is threatened by habitat loss.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. It is characterized by both physical and biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction.
Umbrellabirds are birds in the genus Cephalopterus. They are found in rainforests of Central and South America. With a total length of 35–50 cm (14–19.5 in), they are among the largest members of the cotinga family, and the male Amazonian umbrellabird is the largest passerine in South America.
The long-wattled umbrellabird is an Umbrellabird in the Cotinga family. Its common names include "Pájaro Bolsón", "Pájaro Toro", "Dungali" and "Vaca de Monte".
The tawny-faced quail is a species of bird in the family Odontophoridae, and the only species in its genus Rhynchortyx.
The Cocos cuckoo is a species of cuckoo in the family Cuculidae. It is endemic to Cocos Island, an island in the Pacific Ocean which is part of Costa Rica.
The scaly-throated foliage-gleaner, also known as the spectacled foliage-gleaner, is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family. It is found in Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Panama. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
The blue-and-gold tanager is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is found in Costa Rica and Panama. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
The brown-billed scythebill is a species of bird in the family Furnariidae.
The yellow-billed cotinga is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found near the coast in Costa Rica and the extreme western part of Panama. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical mangrove forest, and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland. It is threatened by habitat destruction.
The black-tipped cotinga, also known as the white cotinga, is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama where its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. The male, being white, is conspicuous, but in general it is an uncommon species.
The snowy cotinga is a medium-sized species of passerine bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found in Central America where its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forests. The male is white and the female pale grey and both sexes are readily recognisable.
The ashy-throated bush tanager is a species of bird traditionally placed in the family Thraupidae, but perhaps closer to Arremonops in the Passerellidae. It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
The scaled antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae.
The olive-striped flycatcher is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae.
The Cocos flycatcher is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae, and the only species in the genus Nesotriccus.
The rough-legged tyrannulet is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.
The bare-throated bellbird is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found in moist subtropical and tropical forests in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The male has white plumage and bristly bluish-black bare skin around its eye, beak and throat. The female is more drab, being olive-brown above with streaked yellow underparts. The male has one of the loudest bird calls known, producing a metallic sound similar to a hammer striking an anvil. This bird feeds on fruit and plays a part in dispersing the seeds of forest trees. It is considered a vulnerable species because of loss of its forest habitat and collection for the pet bird trade.
The purple-throated fruitcrow is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae, the cotingas. It is the only species of the genus Querula. It is native to Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama and most of the northern half of South America, its habitat being humid lowland forest where it feeds mainly on insects and fruit. It is a glossy black, medium-sized bird and the male has a purple-red throat patch. It nests in close vicinity with other birds of its species. Its population is in decline, but it is a common species with a very wide range, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being of "least concern".
The tawny-crested tanager is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and heavily degraded former forest.
The ivory-billed woodcreeper is a species of bird in the subfamily Dendrocolaptinae.
Chaves-Campos, J., Arévalo, J., & Araya, M. (2003). Altitudinal movements and conservation of Bare-necked Umbrellabird Cephalopterus glabricollis of the Tilarán Mountains, Costa Rica. Bird Conservation International, 13(1), 45-58. doi:10.1017/S0959270903003046
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
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