Chest (mechanical engineering)

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A timing or valve chest is a compartment on an internal or external combustion engine (e.g. gasoline or steam engine) which provides access to the tappets and valves. The chest is fitted with an inspection cover sealed with a gasket.

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Four-stroke engine Internal combustion engine type

A four-strokeengine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed:

  1. Intake: Also known as induction or suction. This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center (T.D.C.) and ends at bottom dead center (B.D.C.). In this stroke the intake valve must be in the open position while the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its downward motion. The piston is moving down as air is being sucked in by the downward motion against the piston.
  2. Compression: This stroke begins at B.D.C, or just at the end of the suction stroke, and ends at T.D.C. In this stroke the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke (below). Both the intake and exhaust valves are closed during this stage.
  3. Combustion: Also known as power or ignition. This is the start of the second revolution of the four stroke cycle. At this point the crankshaft has completed a full 360 degree revolution. While the piston is at T.D.C. the compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark plug or by heat generated by high compression, forcefully returning the piston to B.D.C. This stroke produces mechanical work from the engine to turn the crankshaft.
  4. Exhaust: Also known as outlet. During the exhaust stroke, the piston, once again, returns from B.D.C. to T.D.C. while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve.

The engine configuration describe the fundamental operating principles by which internal combustion engines are categorised.

Steam locomotive components

This is a glossary of the components found on typical steam locomotives.

Overhead valve engine Type of piston engine

An overhead valve (OHV) engine, sometimes called a pushrod engine, is a piston engine whose valves are located in the cylinder head above the combustion chamber. This contrasts with earlier flathead engines, where the valves were located below the combustion chamber in the engine block.

Compound steam engine type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages

A compound steam engine unit is a type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages. A typical arrangement for a compound engine is that the steam is first expanded in a high-pressure (HP) cylinder, then having given up heat and losing pressure, it exhausts directly into one or more larger-volume low-pressure (LP) cylinders. Multiple-expansion engines employ additional cylinders, of progressively lower pressure, to extract further energy from the steam.

GWR 4100 Class

The GWR 4100 Class was a class of steam locomotives in the Great Western Railway (GWR) of the United Kingdom.

Corliss steam engine Type of steam engine using rotary steam valves

A Corliss steam engine is a steam engine, fitted with rotary valves and with variable valve timing patented in 1849, invented by and named after the American engineer George Henry Corliss of Providence, Rhode Island.

Valvetrain mechanical system that controls operation of the valves in an internal combustion engine

A valvetrain or valve train is a mechanical system that controls operation of the intake and exhaust valves in an internal combustion engine. The intake valves control the flow of air/fuel mixture into the combustion chamber, while the exhaust valves control the flow of spent exhaust gasses out of the combusion chamber once combustion is completed.

A throttle is the mechanism by which fluid flow is managed by constriction or obstruction.

GWR 3031 Class class of British 4-2-2 locomotives

The Dean Single, 3031 Class, or Achilles Class was a type of steam locomotive built by the British Great Western Railway between 1891 and 1899. They were designed by William Dean for passenger work. The first 30 members of the class were built as 2-2-2s of the 3001 Class.

Cylinder (locomotive)

The cylinder is the power-producing element of the steam engine powering a steam locomotive. The cylinder is made pressure-tight with end covers and a piston; a valve distributes the steam to the ends of the cylinder. Cylinders were cast in iron and later made of steel. The cylinder casting includes other features such as valve ports and mounting feet. The last big American locomotives incorporated the cylinders as part of huge one-piece steel castings that were the main frame of the locomotive. Renewable wearing surfaces were needed inside the cylinders and provided by cast-iron bushings.

Piston valve (steam engine) form of valve within a steam engine or locomotive

Piston valves are one form of valve used to control the flow of steam within a steam engine or locomotive. They control the admission of steam into the cylinders and its subsequent exhausting, enabling a locomotive to move under its own power. The valve consists of two piston heads on a common spindle moving inside a steam chest, which is essentially a mini-cylinder located either above or below the main cylinders of the locomotive.

Snifting valve

A snifting valve is an automatic anti-vacuum valve used in a steam locomotive when coasting. The word Snift imitates the sound made by the valve.

The B VIII steam engines of the Royal Bavarian State Railways were tender locomotives.

South African Class Experimental 2 2-8-0 class of 1 South African 2-8-0 locomotive

The South African Railways Class Experimental 2 2-8-0 of 1902 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope.

South African Class MA 2-6-6-0 class of 1 South African Mallet locomotive

The South African Railways Class MA 2-6-6-0 of 1909 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Natal Colony.

South African Class MH 2-6-6-2 class of 5 South African Mallet locomotives

The South African Railways Class MH 2-6-6-2 of 1915 was a steam locomotive.

The South African Railways Class GA 2-6-0+0-6-2 of 1921 was an articulated steam locomotive.

Trofimoff valve

The Trofimoff valve is a springless pressure-compensation piston valve for steam locomotives.

Cataract (beam engine)

A cataract was a speed governing device used for early single-acting beam engines, particularly atmospheric engines and Cornish engines.