A crankpin or crank pin, also known as a rod bearing journal,is a mechanical device in an engine which connects the crankshaft to the connecting rod for each cylinder. It has a cylindrical surface, to allow the crankpin to rotate relative to the "big end" of the connecting rod.
The most common configuration is for a crankpin to serve one cylinder. However, many V engines have each crankpin shared by each pair of cylinders.
The crankpin connects to the larger end of the connecting rod for each cylinder. This end of the connecting rod is called the "big end", as opposed to the "small end" or "little end" (which connects to the wrist/gudgeon pin in the piston).
The bearing which allows the crankpin to rotate around its shaft is called the "rod bearing".In automotive engines, the most common type of rod bearing is the plain bearing, however bushings or roller bearings are also used in some engines.
In a single-cylinder engine, straight engine or flat engine, each crankpin normally serves just one cylinder. This results for a relatively simple design which is the cheapest to produce. Some V-twin engines use a single cylinder per crankpin.
Most V engines have each pair of cylinders sharing a crankpin. This usually requires an offset between the cylinders in each bank, resulting in a simple connecting rod design. If a cylinder offset is not used, then the connecting rods must be articulated or forked at the big end. Forked connecting rods are mainly used in V-twin motorcycle engines, but in the past were found on a number of automobile and aero engines, such as the Rolls-Royce Merlin aero engine of the WWII era. Articulated connecting rods consist of a "master" rod attached to the crank pin, with a "slave" rod connected to the big end of master rod. This design was used in older or exotic V engines.
Radial engines use a more complicated version of articulated connecting rods, where a single "master" connecting rod attached to the single crankpin (one for each row in multi-row designs), and smaller bearings for each of the corresponding cylinders machined into the big end of the master rod.
Cylindrical crank pins were fitted onto the driving wheels of steam locomotives. They were connected to the driving rods that transmitted power from the cylinder to the wheel. The crank pin was usually made of high-quality steel because it had to withstand high forces.
The crank pin of a locomotive corresponds to the offset of a crankshaft in other crank drives. The distance from the centre of the crank pin to the centre of the wheel is also called offset and is exactly half the stroke of the pistons.
A crankshaft is a mechanical component used by in a piston engine to convert the reciprocating motion into rotational motion. The crankshaft is a rotating shaft containing one or more crankpins, that are driven by the pistons via the connecting rods.
A V6 engine is a six-cylinder piston engine where the cylinders share a common crankshaft and are arranged in a V configuration.
In mechanical engineering, a crosshead is a mechanical joint used as part of the slider-crank linkages of long reciprocating engines and reciprocating compressors to eliminate sideways force on the piston. Also, the crosshead enables the connecting rod to freely move outside the cylinder. Because of the very small bore-to-stroke ratio on such engines, the connecting rod would hit the cylinder walls and block the engine from rotating if the piston was attached directly to the connecting rod like on trunk engines. Therefore, the longitudinal dimension of the crosshead must be matched to the stroke of the engine.
A connecting rod, also called a 'con rod', is the part of a piston engine which connects the piston to the crankshaft. Together with the crank, the connecting rod converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotation of the crankshaft. The connecting rod is required to transmit the compressive and tensile forces from the piston. In its most common form, in an internal combustion engine, it allows pivoting on the piston end and rotation on the shaft end.
The Rolls-Royce Griffon is a British 37-litre capacity, 60-degree V-12, liquid-cooled aero engine designed and built by Rolls-Royce Limited. In keeping with company convention, the Griffon was named after a bird of prey, in this case the griffon vulture.
Engine balance refers to how the forces are balanced within an internal combustion engine or steam engine. The most commonly used terms are primary balance and secondary balance. First-order balance and second-order balance are also used. Unbalanced forces within the engine can lead to vibrations.
The crossplane or cross-plane is a crankshaft design for piston engines with a 90° angle between the crank throws. The crossplane crankshaft is the most popular configuration used in V8 road cars.
Reciprocating motion, also called reciprocation, is a repetitive up-and-down or back-and-forth linear motion. It is found in a wide range of mechanisms, including reciprocating engines and pumps. The two opposite motions that comprise a single reciprocation cycle are called strokes.
In a piston engine, the main bearings are the bearings which hold the crankshaft in place and allow it to rotate within the engine block.
A flat-eight engine, also called a horizontally-opposed eight, is an eight-cylinder piston engine with two banks of four inline cylinders, one on each side of a central crankshaft, 180° apart.
A jackshaft is an intermediate shaft used to transfer power from a powered shaft such as the output shaft of an engine or motor to driven shafts such as the drive axles of a locomotive. As applied to railroad locomotives in the 19th and 20th centuries, jackshafts were typically in line with the drive axles of locomotives and connected to them by side rods. In general, each drive axle on a locomotive is free to move about one inch (2.5 cm) vertically relative to the frame, with the locomotive weight carried on springs. This means that if the engine, motor or transmission is rigidly attached to the locomotive frame, it cannot be rigidly connected to the axle. This problem can be solved by mounting the jackshaft on unsprung bearings and using side-rods or chain drives.
A big bang engine is an unconventional engine designed so that some of the power strokes occur simultaneously or in close succession. This is achieved by changing the ignition timing, changing or re-timing the camshaft, and sometimes in combination with a change in crankpin angle. The goal is to change the power delivery characteristics of the engine. A regular firing multi-cylinder engine fires at approximately even intervals, giving a smooth-running engine. Because a big-bang engine has uneven power delivery, they tend to run rougher and generate more vibration than an even-firing engine.
The Lorraine 12H Pétrel was a French V-12 supercharged, geared piston aeroengine initially rated at 370 kW (500 hp), but later developed to give 640 kW (860 hp). It powered a variety of mostly French aircraft in the mid-1930s, several on an experimental basis.
A return connecting rod, return piston rod or double piston rod engine or back-acting engine is a particular layout for a steam engine.
High-speed steam engines were one of the final developments of the stationary steam engine. They ran at a high speed, of several hundred rpm, which was needed by tasks such as electricity generation.
A tunnel crankcase, tunnel crankshaft or disc-webbed crankshaft engine is a design feature of a diesel engine or petrol engine where the crankshaft is designed so that the main bearings are enlarged in diameter, such that they are now larger than the crank webs. They thus form the largest diameter of any part of the crankshaft. Rather than a conventional crankcase that has webs across it to support the narrow bearings of a conventional crankcase, the crankcase now has a large tunnel through it, hence the name.
An undercut crankshaft is a form of crankshaft for piston engines, where the overall length of the crankshaft is shortened by overlapping the main bearings of the crankshaft with the big end bearings of the connecting rods.
The Willans engine or central valve engine was a high-speed stationary steam engine used mainly for electricity generation around the start of the 20th century.
The Cyclone Waste Heat Engine (WHE) is a small steam engine developed to produce power from steam created from waste heat. It is an offshoot of the development of the Cyclone Mark V Engine by the company Cyclone Power Technologies of Pompano Beach, Florida. The original versions were designed by inventor Harry Schoell, founder of Cyclone Power Technologies and the later versions have been designed by the Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research (OSU-CAR).
The De Dion-Bouton 130 hp aircraft engine, also referred to as De Dion-Bouton 12B, was a twelve-cylinder, air cooled vee aircraft engine that has been built by De Dion-Bouton.