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A throttle position sensor (TPS) is a sensor used to monitor the air intake of an engine. The sensor is usually located on the butterfly spindle/shaft, so that it can directly monitor the position of the throttle. More advanced forms of the sensor are also used. For example, an extra "closed throttle position sensor" (CTPS) may be employed to indicate that the throttle is completely closed. Some engine control units (ECUs) also control the throttle position electronic throttle control (ETC) or "drive by wire" systems, and if that is done, the position sensor is used in a feedback loop to enable that control.
Related to the TPS are accelerator pedal sensors, which often include a wide open throttle (WOT) sensor. The accelerator pedal sensors are used in electronic throttle control or "drive by wire" systems, and the most common use of a wide open throttle sensor is for the kick-down function on automatic transmissions.
Modern day sensors are non contact type. These modern non contact TPS include Hall effect sensors, inductive sensors, magnetoresistive and others. In the potentiometric type sensors, a multi-finger metal brush/rake is in contact with a resistive strip,while the butterfly valve is turned from the lower mechanical stop (minimum air position) to WOT, there is a change in the resistance and this change in resistance is given as the input to the ECU.
Non contact type TPS work on the principle of Hall effect or inductive sensors, or magnetoresistive technologies, wherein generally the magnet or inductive loop is the dynamic part which is mounted on the butterfly valve throttle spindle/shaft gear and the sensor & signal processing circuit board is mounted within the ETC gear box cover and is stationary. When the magnet/inductive loop mounted on the spindle which is rotated from the lower mechanical stop to WOT, there is a change in the magnetic field for the sensor. The change in the magnetic field is sensed by the sensor and the voltage generated is given as the input to the ECU. Normally a two pole rare-earth magnet is used for the TPS due to their high Curie temperatures required in the under-hood vehicle environment. The magnet may be of diametrical type, ring type, rectangular or segment type. The magnet is defined to have a certain magnetic field that does not vary significantly with time or temperature.
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An anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a safety anti-skid braking system used on aircraft and on land vehicles, such as cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses. ABS operates by preventing the wheels from locking up during braking, thereby maintaining tractive contact with the road surface and allowing the driver to maintain more control over the vehicle.
A tachometer is an instrument measuring the rotation speed of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. The device usually displays the revolutions per minute (RPM) on a calibrated analogue dial, but digital displays are increasingly common.
A Hall-effect sensor is a device to measure the magnitude of a magnetic field. Its output voltage is directly proportional to the magnetic field strength through it.
Cruise control is a system that automatically controls the speed of a motor vehicle. The system is a servomechanism that takes over the throttle of the car to maintain a steady speed as set by the driver.
Electronic throttle control (ETC) is an automobile technology which electronically "connects" the accelerator pedal to the throttle, replacing a mechanical linkage. A typical ETC system consists of three major components: (i) an accelerator pedal module, (ii) a throttle valve that can be opened and closed by an electric motor, and (iii) a powertrain or engine control module. The ECM is a type of electronic control unit (ECU), which is an embedded system that employs software to determine the required throttle position by calculations from data measured by other sensors, including the accelerator pedal position sensors, engine speed sensor, vehicle speed sensor, and cruise control switches. The electric motor is then used to open the throttle valve to the desired angle via a closed-loop control algorithm within the ECM.
Jetronic is a trade name of a manifold injection technology for automotive petrol engines, developed and marketed by Robert Bosch GmbH from the 1960s onwards. Bosch licensed the concept to many automobile manufacturers. There are several variations of the technology offering technological development and refinement.
Wide open throttle or wide-open throttle (WOT), also called full throttle, is the fully opened state of a throttle on an engine. The term also, by extension, usually refers to the maximum-speed state of running the engine, as the normal result of a fully opened throttle plate/butterfly valve. In an internal combustion engine, this state entails the maximum intake of air and fuel that occurs when the throttle plates inside the carburetor or throttle body are "wide open", providing the least resistance to the incoming air. In the case of an automobile, WOT is when the accelerator is depressed fully, sometimes referred to as "flooring it". A throttle on a steam engine controls how much steam is sent to the cylinders from the boiler.
An engine control unit (ECU), also commonly called an engine control module (ECM) is a type of electronic control unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine performance. It does this by reading values from a multitude of sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using multidimensional performance maps, and adjusting the engine actuators. Before ECUs, air–fuel mixture, ignition timing, and idle speed were mechanically set and dynamically controlled by mechanical and pneumatic means.
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A throttle is the mechanism by which fluid flow is managed by constriction or obstruction.
An inductive sensor is a device that uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to detect or measure objects. An inductor develops a magnetic field when a current flows through it; alternatively, a current will flow through a circuit containing an inductor when the magnetic field through it changes. This effect can be used to detect metallic objects that interact with a magnetic field. Non-metallic substances such as liquids or some kinds of dirt do not interact with the magnetic field, so an inductive sensor can operate in wet or dirty conditions.
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Trionic is an engine management system developed by Saab Automobile, consisting of an engine control unit (ECU) that controls 3 engine aspects:
Electronic Diesel Control is a diesel engine fuel injection control system for the precise metering and delivery of fuel into the combustion chamber of modern diesel engines used in trucks and cars.
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Synchronized downshift rev-matching system is a technology invented by Nissan for use on the Nissan 370Z. In combination with the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and various sensors, the engine electronically blips the throttle for the driver during both downshifts and upshifts to allow for better and smoother shifting, and improved handling.
The Modular Engine Management System, or MEMS, is an electronic control system used on engines in passenger cars built by Rover Group in the 1990s. As its name implies, it was adaptable for a variety of engine management demands, including electronically controlled carburetion as well as single- and multi-point fuel injection. The abbreviations "SPi" and "MPi" refer to the single-point and multi-point injection configurations, respectively.
SECU-3 is an internal combustion engine control unit. It is being developed as an open source project. Anyone can take part in the project, and can access all the information without any registrations.