sampling, which produces a continuous-valued discrete-time signal, and
quantization, which replaces each sample value by an approximation selected from a given discrete set (for example by truncating or rounding).
It can be shown that for signal frequencies strictly below the Nyquist limit that the original continuous-valued continuous-time signal can be almost perfectly reconstructed, down to the (often very low) limit set by the quantisation.
Common practical digital signals are represented as 8-bit (256 levels), 16-bit (65,536 levels), 24-bit (16.8million levels) and 32-bit (4.3billion levels). But the number of quantization levels is not necessarily limited to powers of two. A floating point representation is used in many DSP applications.
↑ Smith, Steven W. (2002-11-06). "3". Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists. Demystifying Technology. 1 (1 ed.). Newnes. pp.35–39. ISBN075067444X.
↑ Harris, Frederic J. (2004-05-24). "1.1". Multirate Signal Processing for Communication Systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR. p.2. ISBN0131465112.
↑ Vaseghi, Saeed V. (2009-03-02). "1.4". Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction (4 ed.). Chichester, West Suffix, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons. p.23. ISBN0470754060.
↑ Diniz, Paulo S. R.; Eduardo A. B. da Silva; Sergio L. Netto (2010-09-13). "1.1". Digital Signal Processing: System Analysis and Design (2 ed.). New York & UK: Cambridge University Press. p.5. ISBN0521887755.
↑ Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Vinay K. Ingle (2011-11-21). "1.1.1". Applied Digital Signal Processing: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p.5. ISBN0521110025.
↑ Ingle, Vinay K.; John G. Proakis (2011-01-01). "1.1". Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB (3 ed.). Stamford, CT: CL Engineering. p.3. ISBN1111427372.
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