A programmable logic device (PLD) is an electronic component used to build reconfigurable digital circuits. Unlike a logic gate, which has a fixed function, a PLD has an undefined function at the time of manufacture. Before the PLD can be used in a circuit it must be programmed, that is, reconfigured.
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age.
Reconfigurable computing is a computer architecture combining some of the flexibility of software with the high performance of hardware by processing with very flexible high speed computing fabrics like field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The principal difference when compared to using ordinary microprocessors is the ability to make substantial changes to the datapath itself in addition to the control flow. On the other hand, the main difference from custom hardware, i.e. application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) is the possibility to adapt the hardware during runtime by "loading" a new circuit on the reconfigurable fabric.
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals. In contrast, analog circuits manipulate analog signals whose performance is more subject to manufacturing tolerance, signal attenuation and noise. Digital techniques are helpful because it is a lot easier to get an electronic device to switch into one of a number of known states than to accurately reproduce a continuous range of values.
In 1969, Motorola offered the XC157, a mask-programmed gate array with 12 gates and 30 uncommitted input/output pins.
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is generally considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility was sold to Google in 2012, and acquired by Lenovo in 2014.
In 1970, Texas Instruments developed a mask-programmable IC based on the IBM read-only associative memory or ROAM. This device, the TMS2000, was programmed by altering the metal layer during the production of the IC. The TMS2000 had up to 17 inputs and 18 outputs with 8 JK flip flop for memory. TI coined the term Programmable Logic Array (PLA) for this device.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally. Its headquarters are in Dallas, Texas, United States. TI is one of the top ten semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume. Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which accounts for more than 80% of their revenue. TI also produces TI digital light processing (DLP) technology and education technology products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors. To date, TI has more than 43,000 patents worldwide.
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924.
In 1971, General Electric Company (GE) was developing a programmable logic device based on the new Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM) technology. This experimental device improved on IBM's ROAM by allowing multilevel logic. Intel had just introduced the floating-gate UV erasable PROM so the researcher at GE incorporated that technology. The GE device was the first erasable PLD ever developed, predating the Altera EPLD by over a decade. GE obtained several early patents on programmable logic devices.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston. As of 2018, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, healthcare, power, renewable energy, digital industry, additive manufacturing, venture capital and finance, lighting, and oil and gas.
Ultraviolet (UV) designates a band of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight, and contributes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules.
Altera Corporation is an American manufacturer of programmable logic devices (PLDs), reconfigurable complex digital circuits. Altera released its first PLD in 1984. Altera's main products are the Stratix, Arria and Cyclone series FPGAs, the MAX series CPLDs, Quartus II design software, and Enpirion PowerSoC DC-DC power solutions.
In 1973 National Semiconductor introduced a mask-programmable PLA device (DM7575) with 14 inputs and 8 outputs with no memory registers. This was more popular than the TI part but cost of making the metal mask limited its use. The device is significant because it was the basis for the field programmable logic array produced by Signetics in 1975, the 82S100. (Intersil actually beat Signetics to market but poor yield doomed their part.)
National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer which specialized in analog devices and subsystems, formerly with headquarters in Santa Clara, California, United States. The company produced power management integrated circuits, display drivers, audio and operational amplifiers, communication interface products and data conversion solutions. National's key markets included wireless handsets, displays and a variety of broad electronics markets, including medical, automotive, industrial and test and measurement applications.
Signetics was an American electronics manufacturer specifically established to make integrated circuits. Founded in 1961, they went on to develop a number of early microprocessors and support chips, as well as the widely used 555 timer chip. They were bought by Philips in 1975 and incorporated in Philips Semiconductors.
Intersil is an American semiconductor company headquartered in Milpitas, California. As of February 24, 2017, Intersil is a subsidiary of Renesas. The previous Intersil was formed in August 1999 through the acquisition of the semiconductor business of Harris Corporation. Intersil is a power management IC business, with specialized capability in power management and precision analog technology for applications in industrial, infrastructure, mobile, automotive and aerospace.
In 1974 GE entered into an agreement with Monolithic Memories (MMI) to develop a mask–programmable logic device incorporating the GE innovations. The device was named the 'Programmable Associative Logic Array' or PALA. The MMI 5760 was completed in 1976 and could implement multilevel or sequential circuits of over 100 gates. The device was supported by a GE design environment where Boolean equations would be converted to mask patterns for configuring the device. The part was never brought to market.
Monolithic Memories, Inc. (MMI) produced bipolar PROMs, programmable logic devices, and logic circuits.
In 1970, Texas Instruments developed a mask-programmable IC based on the IBM read-only associative memory or ROAM. This device, the TMS2000, was programmed by altering the metal layer during the production of the IC. The TMS2000 had up to 17 inputs and 18 outputs with 8 JK flip flop for memory. TI coined the term programmable logic array for this device.
A programmable logic array (PLA) has a programmable AND gate array, which links to a programmable OR gate array, which can then be conditionally complemented to produce an output.
PAL devices have arrays of transistor cells arranged in a "fixed-OR, programmable-AND" plane used to implement "sum-of-products" binary logic equations for each of the outputs in terms of the inputs and either synchronous or asynchronous feedback from the outputs.
MMI introduced a breakthrough device in 1978, the programmable array logic or PAL. The architecture was simpler than that of Signetics FPLA because it omitted the programmable OR array. This made the parts faster, smaller and cheaper. They were available in 20 pin 300 mil DIP packages while the FPLAs came in 28 pin 600 mil packages. The PAL Handbook demystified the design process. The PALASM design software (PAL assembler) converted the engineers' Boolean equations into the fuse pattern required to program the part. The PAL devices were soon second-sourced by National Semiconductor, Texas Instruments and AMD.
After MMI succeeded with the 20-pin PAL parts, AMD introduced the 24-pin 22V10 PAL with additional features. After buying out MMI (1987), AMD spun off a consolidated operation as Vantis, and that business was acquired by Lattice Semiconductor in 1999.
An improvement on the PAL was the generic array logic device, or GAL, invented by Lattice Semiconductor in 1985. This device has the same logical properties as the PAL but can be erased and reprogrammed. The GAL is very useful in the prototyping stage of a design, when any bugs in the logic can be corrected by reprogramming. GALs are programmed and reprogrammed using a PAL programmer, or by using the in-circuit programming technique on supporting chips.
Lattice GALs combine CMOS and electrically erasable (E2) floating gate technology for a high-speed, low-power logic device. A similar device called a PEEL (programmable electrically erasable logic) was introduced by the International CMOS Technology (ICT) corporation.
PALs and GALs are available only in small sizes, equivalent to a few hundred logic gates. For bigger logic circuits, complex PLDs or CPLDs can be used. These contain the equivalent of several PALs linked by programmable interconnections, all in one integrated circuit. CPLDs can replace thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of logic gates.
Some CPLDs are programmed using a PAL programmer, but this method becomes inconvenient for devices with hundreds of pins. A second method of programming is to solder the device to its printed circuit board, then feed it with a serial data stream from a personal computer. The CPLD contains a circuit that decodes the data stream and configures the CPLD to perform its specified logic function. Some manufacturers (including Altera and Microsemi) use JTAG to program CPLD's in-circuit from .JAM files.
While PALs were being developed into GALs and CPLDs (all discussed above), a separate stream of development was happening. This type of device is based on gate array technology and is called the field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Early examples of FPGAs are the 82s100 array, and 82S105 sequencer, by Signetics, introduced in the late 1970s. The 82S100 was an array of AND terms. The 82S105 also had flip flop functions.
(Anmerk: 82S100 und ähnl ICs from Signetics have PLA-Structure, AND-Plane + OR-Plane)
FPGAs use a grid of logic gates, and once stored, the data doesn't change, similar to that of an ordinary gate array. The term "field-programmable" means the device is programmed by the customer, not the manufacturer.
FPGAs are usually programmed after being soldered down to the circuit board, in a manner similar to that of larger CPLDs. In most larger FPGAs, the configuration is volatile and must be re-loaded into the device whenever power is applied or different functionality is required. Configuration is typically stored in a configuration PROM or EEPROM. EEPROM versions may be in-system programmable (typically via JTAG).
The difference between FPGAs and CPLDs is that FPGAs are internally based on look-up tables (LUTs) whereas CPLDs form the logic functions with sea-of-gates (e.g. sum of products). CPLDs are meant for simpler designs while FPGAs are meant for more complex designs. In general, CPLDs are a good choice for wide combinational logic applications, whereas FPGAs are more suitable for large state machines such as microprocessors.
These are microprocessor circuits that contain some fixed functions and other functions that can be altered by code running on the processor. Designing self-altering systems requires engineers to learn new methods, and that new software tools be developed.
PLDs are being sold now that contain a microprocessor with a fixed function (the so-called core) surrounded by programmable logic. These devices let designers concentrate on adding new features to designs without having to worry about making the microprocessor work.
A PLD is a combination of a logic device and a memory device. The memory is used to store the pattern that was given to the chip during programming. Most of the methods for storing data in an integrated circuit have been adapted for use in PLDs. These include:
Silicon antifuses are connections that are made by applying a voltage across a modified area of silicon inside the chip. They are called antifuses because they work in the opposite way to normal fuses, which begin life as connections until they are broken by an electric current.
SRAM, or static RAM, is a volatile type of memory, meaning that its contents are lost each time the power is switched off. SRAM-based PLDs therefore have to be programmed every time the circuit is switched on. This is usually done automatically by another part of the circuit.
An EPROM cell is a MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) transistor that can be switched on by trapping an electric charge permanently on its gate electrode. This is done by a PAL programmer. The charge remains for many years and can only be removed by exposing the chip to strong ultraviolet light in a device called an EPROM eraser.
Flash memory is non-volatile, retaining its contents even when the power is switched off. It can be erased and reprogrammed as required. This makes it useful for PLD memory.
As of 2005, most CPLDs are electrically programmable and erasable, and non-volatile. This is because they are too small to justify the inconvenience of programming internal SRAM cells every time they start up, and EPROM cells are more expensive due to their ceramic package with a quartz window.
Many PAL programming devices accept input in a standard file format, commonly referred to as 'JEDEC files'.They are analogous to software compilers. The languages used as source code for logic compilers are called hardware description languages, or HDLs.
PALASM, ABEL and CUPL are frequently used for low-complexity devices, while Verilog and VHDL are popular higher-level description languages for more complex devices. The more limited ABEL is often used for historical reasons, but for new designs VHDL is more popular, even for low-complexity designs.
For modern PLD programming languages, design flows, and tools, see FPGA and Reconfigurable computing.
A device programmer is used to transfer the boolean logic pattern into the programmable device. In the early days of programmable logic, every PLD manufacturer also produced a specialized device programmer for its family of logic devices. Later, universal device programmers came onto the market that supported several logic device families from different manufacturers. Today's device programmers usually can program common PLDs (mostly PAL/GAL equivalents) from all existing manufacturers. Common file formats used to store the boolean logic pattern (fuses) are JEDEC, Altera POF (programmable object file), or Xilinx BITstream.
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing – hence the term "field-programmable". The FPGA configuration is generally specified using a hardware description language (HDL), similar to that used for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Circuit diagrams were previously used to specify the configuration, but this is increasingly rare due to the advent of electronic design automation tools.
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device.
EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless systems, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.
An EPROM, or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. Computer memory that can retrieve stored data after a power supply has been turned off and back on is called non-volatile. It is an array of floating-gate transistors individually programmed by an electronic device that supplies higher voltages than those normally used in digital circuits. Once programmed, an EPROM can be erased by exposing it to strong ultraviolet light source. EPROMs are easily recognizable by the transparent fused quartz window in the top of the package, through which the silicon chip is visible, and which permits exposure to ultraviolet light during erasing.
An application-specific integrated circuit is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a high-efficiency bitcoin miner is an ASIC. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are intermediate between ASICs and industry standard integrated circuits like the 7400 series or the 4000 series.
A programmable logic array (PLA) is a kind of programmable logic device used to implement combinational logic circuits. The PLA has a set of programmable AND gate planes, which link to a set of programmable OR gate planes, which can then be conditionally complemented to produce an output. It has 2N AND Gates for N input variables, and for M outputs from PLA, there should be M OR Gates, each with programmable inputs from all of the AND gates. This layout allows for a large number of logic functions to be synthesized in the sum of products canonical forms.
Programmable Array Logic (PAL) is a family of programmable logic device semiconductors used to implement logic functions in digital circuits introduced by Monolithic Memories, Inc. (MMI) in March 1978. MMI obtained a registered trademark on the term PAL for use in "Programmable Semiconductor Logic Circuits". The trademark is currently held by Lattice Semiconductor.
A gate array is an approach to the design and manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) using a prefabricated chip with components that are later interconnected into logic devices according to a custom order by adding metal interconnect layers in the factory.
JTAG is an industry standard for verifying designs and testing printed circuit boards after manufacture.
A programmer (hardware), device programmer, chip programmer, device burner, or PROM writer is a piece of electronic equipment that arrange written software to configure programmable non-volatile integrated circuits, called programmable devices. The target devices include; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash memory, eMMC, MRAM, FeRAM, NVRAM, PLD, PLA, PAL, GAL, CPLD, FPGA, and MCU. These are terminologies in the field of computer hardware.
A complex programmable logic device (CPLD) is a programmable logic device with complexity between that of PALs and FPGAs, and architectural features of both. The main building block of the CPLD is a macrocell, which contains logic implementing disjunctive normal form expressions and more specialized logic operations.
The Generic Array Logic device was an innovation of the PAL and was invented by Lattice Semiconductor. The GAL was an improvement on the PAL because one device was able to take the place of many PAL devices or could even have functionality not covered by the original range. Its primary benefit, however, was that it was eraseable and re-programmable, making prototyping and design changes easier for engineers.
An Erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) is an integrated circuit that comprises an array of programmable logic devices (PLD) that do not come pre-connected; the connections are programmed electrically by the user.
An electronic device or embedded system is said to be field-programmable or in-place programmable if its firmware can be modified "in the field," without disassembling the device or returning it to its manufacturer.
A simple programmable logic device (SPLD) is a programmable logic device with complexity below that of a complex programmable logic device (CPLD).
The TMS1000 is a family of microcontroller integrated circuits, introduced by Texas Instruments in 1974. It combined a 4-bit central processor unit, read-only memory (ROM), read/write memory (RAM), and input/output (I/O) lines as a complete "computer on a chip". It was intended for embedded systems in automobiles, appliances, games, and measurement instruments. It was the first high-volume commercial microcontroller. In 1974, parts in this family could be purchased in volume for around $2 each. By 1979 about 26 million parts in this family were sold every year. The TMS 1000 was used in Texas Instruments' own Speak & Spell educational toy, and in the electronic game Simon.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to electronics:
The GAL22V10 is a series of programmable-logic devices from Lattice Semiconductor, implemented as CMOS-based generic array logic ICs, and available in dual inline packages or plastic leaded chip carriers. It is an example of a standard production GAL device that is often used in educational settings as a basic PLD.
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