National Semiconductor

Last updated
National Semiconductor
Subsidiary
Industry Semiconductors
FateAcquired by Texas Instruments [1]
FoundedMay 27, 1959 (1959-05-27) in Danbury, Connecticut, United States
DefunctSeptember 23, 2011 (2011-09-23)
Headquarters Santa Clara, California,
United States
Key people
Donald Macleod, Chairman & CEO
Products Semiconductors
RevenueIncrease2.svg $1.42 billion USD (2010)
Increase2.svg $325.8 million USD (2010)
Increase2.svg $209.2 million USD (2010)
Number of employees
5,800 (2010)
Parent Texas Instruments
Website www.ti.com

National Semiconductor was an American semiconductor manufacturer which specialized in analog devices and subsystems, formerly with headquarters in Santa Clara, California, United States. The company produced power management integrated circuits, display drivers, audio and operational amplifiers, communication interface products and data conversion solutions. National's key markets included wireless handsets, displays and a variety of broad electronics markets, including medical, automotive, industrial and test and measurement applications.

Analogue electronics are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The word analogue is derived from the Greek word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional".

Santa Clara, California City in California

Santa Clara is a city in Santa Clara County, California. The city's population was 116,468 as of the 2010 United States Census, making it the ninth-most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area. Located on the southern coast of San Francisco Bay immediately west of San Jose and 45 miles (72 km) southeast of San Francisco, the city was founded in 1777 with the establishment of Mission Santa Clara de Asís, the eighth of 21 California missions. The city was later incorporated in 1852. The mission, the city, and the county are all named for Saint Clare of Assisi.

California U.S. state in the United States

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents across a total area of about 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.

Contents

On September 23, 2011, the company formally became part of Texas Instruments as the "Silicon Valley" division.

Texas Instruments American semiconductor designer and manufacturer

Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally. Its headquarters are in Dallas, Texas, United States. TI is one of the top-10 semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume. Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which account for more than 80% of their revenue. TI also produces TI digital light processing technology and education technology products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors. To date, TI has more than 45,000 patents worldwide.

Silicon Valley Region in California, United States

Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology, innovation, and social media. It corresponds roughly to the geographical Santa Clara Valley, although its boundaries have increased in recent decades. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the third-largest in California, and the tenth-largest in the United States. Other major Silicon Valley cities include Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Redwood City, Cupertino, Santa Clara, Mountain View, and Sunnyvale. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third-highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution.

History

Founding

National Semiconductor [2] was founded in Danbury, Connecticut, by Dr. Bernard J. Rothlein on May 27, 1959, when he and seven colleagues, Edward N. Clarke, Joseph J. Gruber, Milton Schneider, Robert L. Hopkins, Robert L. Koch, Richard R. Rau and Arthur V. Siefert, left their employment at the semiconductor division of Sperry Rand Corporation.

Danbury, Connecticut City in Connecticut, United States

Danbury is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States, located approximately 50 miles (80 km) northeast of New York City making it part of the New York metropolitan area. Danbury's population at the 2010 census was 80,893. Danbury is the fourth most populous city in Fairfield County, and seventh among Connecticut cities. The city is within the New York combined statistical area and Bridgeport metropolitan area.

Sperry Corporation company

Sperry Corporation (1910−1986) was a major American equipment and electronics company whose existence spanned more than seven decades of the 20th century. Through a series of mergers it exists today as a part of Unisys, while some other of its former divisions became part of Honeywell, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, and Northrop Grumman.

The founding of the new company was followed by Sperry Rand filing a lawsuit against National Semiconductor for patent infringement. [3] By 1965, as it was reaching the courts, the preliminaries of the lawsuit had caused the stock value of National to be depressed. The depressed stock values allowed Peter J Sprague [4] to invest heavily in the company with Sprague's family funds. Sprague also relied on further financial backing from a pair of West Coast investment firms and a New York underwriter to take control as the chairman of National Semiconductor. At that time Sprague was 27 years old. Jeffrey S. Young characterized the era as the beginning of venture capitalism. [5]

Venture capital start-up investment

Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth. Venture capital firms or funds invest in these early-stage companies in exchange for equity, or an ownership stake, in the companies they invest in. Venture capitalists take on the risk of financing risky start-ups in the hopes that some of the firms they support will become successful. Because startups face high uncertainty, VC investments do have high rates of failure. The start-ups are usually based on an innovative technology or business model and they are usually from the high technology industries, such as information technology (IT), clean technology or biotechnology.

That same year National Semiconductor acquired Molectro. Molectro was founded in 1962 in Santa Clara, California, by J. Nall and D. Spittlehouse, who were formerly employed at Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation. The acquisition also brought to National Semiconductor two experts in linear semiconductor technologies, Robert Widlar and Dave Talbert, who were also formerly employed at Fairchild. The acquisition of Molectro provided National with the technology to launch itself in the fabrication and manufacture of monolithic integrated circuits. [6] [7]

Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation was a company founded by Sherman Fairchild. It was based on the East Coast of the United States, and provided research and development for flash photography equipment. The technology was primarily used for DOD spy satellites. The firm was later known for its manufacture of semiconductors.

Bob Widlar American electrical engineer

Robert John Widlar was an American electronics engineer and a designer of linear integrated circuits (ICs).

In 1967, Sprague hired five top executives away from Fairchild, among whom were Charles E. Sporck and Pierre Lamond. At the time of Sporck's hiring, Robert Noyce was de facto head of semiconductor operations at Fairchild and Sporck was his operations manager.

Charles E. Sporck is an American engineer and former company manager. He is best known for his role as chief executive officer and president of National Semiconductor from 1967 to 1991. The New York Times described Sporck as "a founding father of Silicon Valley".

Pierre R Lamond is a venture capitalist in Silicon Valley, who has specialized in semiconductors, systems and cleantech. He was a partner at Sequoia Capital based in Menlo Park, California from 1981 until he left to join Vinod Khosla's Khosla Ventures as General Partner in March 2009. He left Khosla Ventures in 2013 and joined Eclipse Ventures as a Partner in 2014

Robert Noyce American businessman and engineer

Robert Norton Noyce, nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley," was an American physicist who co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel Corporation in 1968. He is also credited with the realization of the first monolithic integrated circuit or microchip, which fueled the personal computer revolution and gave Silicon Valley its name.

Sporck was appointed president and CEO of National. To make the deal better for Sporck's hiring and appointment at half his former salary at Fairchild, Sporck was allotted a substantial share of National's stock. In essence, Sporck took four of his personnel from Fairchild with him as well as three others from TI, Perkin-Elmer, and Hewlett-Packard to form a new eight-man team at National Semiconductor. [5] Incidentally, Sporck had been Widlar's superior at Fairchild before Widlar left Fairchild to join Molectro after a compensation dispute with Sporck. [8]

In 1968, National shifted its headquarters from Danbury, Connecticut, to Santa Clara, California. However, like many companies, National retained its registration as a Delaware corporation, for legal and financial expediency.

Over the years National Semiconductor acquired several companies like Fairchild Semiconductor (1987), and Cyrix (1997). However, over time National Semiconductor spun off these acquisitions. Fairchild Semiconductor became a separate company again in 1997, and the Cyrix microprocessors division was sold to VIA Technologies of Taiwan in 1999.

From 1997 to 2002, National enjoyed a large amount of publicity and awards with the development of the Cyrix Media Center, Cyrix WebPad, WebPad Metro and National Origami PDA concept devices created by National's Conceptual Products Group. Based largely on the success of the WebPad, National formed the Information Appliance Division (highly integrated processors & "internet gadgets") in 1998. The Information Appliance Division was sold to AMD in 2003.

Other businesses dealing in such products as digital wireless chipsets, image sensors, and PC I/O chipsets have also been recently closed down or sold off as National has reincarnated itself as a high-performance analog semiconductor company.

The transformation of National Semiconductor

The National Semiconductor 8250 UART chip, one of the most prolific and most cloned UART chips due to its presence in the first IBM Personal Computer. National Semiconductor 8250A.JPG
The National Semiconductor 8250 UART chip, one of the most prolific and most cloned UART chips due to its presence in the first IBM Personal Computer.

Peter Sprague, Pierre Lamond and the affectionately called Charlie Sporck worked hand-in-hand, with support of the board of directors to transform the company into a multinational and world-class semiconductor concern. Immediately after becoming CEO, Sporck started a historic price war among semiconductor companies, which then trimmed the number of competitors in the field. Among the casualties to exit the semiconductor business were General Electric and Westinghouse. [9]

Cost control, overhead reduction and a focus on profits implemented by Sporck was the key element to National surviving the price war and subsequently in 1981 becoming the first semiconductor company to reach the US$1 billion annual sales mark. However, the foundation that made National successful was its expertise in analog electronics, TTL (transistor–transistor logic) and MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) integrated circuit technologies. As they had while employed in Fairchild, Sporck and Lamond directed National Semiconductor towards the growing industrial and commercial markets and began to rely less on military and aerospace contracts. Those decisions coupled with inflationary growth in use of computers provided the market for the expansion of National. Meanwhile, sources of funds associated with Sprague coupled with creative structuring of cash flow buffering due to Sporck and Lamond provided the financing required for that expansion. Lamond and Sporck had also managed to attract and extract substantial funds to finance the expansion. [10]

Among Sporck's cost control efforts was his offshore outsourcing of labour. National Semiconductor was among the pioneers in the semiconductor industry to invest in facilities to perform final manufacturing operations of integrated circuits in developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia.

National Semiconductor's manufacturing improvements under Sporck (in collaboration with Lamond) was enabled not by emphasizing process innovation but by improving and standardizing processes already established by other companies like Fairchild and Texas Instruments, as well as by frequent raiding to hire from Fairchild's pool of talents.

Weaknesses of Sporck's leadership

National Semiconductor under Sporck was not particularly invested in marketing strategies, even though it had the vision to launch itself into new and apparent opportunities in the consumer market. Sporck had applied strategies that made National Semiconductor function as a low-cost mass manufacturer of semiconductor commodities. [11]

A few key executives and engineers left the company in 1981. Among them was Pierre Lamond, who had been the chief IC designer (now partner at Sequoia Capital). [12] Robert Swanson's departure in the same year to found Linear Technology was another indication of the appropriateness of organisational strategies of National Semiconductor under Sporck. "For 13 of 14 years at National, I was a gung-ho guy. Then, the company started to get big. I kept looking at all the companies whose butts we'd been kicking. And then National started organizing itself like them. It was frustrating." Swanson said in the May 13, 1991, Business Journal-San Jose.

Sporck's strategy of outsourcing sales to external sources meant National Semiconductor did not have sufficient or responsive resources to respond to requests from innovators, inventors and academic research--which would have been helpful in the technological innovation boom of the 1980s.

National Semiconductor's lack and loss of innovation meant it was producing products that were easily copied and reproducible. It may have been the cheapest manufacturer in the United States, but it was not the cheapest compared to the Asian manufacturers. This weakness in National Semiconductor was evident in its failure to compete during the globalisation of Japanese semiconductor companies in the 1980s, followed by globalisation of Taiwanese and South Korean companies.

Leadership under Gilbert F. Amelio

On May 27, 1991, Charles E. Sporck was replaced by Gilbert F. Amelio as CEO and president. Amelio was then president of Rockwell International's semiconductor division and had a Ph.D. in physics from Georgia Institute of Technology. Amelio had also been formerly employed at Fairchild.

Amelio was faced with a company plagued with over-capacity and shrinking market share. Amelio found that, just prior to his taking helm, despite having spent US$1 billion over the last five years on research and development, National Semiconductor had a disappointing record in new products. The Business section of The New York Times January 11, 1991, reflected the over-capacity generated by Sporck that had to be inherited by Amelio.

Amelio disposed of the non-core products and assets in which National Semiconductor had no market motivation or expertise and turned the company towards its core expertiseanalog semiconductors. National Semiconductor under Amelio emphasized on reduction of cost of sales, improving capacity utilization, scrap reduction and cycle-time reduction. Redundant facilities were sold and consolidated.

With the progress of restructuring, National Semiconductor increased revenues each year. In 1994, National Semiconductor under Amelio posted record net revenues of US$2.29 billion. It was also a time when US semiconductor companies had regained market leadership. Amelio introduced benchmarking to evaluate productivity, restructured marketing strategies and reorganised management by introducing modern management practices and workplace environments.

Amelio divided products into two divisions: Standard Products Group which comprised low-margin, logic and memory chipscommodity products which were more susceptible to cyclical demands and through which National Semiconductor had matured; and Communications & Computing Group which comprised high-margin, value-added analog and mixed-signal chips. Amelio's division of products seemed to prepare National Semiconductor for the eventual disposal of low-margin commodity products, which came to fruition later with the sale of a reconstituted Fairchild.

National Semiconductor under Amelio chose to build a brand new eight-inch (200 mm) wafer fabrication plant in South Portland, Maine. It chose to divest itself of its then somewhat new plant in Migdal HaEmek, Israel, which became Tower Semiconductor.

In 1995, Amelio was elected as the chairman of the board of directors of National Semiconductor.

In 1996, Amelio accepted an invitation from Apple Computer, a customer of National Semiconductor, to join its board of directors. Troubles at Apple later prompted the board to invite Amelio to take on the position of CEO, which he accepted in February 1996. National Semiconductor announced the resignation of Amelio as the company's president, chairman and chief executive officer on February 2, 1996.

Leadership under Brian L. Halla

National Semiconductor announced the appointment of Brian L. Halla as its chairman, president and CEO on May 3, 1996. Halla was then the head of LSI logic products division. Prior to LSI, he had been with Intel for 14 years.

Halla reinforced Amelio's emphasis on the expertise of National Semiconductor in analog technology.[ citation needed ] He also was, on occasions, an evangelist for analog technology. However, he found that National Semiconductor under Amelio had too few product offerings.[ citation needed ] Halla embarked on a diversification into personal computer and graphics business.[ citation needed ]

He advocated PC-on-a-chip (aka system-on-a-chip) as a business direction for National Semiconductor.[ citation needed ] During his tenure at LSI, LSI had successfully applied similar concepts. However, LSI had steered clear of getting involved with PC technologies that would make it a competitor with Intel.[ citation needed ] Halla held the vision that information appliances (IAs) would succeed the personal computer as a trend.[ citation needed ] He predicted that IAs would overtake sales of PCs by the year 2000.[ citation needed ]

To achieve the goal, National Semiconductor started acquiring companies that would provide the needed technological complements. Among the acquisitions were Cirrus Logic Inc's PicoPower business, for its specialised expertise in small form factor devices; Mediamatics Inc, which makes multimedia connectivity products; Future Integrated Systems Inc, a PC graphics company; Gulbransen Inc, a digital audio technology maker; ComCore Semiconductor Inc, a maker of digital signal processing for LANs; Cyrix, the maker of Intel x86 clones.

On March 11, 1997, National Semiconductor Corporation announced the US$550 million sale of a reconstituted Fairchild to the management of Fairchild with the backing of Sterling LLC, a unit of Citicorp Venture Capital. Fairchild carried with it what was mostly the Standard Products group previously segregated by Amelio. Incidentally, the effective price of acquisition of Cyrix was also US$550 million.

On November 17, 1997, National Semiconductor and Cyrix announced the merger of the companies. Cyrix would become an autonomous wholly owned subsidiary. Halla had earlier emphasized that National was after the low-end CPU market as part of the system-on-a-chip pursuit and therefore would not place emphasis on Cyrix's current development of high-end 6x86MX design.[ citation needed ] However, Cyrix later announced that its merger with National Semiconductor would not change its development or marketing plans.[ citation needed ]

The acquisition of an independent-minded Cyrix subsequently turned National Semiconductor from a collaborator into a competitor with Intel. National lost its business with Intel.[ citation needed ] Intel reinstated the relationship after the sale of Cyrix.[ citation needed ]

The acquisition of Cyrix also carried with it a business obligation to use the IBM microelectronics division to fabricate the Cyrix chips,[ citation needed ], as well as technical constraint to do the same, while National Semiconductor had plans to transfer their fabrication to its South Portland fab.[ citation needed ] National incurred huge losses in its processor business and announced the sale of Cyrix to VIA in 1999.[ citation needed ]

In 1999, National Semiconductor also put out feelers for selling if not the whole, then a majority stake of, its fabrication plant in South Portland, Maine.[ citation needed ] However, that did not come to fruition.[ citation needed ]

On June 28, 2000, National Semiconductor and TSMC Taiwan signed an agreement that would allow transfer of advanced fabrication technologies from TSMC to the National Semiconductor fabrication plant in South Portland, Maine. [13] [14]

On March 11, 2009, National announced plans to close its assembly and test plant in Suzhou, China, and its wafer fabrication plant in Arlington, Texas. [15]

On October 9, 2009, Brian Halla announced his retirement as National's CEO. He remains executive chairman. The company promoted Donald (Don) Macleod, who had previously served as the company's president and chief operating officer, to CEO.[ citation needed ]

Leadership under Donald Macleod

Don Macleod became National Semiconductor's chief executive officer on November 30, 2009. He was named chairman of the board on May 31, 2010.

Acquisition by Texas Instruments

On April 4, 2011, Texas Instruments announced that it had agreed to buy National Semiconductor for $6.5 billion in cash. Texas Instruments paid $25 per share of National Semiconductor stock, an 80% premium over the April 4, 2011, closing share price of $14.07. The deal made Texas Instruments one of the world's largest makers of analog technology components. [16] On September 19, 2011, the Chinese minister approved the merger, the last one needed.[ citation needed ] The companies formally merged on September 23, 2011. [17]

Manufacturing locations

History of manufacturing locations
YearComments
1967Test operations started in Hong Kong.
1969Manufacturing operations started in Greenock, Scotland; Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany; and Singapore. Acquired lead-frame manufacturer DynaCraft.
1972Assembly and test operations started in the two Malaysia states of Malacca and Penang.
1975Final-manufacturing operations were started in Bangkok, Thailand and Bandung, Indonesia.
1976Assembly and test operations started in Manila, Philippines.
1976Started its first then state-of-the-art four-inch wafer fabrication operation in West Jordan, a suburb of Salt Lake City, Utah.
1979Opened its assembly plant for high reliability components used in aerospace applications in Tucson, Arizona.
1985Six-inch wafer fabrication operation started in Arlington, Texas.
1987Acquired Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation from Schlumberger. Inherited facilities housing Fairchild's headquarters and wafer fabrication operations in South Portland, Maine.
1989Facilities in Danbury, Connecticut closed.
1990Consolidated Singapore manufacturing operations in Bukit Merah district into Fairchild's Toa Payoh facilities.
1990Sold Fairchild facilities at Puyallup, Washington to Matsushita Electric Industrial Company.
1992Closed assembly operations in Tucson, Arizona. Retained the site as a design center.
1995Sold DynaCraft (with locations in Santa Clara, California; Murrysville, Pennsylvania; and Penang, Malaysia) to Carsem Enterprises, the semiconductor division of Malaysia Pacific Industries.
1996The construction of a ~$932 million eight-inch fabrication plant started in a location abutting formerly Fairchild facilities in South Portland.
1997Eight-inch wafer fabrication operations became fully functional.
1997National Semiconductor executives led by Kirk Pond, who was also an executive of the former Fairchild, acquired funding to buy a reconstituted Fairchild Semiconductor for US$550 million.

The reconstitution was characterised by the new Fairchild being allotted the formerly National Semiconductor locations at Penang (Malaysia), Cebu (Philippines), West Jordan/Salt Lake City (Utah) while National retained the formerly Fairchild location of Toa Payoh (Singapore).

2002Started construction of $200 million final-manufacturing operations plant in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.
2004Started final-manufacturing operations in Suzhou, China.
2005Closed final-manufacturing operations in Toa Payoh, Singapore. Transferred all manufacturing operations to Melaka, Malaysia and Suzhou, China.
2009Closed final-manufacturing operations in Suzhou, China and wafer fabrication plant in Arlington, Texas. Transferred all final-manufacturing operations to Melaka, Malaysia and wafer fabrication to South Portland, Maine and Greenock, Scotland.
2011Acquired by Texas Instruments on September 23, 2011.

National Semiconductor also had operations in Migdal (tower) Ha'Emeq (valley), Israel. National Semiconductor had six inch (152 mm) wafer fabrication operations there. In 1993, National Semiconductor divested to retain 19% ownership of the plant. The plant in Migdal Ha'Emeq, Israel is now constituted as Tower Semiconductor of Israel.

Products

History of National Semiconductor logo and product identification

The following picture excerpts illustrate the history of identification marks of National Semiconductor.

See also

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Semiconductor device fabrication manufacturing process used to create integrated circuits

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CMOS Technology for constructing integrated circuits

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Cyrix company

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Fairchild Semiconductor American company

Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957 as a division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, it became a pioneer in the manufacturing of transistors and of integrated circuits. Schlumberger bought the firm in 1979 and sold it to National Semiconductor in 1987; Fairchild was spun off as an independent company again in 1997. In September 2016, Fairchild was acquired by ON Semiconductor.

VIA Technologies company

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TSMC Taiwanese semiconductor foundry company

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Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation company

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ON Semiconductor

ON Semiconductor is a Fortune 500 semiconductors supplier company. Products include power and signal management, logic, discrete, and custom devices for automotive, communications, computing, consumer, industrial, LED lighting, medical, military/aerospace and power applications. ON Semiconductor runs a network of manufacturing facilities, sales offices and design centers in North America, Europe, and the Asia Pacific regions. Headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona, ON Semiconductor has revenues of $3.907 billion (2016), which puts it among the worldwide top 20 semiconductor sales leaders.

Tower Semiconductor

Tower Semiconductor Ltd. (TowerJazz) and its fully owned U.S. subsidiaries Jazz Semiconductor , and TowerJazz Texas operate collectively under the brand name TowerJazz. TowerJazz manufactures integrated circuits offering a range of customizable analog specialty process technologies, including SiGe, BiCMOS, SOI , mixed-signal and RFCMOS, CMOS image sensors , power management (BCD), and non-volatile memory (NVM) as well as MEMS capabilities. TowerJazz also owns 51% of TowerJazz Panasonic Semiconductor Co. (TPSCo) , an enterprise with Panasonic Corporation.

References

  1. http://investor.ti.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=607786
  2. Short History of National Semiconductor in International Directory of Company Histories, Volume 69 (1998) by Jonathan Martin, David Salamie, Nelson Rhodes
  3. "United States Court of Appeals Second Circuit. - 288 F.2d 245 provides a history of the suit by Sperry Rand vs Bernard J Rothlein et al".
  4. "Peter J Sprague's autobiographical web page".
  5. 1 2 Forbes Greatest Technology Stories By Jeffrey S. Young, page 127
  6. "Short description of Molectro acquisition in Computer History Museum".
  7. "Commentary on Bob Widlar, Dave Talbert and others in Computer History Museum".
  8. "Interview with George Rostky".
  9. "Article on National Semiconductor Corporation at Funding Universe".
  10. Making Silicon Valley By Christophe Lécuyer, page 268
  11. "Business section, The New York Times January 11, 1991 by Andrew Pollack". January 11, 1991. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
  12. "Pierre Lamond Bio".
  13. "National Semiconductor News Release: NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR AND TSMC ANNOUNCE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP".
  14. National Licensing TSMC Processes - Electronic News, July 3, 2000
  15. National Semi to cut 26% of jobs as sales fall, EE Times, March 11, 2009
  16. Sweet, Ken (April 4, 2011). "Texas Instruments to buy National Semiconductor for $6.5 billion". CNN.
  17. "Texas Instruments completes acquisition of National Semiconductor". Texas Instruments. Archived from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  1. Macleod Changes Focus to Revenue Growth at National EE Times Europe: March 12, 2010