Dubna

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Dubna

Дубна
Dubna.house of scientiests.jpg
Headquarters of JINR in Dubna
Flag of Dubna (Moscow oblast) (2003).png
Flag
Coat of Arms of Dubna (Moscow oblast) (2003).png
Coat of arms
Location of Dubna
Dubna
Russia administrative location map.svg
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Dubna
Location of Dubna
Russia Moscow oblast location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Dubna
Dubna (Moscow Oblast)
Coordinates: 56°44′N37°10′E / 56.733°N 37.167°E / 56.733; 37.167 Coordinates: 56°44′N37°10′E / 56.733°N 37.167°E / 56.733; 37.167
Country Russia
Federal subject Moscow Oblast [1]
Founded1956 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Government
  MayorSergey Kulikov
Elevation
125 m (410 ft)
Population
  Total70,663
  Estimate 
(2018) [3]
75,144 (+6.3%)
  Rank 223rd in 2010
  Subordinated toDubna Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction [1]
   Capital ofDubna Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction [1]
  Urban okrugDubna Urban Okrug [4]
   Capital ofDubna Urban Okrug [4]
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [5] )
Postal code(s) [6]
141980
Dialing code(s) +7 49621
OKTMO ID46718000001
Website www.naukograd-dubna.ru

Dubna (Russian:Дубна́,IPA:  [dʊbˈna] ) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It has a status of naukograd (i.e. town of science), being home to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, an international nuclear physics research center and one of the largest scientific foundations in the country. It is also home to MKB Raduga, a defense aerospace company specializing in design and production of missile systems, as well as to the Russia's largest satellite communications center owned by Russian Satellite Communications Company. [7] The modern town was developed in the middle of the 20th century and town status was granted to it in 1956. Population: 70,663(2010 Census); [2] 60,951(2002 Census); [8] 65,805(1989 Census). [9]

Contents

Geography

The town is 120 meters (390 ft) above sea level, situated approximately 125 kilometers (78 mi) north of Moscow, on the Volga River, just downstream from the Ivankovo Reservoir. The reservoir is formed by a hydroelectric dam across the Volga situated within the town borders. The town lies on both banks of the Volga. The western boundary of the town is defined by the Moscow Canal joining the Volga, while the eastern boundary is defined by the Dubna River joining the Volga.

Dubna is the northernmost town of Moscow Oblast.

History

Pre-World War II

Fortress Dubna (Russian : Дубна) belonging to Rostov-Suzdal Principality was built in the area in 1132 by the order of Yuri Dolgoruki and existed until 1216. The fortress was destroyed during the feudal war between the sons of Vsevolod the Big Nest. The village of Gorodishche (Городище) was located on the right bank of the Volga River and was a part of the Kashin Principality. Dubna customs post (Дубненское мыто) was located in the area and was a part of the Principality of Tver.

Before the October Revolution, few villages were in the area: Podberezye was on the left bank of the Volga, and Gorodishche, Alexandrovka, Ivankovo, Yurkino, and Kozlaki (Russian : Козлаки) were on the right bank.

Right after the Revolution one of the first collective farms was organized in Dubna area.

In 1931, the Orgburo of the Communist Party made a decision to build the Volga-Moscow Canal. Genrikh Yagoda, then the leader of the State Political Directorate, was put in charge of construction. The Canal was completed in 1937. Ivankovo Reservoir and Ivankovo hydroelectrical plant were also created as a part of the project. Many villages and the town Korcheva were submerged under water. Dubna is mentioned in Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's book The Gulag Archipelago as the town built by Gulag prisoners.

Science

The decision to build a proton accelerator for nuclear research was taken by the Soviet government in 1946. An impractical place where the current town is situated was chosen due to remoteness from Moscow and the presence of the Ivankovo power plant nearby. The scientific leader was Igor Kurchatov. The general supervisor of the project including construction of a settlement, a road and a railway connecting it to Moscow (largely involving penal labour of Gulag inmates) was the NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria. After three years of intensive work, the accelerator was commissioned on December 13, 1949.

The town of Dubna was officially inaugurated in 1956, together with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), which has developed into a large international research laboratory involved mainly in particle physics, heavy ion physics, synthesis of transuranium elements, and radiobiology. In 1960, a town of Ivankovo situated on the opposite (left) bank of the Volga was merged into Dubna. In 1964, Dubna hosted the prestigious International Conference on High Energy Physics.

Currently, a construction of NICA, a megascience project is underway in Dubna.

Outstanding physicists of the 20th century including Nikolay Bogolyubov, Georgy Flyorov, Vladimir Veksler, and Bruno Pontecorvo used to work at the institute. A number of elementary particles and nuclei of transuranium elements (most recently, element 117) have been discovered and investigated there, leading to the honorary naming of chemical element 105 dubnium (Db) for the town.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Dubna Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction —an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, Dubna Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Dubna Urban Okrug. [4]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
195914,000    
197043,700+212.1%
197954,900+25.6%
198965,800+19.9%
200361,000−7.3%
200862,500+2.5%
2010 [2] 70,663+13.1%
2012 [10] 72,357+2.4%
Source: [11] unless indicated otherwise

Economics

Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, JINR and MKB Raduga were the main employers in the town. Since then their role has decreased significantly. Several small industrial enterprises have emerged, however the town still experiences some employment difficulties. Proximity to Moscow allows many to commute and work there. Plans by AFK Sistema and other investors including government structures have been announced to build a Russian analogue of Silicon Valley in Dubna. As of the beginning of 2007, nothing has commenced.

Transport

Bolshaya Volga Railway station and locomotive 9P512 Dubna 9P512 2 of 3.JPG
Bolshaya Volga Railway station and locomotive 9P512

The public transport connections to Moscow include express trains, suburban trains and bus shuttles which depart from the Savyolovsky Rail Terminal.

Culture

The theater in Dubna Dubna Theater.JPG
The theater in Dubna

Since 2007 Dubna is a headquarters and primary location of international jazz festival MuzEnergo [12] with free for public one-day open air festival in summer and one-week events in local venues in spring and autumn.

There are several museums in Dubna, including: [13]

Sports

Dubna's sports facilities include two stadiums, a waterski stadium on the Volga River, three swimming pools, tennis courts, and five sports complexes.

Popular water sports in Dubna include windsurfing, kitesurfing, and water-skiing.

Since 2004, Dubna has been a venue for Waterski World Cup stops. Dubna is a venue for the 2011 World Waterski Championships (July, 17-24 2011). [14]

Trivia

Statue of Vladimir Lenin at Dubna Dubna Lenin.JPG
Statue of Vladimir Lenin at Dubna

One of the world's tallest statues of Vladimir Lenin, 25 meters (82 ft) high, built in 1937, is located at Dubna at the confluence of the Volga River and the Moscow Canal. The accompanying statue of Joseph Stalin of similar size was demolished in 1961 during the period of de-stalinization. [15]

War Memorial and Gardens on the banks of the Volga River Dubna War Memorial and Gardens.JPG
War Memorial and Gardens on the banks of the Volga River

Twin towns and sister cities

Dubna is twinned with: [16]

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Law #11/2013-OZ
  2. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  4. 1 2 3 Law #84/2005-OZ
  5. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  6. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  7. "Ground infrastructure". Russian Satellite Communications Company .
  8. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  9. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  10. 2012 population in Russia by city
  11. Народная энциклопедия городов и регионов России «Мой Город»
  12. Jazz festival "MuzEnergo" official web site Archived March 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  13. Official list of Dubna museums
  14. The Organizing Committee of the 2011 World Waterski Championships official web site Archived April 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  15. Salys, Rimgaila (2009). The Musical Comedy Films of Grigorii Aleksandrov: Laughing Matters. Intellect Books. p. 271.
  16. Dubna partnership
  17. pl:Dubna

Sources