Fach

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The German Fach system (German pronunciation: [fax] ; literally "compartment" or "subject of study", here in the sense of "vocal specialization") is a method of classifying singers, primarily opera singers, according to the range, weight, and color of their voices. It is used worldwide, but primarily in Europe, especially in German-speaking countries and by repertory opera houses.

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The Fach system is a convenience for singers and opera houses. It prevents singers from being asked to sing roles which they are incapable of performing. Opera companies keep lists of available singers by Fach so that when they are casting roles for an upcoming production, they do not inadvertently contact performers who would be inappropriate for the part.

Below is a list of Fächer (German pronunciation: [ˈfɛçɐ] ), their ranges as written on sheet music, and roles generally considered appropriate to each. When two names for the Fach are given, the first is in more common use today. Where possible, an English and/or Italian equivalent of each Fach is listed; however, not all Fächer have ready English or Italian equivalents. Note that some roles can be sung by more than one Fach and that many singers do not easily fit into a Fach: for instance some sopranos may sing both Koloratursopran and Dramatischer Koloratursopran roles. In addition, roles traditionally more difficult to cast may be given to a voice other than the traditional Fach. For instance, the "Queen of the Night" is more traditionally a dramatic coloratura role, but it is difficult to find a dramatic coloratura to sing it (particularly given the extreme range). Therefore, the role is often sung by a lyric coloratura.

Soprano Fächer

Lyrischer Koloratursopran / Koloratursoubrette

Soprano C to F.svg

Dramatischer Koloratursopran

Soprano C to F.svg

One must not mistake the Mozartian dramatic coloratura soprano with the Italian dramatic coloratura soprano. A singer that sings Konstanze, Donna Anna or Fiordiligi can not necessarily sing the Italian dramatic coloratura parts, due to other vocal demands. Imogene, Leonora and Violetta require a dramatic soprano voice and are most often sung by dramatic sopranos with an agile voice that can easily produce coloratura and high notes. Roles like Norma, Lady Macbeth, Odabella or Abigaille are good examples of Italian roles that are not necessarily a coloratura soprano (even though the score calls for coloratura singing), but a full bodied dramatic soprano with a voice that can handle extreme dramatic singing and that is flexible enough to sing coloratura. Giuseppe Verdi wrote many parts like this in his early years.

Deutsche Soubrette / Charaktersopran

Soprano C to C.svg

Lyrischer Sopran

Soprano B to C.svg

Jugendlich dramatischer Sopran

Soprano A to C.svg

Dramatischer Sopran

Soprano A to C.svg

Two roles mentioned above, Salome and the Marschallin, are relatively high dramatic sopranos and require that the soprano can endure long stretches of very high tessitura. Richard Strauss himself said that Salome should be sung by someone with the flexibility of a dramatic coloratura due to the high tessitura.

Hochdramatischer Sopran

Soprano F to C.svg

Mezzo-soprano and Contralto Fächer

Koloratur-Mezzosopran

Soprano G to B.svg

Lyrischer Mezzosopran / Spielalt

Soprano G to B.svg

Dramatischer Mezzosopran

Soprano G to B.svg

Dramatischer Alt

200pxl Soprano F to A.svg
200pxl

Tiefer Alt

Tenor Fächer

Spieltenor / Tenor buffo

Tenor C to B.svg

Charaktertenor

Tenor B to C.svg

Lyrischer Tenor

Tenor C to C.svg

Jugendlicher Heldentenor

Tenor C to C.svg

Heldentenor

Tenor B to C.svg

Baritone Fächer

Bariton / Baryton-Martin

Lyrischer Bariton / Spielbariton

Baritone B to G.svg

Kavalierbariton

Baritone A to G Sharp.svg

Charakterbariton

Baritone A to G Sharp.svg

Heldenbariton

Bass G to F Sharp.svg

Lyrischer Bassbariton / Low lyric baritone

Bass G to F Sharp.svg

Dramatischer Bassbariton / Low dramatic baritone

Bass G to F Sharp.svg

Bass Fächer

Basso cantante / Lyric bass-bariton / High lyric bass

Bass E to F.svg

Hoher Bass / Dramatic bass-baritone / High dramatic bass

Bass E to F.svg

Jugendlicher Bass

Bass E to F.svg

Spielbass / Bassbuffo / Lyric buffo

Bass E to F.svg

Schwerer Spielbass / Dramatic buffo

Bass C to F.svg

Lyrischer seriöser Bass

Bass C to F.svg

Dramatischer seriöser Bass

Bass C to F.svg

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A soprano[soˈpraːno] is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types. The soprano's vocal range (using scientific pitch notation) is from approximately middle C (C4) = 261 Hz to "high A" (A5) = 880 Hz in choral music, or to "soprano C" (C6, two octaves above middle C) = 1046 Hz or higher in operatic music. In four-part chorale style harmony, the soprano takes the highest part, which often encompasses the melody. The soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, soubrette, lyric, spinto, and dramatic soprano.

A tenor is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the countertenor and baritone voice types. It is one of the highest of the male voice types. The tenor's vocal range extends up to C5. The low extreme for tenors is roughly A2 (two As below middle C). At the highest extreme, some tenors can sing up to the second F above middle C (F5). The tenor voice type is generally divided into the leggero tenor, lyric tenor, spinto tenor, dramatic tenor, heldentenor, and tenor buffo or spieltenor.

A baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice-types. The term originates from the Greek βαρύτονος (barýtonos), meaning "heavy sounding". Composers typically write music for this voice in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C (i.e. F2–F4) in choral music, and from the second G below middle C to the G above middle C (G2 to G4) in operatic music, but the range can extend at either end. The baritone voice-type is generally divided into the baryton-Martin baritone (light baritone), lyric baritone, Kavalierbariton, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, baryton-noble baritone, and the bass-baritone.

A contralto is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range is the lowest female voice type.

A mezzo-soprano or mezzo (, ; Italian pronunciation: [ˈmɛddzo soˈpraːno] meaning "half soprano") is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range lies between the soprano and the contralto voice types. The mezzo-soprano's vocal range usually extends from the A below middle C to the A two octaves above (i.e. A3–A5 in scientific pitch notation, where middle C = C4; 220–880 Hz). In the lower and upper extremes, some mezzo-sopranos may extend down to the F below middle C (F3, 175 Hz) and as high as "high C" (C6, 1047 Hz). The mezzo-soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, lyric, and dramatic mezzo-soprano.

A bass-baritone is a high-lying bass or low-lying "classical" baritone voice type which shares certain qualities with the true baritone voice. The term arose in the late 19th century to describe the particular type of voice required to sing three Wagnerian roles: the Dutchman in Der fliegende Holländer, Wotan/Der Wanderer in the Ring Cycle and Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Wagner labelled these roles as Hoher Bass —see fach for more details.

Spinto is a vocal term used to characterize a soprano or tenor voice of a weight between lyric and dramatic that is capable of handling large musical climaxes in opera at moderate intervals.

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A soubrette is a type of operatic soprano voice fach, often cast as a female stock character in opera and theatre. The term arrived in English from Provençal via French, and means "conceited" or "coy". A soubrette is also defined as a young woman regarded as flirtatious or frivolous.

A coloratura soprano is a type of operatic soprano voice that specializes in music that is distinguished by agile runs, leaps and trills.

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A voice type classifies a singing voice by vocal range, vocal weight, tessitura, vocal timbre, vocal transition points (passaggi) like breaks and lifts, and vocal register. Voice classification was developed for European classical music and seldom applies to other kinds of singing; voice classification is in the opera to pair roles with voices. Several different voice classification systems are available to identify voice types, including the German Fach system and the choral music system among many others; no system is universally applied or accepted.

A spinto soprano is a type of operatic soprano voice that has the limpidity and easy high notes of a lyric soprano, yet can be "pushed" on to achieve dramatic climaxes without strain. This type of voice may possess a somewhat darker timbre, too, than the average lyric soprano. It generally uses squillo to "slice" through the sound of a full orchestra, rather than singing over the orchestra like a true dramatic soprano.

A dramatic soprano is a type of operatic soprano with a powerful, rich, emotive voice that can sing over, or cut through, a full orchestra. Thicker vocal folds in dramatic voices usually (but not always) mean less agility than lighter voices but a sustained, fuller sound. Usually this voice has a lower tessitura than other sopranos, and a darker timbre. They are often used for heroic, often long-suffering, tragic women of opera. Dramatic sopranos have a range from approximately low A (A3) to "high C" (C6). Some dramatic sopranos, known as Wagnerian sopranos, have an exceptionally big voice that can assert itself over a large orchestra (of more than 80 or even 100 pieces). These voices are substantial, often denser in tone, extremely powerful and, ideally, evenly balanced throughout the vocal registers. Wagnerian sopranos usually play mythic heroines. Successful Wagnerian sopranos are rare and often Wagnerian roles are performed by Italianate dramatic sopranos.

There is no authoritative system of voice classification in non-classical music as classical terms are used to describe not merely various vocal ranges, but specific vocal timbres unique to each range. These timbres are produced by classical training techniques with which most popular singers are not intimately familiar, and which even those that are do not universally employ.

A lyric soprano is a type of operatic soprano voice that has a warm quality with a bright, full timbre that can be heard over an orchestra. The lyric soprano voice generally has a higher tessitura than a soubrette and usually plays ingenues and other sympathetic characters in opera. Lyric sopranos have a range from approximately middle C (C4) to "high D" (D6). This is the most common female singing voice. There is a tendency to divide lyric sopranos into two groups: light and full.

A bass ( BAYSS) is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types. According to The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, a bass is typically classified as having a vocal range extending from around the second E below middle C to the E above middle C (i.e., E2–E4). Its tessitura, or comfortable range, is normally defined by the outermost lines of the bass clef. Categories of bass voices vary according to national style and classification system. Italians favour subdividing basses into the basso cantante (singing bass), basso buffo ("funny" bass), or the dramatic basso profondo (low bass). The American system identifies the bass-baritone, comic bass, lyric bass, and dramatic bass. The German fach system offers further distinctions: Spielbass (Bassbuffo), Schwerer Spielbass (Schwerer Bassbuffo), Charakterbass (Bassbariton), and Seriöser Bass. These classification systems can overlap. Rare is the performer who embodies a single fach without also touching repertoire from another category.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Kloiber 2002, p. 899.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Kloiber 2002, p. 900.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Kloiber 2002, p. 901.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Kloiber 2002, p. 902.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Kloiber 2002, p. 903.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Kloiber 2002, p. 905.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kloiber 2002, p. 906.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kloiber 2002, p. 907.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Kloiber 2002, p. 908.
  10. McGinnis 2010, p. 257
  11. John Warrack and Ewan West, The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, 2nd edition, 1992. ISBN   0-19-869164-5
  12. Tom Huizenga, "Breaking Down Baritones"
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Kloiber 2002, p. 909.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Kloiber 2002, p. 910.
  15. Bass Guide, BBC Wales
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Kloiber 2002, p. 911.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Kloiber 2002, p. 912.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kloiber 2002, p. 913.

Bibliography