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Articles in economics journals are usually classified according to the JEL classification codes, a system originated by the Journal of Economic Literature . The JEL is published quarterly by the American Economic Association (AEA) and contains survey articles and information on recently published books and dissertations. The AEA maintains EconLit, a searchable data base of citations for articles, books, reviews, dissertations, and working papers classified by JEL codes for the years from 1969. A recent addition to EconLit is indexing of economics-journal articles from 1886 to 1968parallel to the print series Index of Economic Articles.
The Journal of Economic Literature is a peer-reviewed academic journal, published by the American Economic Association, that surveys the academic literature in economics. It was established in 1963 as the Journal of Economic Abstracts, and is currently one of the highest ranked journals in economics. As a review journal, it mainly features essays and reviews of recent economic theories. The editor-in-chief is Steven Durlauf.
The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society in the field of economics, headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee. It publishes one of the most prestigious academic journals in economics: the American Economic Review. The AEA was established in 1885 in Saratoga, New York by younger progressive economists trained in the German historical school, including Richard T. Ely, Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman and Katharine Coman, the only woman co-founder; since 1900 it has been under the control of academics.
EconLit is an academic literature abstracting database service published by the American Economic Association. The service focuses on literature in the field of economics. EconLit covers articles and other materials dating back to 1969. It uses the JEL classification codes for classifying papers by subject.
|JEL Codes [α]||General Categories [β]|
|A||General Economics and Teaching|
|B||History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches|
|C||Mathematical and Quantitative Methods|
|E||Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics|
|I||Health, Education, and Welfare|
|J||Labor and Demographic Economics|
|K||Law and Economics|
|M||Business Administration and Business Economics • Marketing • Accounting • Personnel Economics|
|O||Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth|
|Q||Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics • Environmental and Ecological Economics|
|R||Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics|
|Z||Other Special Topics|
Each JEL primary category has secondary and tertiary subcategories, for example, under JEL: D – Microeconomics:
JEL code (sub)categories, including periodic updates, are referenced at Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) Classification System. Links to definitions of (sub)categories are at JEL Classification Codes Guide with corresponding examples of article titles linked to publication information, such as abstracts.
An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. When used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript or typescript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given academic paper or patent application. Abstracting and indexing services for various academic disciplines are aimed at compiling a body of literature for that particular subject.
Articles in economics journals also list JEL codes (for example JEL: B12), facilitating their use across search engines. Comprehensive uses of JEL (sub)classifications include:
A1 General Economics
A2 Economic Education and Teaching of Economics
A3 Collective Works
B1 History of Economic Thought through 1925
B2 History of Economic Thought since 1925
B3 History of Economic Thought: Individuals
B4 Economic Methodology
B5 Current Heterodox Approaches
C1 Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
Statistics is a branch of mathematics working with data collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation. In applying statistics to, for example, a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. See glossary of probability and statistics.
C2 Single Equation Models • Single Variables
C3 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models • Multiple Variables
C4 Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
C5 Econometric Modeling
C6 Mathematical Methods • Programming Models • Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
C7 Game Theory and Bargaining Theory
C8 Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology • Computer Programs
C9 Design of Experiments
D1 Household Behavior and Family Economics
D2 Production and Organizations
D4 Market Structure, Pricing, and Design
D5 General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
D6 Welfare Economics
D7 Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
D8 Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
D9 Intertemporal Choice
E1 General Aggregative Models
E2 Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy
E3 Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
E4 Money and Interest Rates
E5 Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
E6 Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
F2 International Factor Movements and International Business
F3 International Finance
F4 Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
F5 International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy
F6 Economic Impacts of Globalization
G1 General Financial Markets
G2 Financial Institutions and Services
G3 Corporate Finance and Governance
H1 Structure and Scope of Government
H2 Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H3 Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
H4 Publicly Provided Goods
H5 National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
H6 National Budget, Deficit, and Debt
H7 State and Local Government • Intergovernmental Relations
H8 Miscellaneous Issues
I2 Education and Research Institutions
I3 Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
J1 Demographic Economics
J2 Demand and Supply of Labor
J3 Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
J4 Particular Labor Markets
J5 Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining
J6 Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
J7 Labor Discrimination
J8 Labor Standards: National and International
K1 Basic Areas of Law
K2 Regulation and Business Law
K3 Other Substantive Areas of Law
K4 Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior
L1 Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
L2 Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
L3 Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise
L4 Antitrust Issues and Policies
L5 Regulation and Industrial Policy
L6 Industry Studies: Manufacturing
L7 Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction
L8 Industry Studies: Services
L9 Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities
M1 Business Administration
M2 Business Economics
M3 Marketing and Advertising
M4 Accounting and Auditing
M5 Personnel Economics
N1 Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics • Industrial Structure • Growth • Fluctuations
N2 Financial Markets and Institutions
N3 Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy
N4 Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation
N5 Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries
N6 Manufacturing and Construction
N7 Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services
N8 Micro-Business History
N9 Regional and Urban History
O1 Economic Development
O2 Development Planning and Policy
O3 Innovation • Research and Development • Technological Change • Intellectual Property Rights
O4 Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
O5 Economywide Country Studies
P1 Capitalist Systems
P2 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies
P3 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
P4 Other Economic Systems
P5 Comparative Economic Systems
Q2 Renewable Resources and Conservation
Q3 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
Q5 Environmental Economics
R1 General Regional Economics
R2 Household Analysis
R3 Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location
R4 Transportation Economics
R5 Regional Government Analysis
Y1 Data: Tables and Charts
Y2 Introductory Material
Y3 Book Reviews (unclassified)
Y4 Dissertations (unclassified)
Y5 Further Reading (unclassified)
Y7 No Author General Discussions
Y8 Related Disciplines
Z1 Cultural Economics • Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology
Z2 Sports Economics
Z3 Tourism Economics
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth. As a discipline, political economy originated in moral philosophy, in the 18th century, to explore the administration of states' wealth, with "political" signifying the Greek word polity and "economy" signifying the Greek word "okonomie". The earliest works of political economy are usually attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay (1694–1774) and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–1781).
In economics, industrial organization or industrial economy is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of firms and markets. Industrial organization adds real-world complications to the perfectly competitive model, complications such as transaction costs, limited information, and barriers to entry of new firms that may be associated with imperfect competition. It analyzes determinants of firm and market organization and behavior as between competition and monopoly, including from government actions.
The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage. Comparative advantage is the economic reality describing the work gains from trade for individuals, firms, or nations, which arise from differences in their factor endowments or technological progress. In an economic model, agents have a comparative advantage over others in producing a particular good if they can produce that good at a lower relative opportunity cost or autarky price, i.e. at a lower relative marginal cost prior to trade. One shouldn't compare the monetary costs of production or even the resource costs of production. Instead, one must compare the opportunity costs of producing goods across countries.
New Keynesian economics is a school of contemporary macroeconomics that strives to provide microeconomic foundations for Keynesian economics. It developed partly as a response to criticisms of Keynesian macroeconomics by adherents of new classical macroeconomics.
This aims to be a complete article list of economics topics:
Price elasticity of demand is a measure used in economics to show the responsiveness, or elasticity, of the quantity demanded of a good or service to a change in its price when nothing but the price changes. More precisely, it gives the percentage change in quantity demanded in response to a one percent change in price.
In economics, a production function gives the technological relation between quantities of physical inputs and quantities of output of goods. The production function is one of the key concepts of mainstream neoclassical theories, used to define marginal product and to distinguish allocative efficiency, a key focus of economics. One important purpose of the production function is to address allocative efficiency in the use of factor inputs in production and the resulting distribution of income to those factors, while abstracting away from the technological problems of achieving technical efficiency, as an engineer or professional manager might understand it.
Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics. Some of its application to the study of financial markets has also been termed statistical finance referring to its roots in statistical physics. Econophysics is closely related to social physics.
In inventory management, economic order quantity (EOQ) is the order quantity that minimizes the total holding costs and ordering costs. It is one of the oldest classical production scheduling models. The model was developed by Ford W. Harris in 1913, but R. H. Wilson, a consultant who applied it extensively, and K. Andler are given credit for their in-depth analysis.
Personnel economics has been defined as "the application of economic and mathematical approaches and econometric and statistical methods to traditional questions in human resources management". It is an area of applied micro labor economics, but there are a few key distinctions. One distinction, not always clearcut, is that studies in personnel economics deal with the personnel management within firms, and thus internal labor markets, while those in labor economics deal with labor markets as such, whether external or internal. In addition, personnel economics deals with issues related to both managerial-supervisory and non-supervisory workers.
The Solow–Swan model is an economic model of long-run economic growth set within the framework of neoclassical economics. It attempts to explain long-run economic growth by looking at capital accumulation, labor or population growth, and increases in productivity, commonly referred to as technological progress. At its core is a neoclassical (aggregate) production function, often specified to be of Cobb–Douglas type, which enables the model "to make contact with microeconomics". The model was developed independently by Robert Solow and Trevor Swan in 1956, and superseded the Keynesian Harrod–Domar model.
Sir David Forbes Hendry, FBA CStat is a British econometrician, currently a professor of economics and from 2001–2007 was head of the Economics Department at the University of Oxford. He is also a professorial fellow at Nuffield College, Oxford.
In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production. In general theory and the national income and product accounts, each unit of output corresponds to a unit of income. One use of national accounts is for classifying factor incomes and measuring their respective shares, as in national Income. But, where focus is on income of persons or households, adjustments to the national accounts or other data sources are frequently used. Here, interest is often on the fraction of income going to the top x percent of households, the next x percent, and so forth, and on the factors that might affect them.
Public economics is the study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity. Public economics builds on the theory of welfare economics and is ultimately used as a tool to improve social welfare.
Mathematical economics is the application of mathematical methods to represent theories and analyze problems in economics. By convention, these applied methods are beyond simple geometry, such as differential and integral calculus, difference and differential equations, matrix algebra, mathematical programming, and other computational methods. Proponents of this approach claim that it allows the formulation of theoretical relationships with rigor, generality, and simplicity.
Demographic economics or population economics is the application of economic analysis to demography, the study of human populations, including size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.
Colm Kearney (1954–2018) was an Irish economist and academic, who was dean of the Faculty of Business and Economics at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, until 2017, shortly before his death on 28 March 2018.
Andrew Donald Roy, shortened A. D. Roy, was a British economist who is known for the Roy model of self-selection and income distribution and Roy's safety-first criterion.
This glossary of economics is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in economics, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.