List of heads of state of Greece

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This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Greek state, from its establishment during the Greek Revolution to the present day.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

History of modern Greece Wikimedia history article

The history of modern Greece covers the history of Greece from the recognition of its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire by the Great Powers in 1828, after the Greek War of Independence, to the present day.

Greek War of Independence war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries

The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution, was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830. The Greeks were later assisted by the Russian Empire, Great Britain, and the Kingdom of France, while the Ottomans were aided by their North African vassals, the eyalets of Egypt, Algeria, and Tripolitania, and the Beylik of Tunis.

Contents

First Hellenic Republic (1822–1832)

Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–1827)

Head of StateTerm of officeTitle
PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Took officeLeft officeTime in office
1 Mavrokordatos1.jpg Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
(1791–1865)
13 January 182210 May 18231 year, 117 days President of the Executive
2 Petrobey Mavromichalis1.jpg Petrobey Mavromichalis
Πέτρομπεης Μαυρομιχάλης
(1765–1848)
10 May 182331 December 1823235 days President of the Executive
3 GevrgiosKoyntoyrivths.jpg Georgios Kountouriotis
Γεώργιος Κουντουριώτης
(1782–1858)
31 December 182326 April 18262 years, 116 days President of the Executive
4 AνδρέαςΖαΐμης.jpg Andreas Zaimis
Ανδρέας Ζαΐμης
(1791–1840)
26 April 182614 April 1827353 days President of the Government Commission

Hellenic State (1827–1832)

GovernorTerm of officePolitical party
PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Took officeLeft officeTime in office
1 Kapodistrias2.jpg Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας
(1776–1831)
14 April 18279 October 1831
(Assassinated)
4 years, 178 days Russian Party
2 Avgoustinos Kapodistrias.jpg Augustinos Kapodistrias
Αυγουστίνος Καποδίστριας
(1778–1857)
9 October 183123 March 1832
(Resigned)
166 days Russian Party

Governing Councils (1832–1833)

Following the resignation of Augustinos Kapodistrias, a series of collective governing councils were established, but their authority was often only nominal.

Governing CouncilTerm of officeMembers
Took officeLeft officeTime in office
1First Governing Council9 April 183214 April 18325 days Theodoros Kolokotronis
Andreas Zaimis
Ioannis Kolettis
Andreas Metaxas
Vasilios Boudouris
2Second Governing Council14 April 18323 October 1832172 days Georgios Kountouriotis
Ioannis Kolettis
Andreas Metaxas
Andreas Zaimis
Dimitrios Plapoutas
Dimitrios Ypsilantis
Konstantinos Botsaris
(from 25 April 1832)
3Third Governing Council3 October 18326 February 1833126 days Andreas Zaimis
Andreas Metaxas
Ioannis Kolettis

Kingdom of Greece (1832–1924)

House of Wittelsbach (1832–1862)

The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece. Negotiations between the three Great Powers (United Kingdom, France and Russia) resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece under a Bavarian Prince. The decisions were ratified in the Treaty of Constantinople later that year.

The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece. Negotiations between the three Great Powers resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece under a Bavarian Prince. The decisions were ratified in the Treaty of Constantinople later that year. The treaty followed the Akkerman Convention which had previously recognized another territorial change in the Balkans, the suzerainty of Principality of Serbia.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1927

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

July Monarchy kingdom governing France, 1830-1848

The July Monarchy was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It marks the end of the Bourbon Restoration (1814–1830). It began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X, the last king of the House of Bourbon.

The convention offered the throne to the Bavarian Prince, Otto. They also established the line of succession which would pass the crown to Otto's descendants, or his younger brothers should he have no issue. It was also decided that in no case there would be a personal union of the crowns of Greece and Bavaria. Otto went on to rule Greece until he was exiled in the 23 October 1862 Revolution.

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing some limited governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.

The 23 October 1862 Revolution was a popular insurrection which led to the overthrow of King Otto of Greece. Starting on 18 October in Vonitsa, it soon spread to other cities and reached Athens on 22 October.

KingReignClaim
PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Reign startReign endTime in office
1 Otto of Greece.jpg Otto
Όθων
(1815–1867)
27 May 1832
[1]
23 October 1862
(Deposed)
30 years, 149 daysAscended to the throne following the 1832 London Conference

House of Glücksburg (1863–1924)

In October 1862, King Otto was deposed in a popular revolt, but while the Greek people rejected Otto, they did not seem averse to the concept of monarchy per se. Many Greeks, seeking closer ties to the pre-eminent world power, Great Britain, rallied around the idea that Prince Alfred, the second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, could become the next King. British Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston believed that the Greeks were "panting for increase in territory", hoping that the election of Alfred as King would also result in the incorporation of the Ionian Islands, which were then a British protectorate, into an enlarged Greek state.

Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Alfred reigned as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1893 to 1900. He was the second son and fourth child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was known as the Duke of Edinburgh from 1866 until he succeeded his paternal uncle Ernest II as the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in the German Empire.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Albert, Prince Consort husband of Queen Victoria

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria.

The London Conference of 1832, however, had prohibited any of the Great Powers' ruling families from accepting the crown of Greece, and in any event, Queen Victoria was adamantly opposed to the idea. Nevertheless, the Greeks insisted on holding a referendum on the issue of the head of state in November 1862. It was the first referendum ever held in Greece.

Prince Alfred turned down the Kingship and Prince William of Denmark, son of Prince Christian of Denmark, was elected by the National Assembly to become King George I of the Hellenes.

George I of Greece King of Greece from 1863 to 1913

George I was King of Greece from 1863 until his assassination in 1913.

Christian IX of Denmark King of Denmark

Christian IX was King of Denmark from 1863 until his death in 1906. From 1863 to 1864, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg.

  Denotes Regent
KingReignClaim
PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Reign startReign endTime in office
2 King George of Hellenes.jpg George I
Γεώργιος A΄
(1845–1913)
30 March 186318 March 1913
(Assassinated)
49 years, 353 daysAscended to the throne following the 19 November 1862 referendum
3 Constantine I of Greece (1914).jpg Constantine I
Κωνσταντίνος A΄
(1868–1923)
18 March 191311 June 1917
(Abdicated)
4 years, 90 daysSon of George I
4 King Alexander of Greece.jpg Alexander
Αλέξανδρος
(1893–1920)
11 June 191725 October 19203 years, 136 daysSecond son of Constantine I
AlmiranteCoundouritis--inheartofgermani00vaka.jpg Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis
Παύλος Κουντουριώτης
(1855–1935)
28 October 192017 November 1920
(Resigned)
20 daysRegent
Queen Olga of Greece.jpg Queen Olga
Βασίλισσα Όλγα
(1851–1926)
17 November 192019 December 192032 daysRegent
Widow of George I
Mother of Constantine I
(3) Constantine I of Greece (1914).jpg Constantine I
Κωνσταντίνος A΄
(1868–1923)
19 December 192027 September 1922
(Abdicated)
1 year, 282 daysRestored to the throne following the 22 November 1920 referendum
5 Georgeiiofgreece.jpg George II
Γεώργιος Β΄
(1890–1947)
27 September 192225 March 1924
(Deposed)
1 year, 180 daysEldest son of Constantine I

Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)

The Second Hellenic Republic was a parliamentary republic which was proclaimed on 25 March 1924 and a referendum was held to abolish the Monarchy. The Second Republic was abolished after the 1935 monarchy referendum.

Status
  Denotes Acting President
PresidentTerm of officePolitical party
PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
ElectionTook officeLeft officeTime in office
1 AlmiranteCoundouritis--inheartofgermani00vaka.jpg Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis
Παύλος Κουντουριώτης
(1855–1935)
1924 25 March 19246 April 1926
(Resigned)
2 years, 12 days Military
2 Major General Theodoros Pangalos, 1920.jpg Lt. General Theodoros Pangalos
Θεόδωρος Πάγκαλος
(1878–1952)
6 April 192618 April 1926138 days Military
1926 18 April 192622 August 1926
(Deposed)
(1) AlmiranteCoundouritis--inheartofgermani00vaka.jpg Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis
Παύλος Κουντουριώτης
(1855–1935)
22 August 192624 August 19263 years, 108 days Military
24 August 192610 December 1929
(Resigned)
3 Alexandros Zaimis.jpg Alexandros Zaimis
Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης
(1855–1936)
10 December 192914 December 19295 years, 304 days Independent
1929
1933
14 December 192910 October 1935
(Deposed)

Kingdom of Greece (1935–1973)

House of Glücksburg (1935–1973)

  Denotes Regent
KingReignClaim
PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Reign startReign endTime in office
Georgios Kondylis.jpg Lt. General Georgios Kondylis
Γεώργιος Κονδύλης
(1878–1936)
10 October 193525 November 193546 daysRegent
(Took power in the 10 October 1935 coup, abolished the republic, and declared himself regent)
(5) Georgeiiofgreece.jpg George II
Γεώργιος Β΄
(1890–1947)
25 November 19351 April 194711 years, 127 daysRestored to the throne following the 3 November 1935 referendum
6 Paul I of Greece.jpg Paul
Παύλος
(1901–1964)
1 April 19476 March 196416 years, 340 daysThird son of Constantine I
Brother of George II
7 King Constantine.jpg Constantine II
Κωνσταντίνος Β΄
(born 1940)
6 March 19641 June 1973
(Deposed)
9 years, 87 daysSon of Paul
No image.png Lt. General Georgios Zoitakis
Γεώργιος Ζωιτάκης
(1910–1996)
13 December 196721 March 19724 years, 99 daysRegent
For Constantine II
(Appointed by the military junta following the failed royal counter-coup of 13 December 1967 and the King's flight to Italy)
No image.png Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos
Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος
(1919–1999)
21 March 197231 May 19731 year, 71 daysRegent
For Constantine II
(Strongman of the military junta, declared himself regent)

Republic under the Military Junta (1973–1974)

On 1 June 1973 the junta abolished the monarchy and replaced it with a presidential republic. The abolition of the monarchy was approved by a rigged referendum held on 29 July 1973.

PresidentTerm of officePolitical party
PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Took officeLeft officeTime in office
1 No image.png Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos
Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος
(1919–1999)
1 June 197325 November 1973
(Deposed)
177 days Military
2 No image.png Lt. General Phaedon Gizikis
Φαίδων Γκιζίκης
(1917–1999)
25 November 197317 December 19741 year, 22 days Military

Third Hellenic Republic (1974–present)

In 1974, the military junta was overthrown and democracy restored. A second referendum, held on 8 December 1974, confirmed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the current parliamentary republic, with the President of the Republic as the head of state.

Status
  Denotes Acting President
PresidentTerm of officePolitical party
PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
ElectionTook officeLeft officeTime in office
1 No image.png Michail Stasinopoulos
Μιχαήλ Στασινόπουλος
(1903–2002)
1974 18 December 197419 July 1975213 days New Democracy
2 Konstantinos Tsatsos.JPG Konstantinos Tsatsos
Κωνσταντίνος Τσάτσος
(1899–1987)
1975 19 July 197510 May 19804 years, 296 days New Democracy
3 KaramanlisNatsinasAgora crop.jpg Konstantinos Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής
(1907–1998)
1980 10 May 198010 March 1985
(Resigned)
4 years, 304 days New Democracy
Ioannis Alevras.jpg Ioannis Alevras
Ιωάννης Αλευράς
(1912–1995)
10 March 198530 March 198520 days PASOK
4 Christos Sartzetakis (1989) cropped.jpg Christos Sartzetakis
Χρήστος Σαρτζετάκης
(born 1929)
1985 30 March 19854 May 19905 years, 35 days Independent
(3) KaramanlisNatsinasAgora crop.jpg Konstantinos Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής
(1907–1998)
1990 5 May 199010 March 19954 years, 310 days New Democracy
5 Konstantinos Stefanopoulos 2000.jpg Konstantinos Stephanopoulos
Κωνσταντίνος Στεφανόπουλος
(1926–2016)
1995
2000
10 March 199512 March 200510 years, 2 days New Democracy
6 Karolos Papoulias.jpg Karolos Papoulias
Κάρολος Παπούλιας
(born 1929)
2005
2010
12 March 200513 March 201510 years, 1 day PASOK
7 Prokopis Pavlopoulos 2016-01-15.jpg Prokopis Pavlopoulos
Προκόπης Παυλόπουλος
(born 1950)
2014–15 13 March 2015Incumbent3 years, 340 days New Democracy

Living former heads of state

There are two living former Greek Presidents and one living former King of the Hellenes:

Head of state titles

StateYearsTitle
First Hellenic Republic 1827–1832Governor
Kingdom of Greece
(Under Wittelsbach dynasty)
1832–1862King of Greece
Kingdom of Greece
(Under Glücksburg dynasty)
1863–1924King of the Hellenes
Second Hellenic Republic 1924–1935President of the Republic
Kingdom of Greece
(Restored Glücksburg dynasty)
1935–1973King of the Hellenes
Hellenic Republic
(Military Junta)
1973–1974President of the Republic
Third Hellenic Republic 1974–presentPresident of the Republic

See also

Notes

  1. Protocol signed in 1832 but landed in Greece on 6 February 1833.

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