This is a list of Chinese poems in the broad sense of referring to those poems which have been written in Chinese, translated from Chinese, authored by a Chinese poet, or which have a Chinese geographic origin. Chinese poems are poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. The various versions of Chinese include Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese and other historical and vernacular types. In other words, Chinese poetry refers to poetry written or spoken in the Chinese language. The various versions of Chinese poetry, as known historically and to the general knowledge of the modern world, include two primary types, Classical Chinese poetry and modern Chinese poetry .
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese. Classical Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese that evolved from the classical language, making it different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. Literary Chinese was used for almost all formal writing in China until the early 20th century, and also, during various periods, in Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Among Chinese speakers, Literary Chinese has been largely replaced by written vernacular Chinese, a style of writing that is similar to modern spoken Mandarin Chinese, while speakers of non-Chinese languages have largely abandoned Literary Chinese in favor of local vernaculars.
This is a list of poems written in China, in Chinese, or by Chinese authors appearing in Wikipedia. The list is variously sortable by clicking on the radio buttons (up-and-down arrows/triangles) in the column-headers.
|Title or descriptive name||Author||Poetic era (Chinese)||Dates||Chinese poetry collection||Chinese||Pinyin|
|"Alas That My Lot Was Not Cast"||Zhuang Ji (or, Yan Ji)||Ancient||Late BCE - Early AD||Chu ci||哀時命||Āi shí mìng|
|"Bu Ju"||Uncertain||Ancient||Late BCE - Early AD||Chu ci||卜居||Bǔ Jū|
|"Changsha (poem)"||Mao Zedong||Modern Chinese poetry||1925||Various||長沙||Chángshā|
|"Dandan youqing"||Teresa Teng||Modern musical recording, based on classical originals||Modern||1983||淡淡幽情||Dàndàn yōuqíng|
|"The Double Ninth"||Mao Zedong||Modern Chinese poetry||1929||Various|
|"Epic of Darkness"||Traditional folk epic, translated by Hu Chongjun into modern Chinese||Tang dynasty or earlier/Modern Chinese poetry||original dates unknown/translation begun 1982||黑暗傳||Hēi Àn Zhuàn|
|"Wo Bau-Sae"||Anonymous||Ming dynasty, or later||华抱山|
|"Guan ju"||anonymous||Ancient||Seventh century BCE?||Shijing||關雎||Guān jū|
|"Heavenly Questions"||Anonymous||Ancient||Chu Ci||天問||Tiānwèn|
|"Ballad of Hua Mulan"||Anonymous||Associated with Music Bureau||木蘭辭||Mùlán cí|
|"Jiu Ge", or Nine Songs||Uncertain||Ancient||Chu Ci||九歌||Jiǔ Gē|
|"Jiu Zhang", or Nine Pieces||Uncertain||Ancient||Chu Ci||九章|
|"Ju Song", or "In Praise of the Orange-Tree"||Anonymous||Ancient||Chu Ci ( Jiu Zhang section)||橘頌||Jú sòng|
|"Lament for Ying", or "Ai Ying"||Uncertain||Ancient||Chuci||哀郢||āi Yǐng|
|"Li Sao"||Qu Yuan||Ancient||Chu Ci||離騷||Lí Sāo|
|"Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den"||Yuen Ren Chao||Modern Chinese poetry||施氏食獅史||Shī Shì shí shī shǐ|
|"Listening to Louis Chen's Zither"||Wong Kwok Pun||Modern Chinese poetry||聽陳蕾士的琴箏|
|"Looking up at the Starry Sky"||Wen Jiabao||Modern Chinese poetry||仰望星空||yǎng wàng xīng kōng|
|"Loushan Pass"||Mao Zedong||Modern Chinese poetry||1935||Various|
|"Man Jiang Hong"||uncertain||Song poetry or subsequent||滿江紅||Mǎn Jīang Hóng|
|Poetry of Mao Zedong||Mao Zedong||Modern Chinese poetry||mid-20th century||various|
|"Nine Changes", or Jiu bian||Uncertain, attributed to Song Yu||Ancient||Chu Ci||九辯||Jiǔ biàn|
|"Nine Laments", or Jiu Tan||Uncertain, attributed to Liu Xiang||Ancient||Chu Ci||九歎||Jiǔ tàn|
|"Nine Longings", or Jiu Si||Wang Yi||Ancient||Chu Ci||九思||Jiǔ sī;|
|"Nine Regrets", or Jiu Huai||Uncertain, attributed to Wang Bao||Ancient||Chu Ci||九懷||Jiǔ huái or Jiǔ Huái|
|Poetry of Cao Cao||Cao Cao||Jian'an poetry|
|"The Quatrain of Seven Steps"||Cao Zhi||Jian'an poetry||七步詩||Qi1 Bu4 Shi1|
|"Quiet Night Thought"||Li Bai, also known as "Li Bo" and "Li Po"||Tang poetry||Quantangshi, others||靜夜思|
|"Reply to Li Shuyi"||Mao Zedong||Modern Chinese poetry||1957||Mao Tsetung Poems|
|"Return to the Field"||Zhang Heng||Han poetry||歸田賦|
|"Cāntóngqì", or "Sandokai", in Japanese||Shitou Xiqian (Sekitō Kisen)||Tang poetry||參同契||Cāntóngqì|
|"Saying Goodbye to Cambridge Again"||Xu Zhimo||Modern Chinese poetry||1928||再别康橋|
|"Seven Remonstrances", "Seven Admonishments", or Qi Jian||Anonymous||Ancient||Chu Ci||七諫||Qī jiàn|
|"Shui diao ge" or "Shui diao ge tou"||水調歌||Shuǐ diào gē|
|"Song of the Yue Boatman"||anonymous||original version attributed to about 528 BC||Garden of Stories||越人歌||Yuèrén Gē|
|"Sorrow for Troth Betrayed"||Anonymous, with attributions||Ancient||Chu Ci||惜誓||Xī shì|
|"Summons for a Recluse"||Anonymous||Ancient||Chu Ci||招隱士||Zhāo yǐnshì|
|For "Tianwen", see "Heavenly Questions"|
|"The Great Summons"||unknown||Ancient||Chu Ci||大招||Dà zhāo|
|"Yellow Crane Tower"||Several authors wrote poems under this title||various||黄鹤楼||Huáng Hè Lóu|
|"Yu Fu", or "The Fisher"||Anonymous, with attributions||Ancient||Chu Ci||漁父||yú fù|
|"Yuan You", or "Far-off Journey (Roaming)"||Anonymous, with attributions||Ancient||Chu Ci||遠遊||Yuǎnyóu|
|"Zhao Hun", or "Summons of the Soul"||Anonymous, with attributions||Ancient||Chu Ci||招魂||Zhāo Hún|
|"Zuiweng Tingji"||Ouyang Xiu||Song poetry||various||醉翁亭記||Zùiwēng Tíng Jì|
Classical Chinese poetry is traditional Chinese poetry written in Classical Chinese and typified by certain traditional forms, or modes; traditional genres; and connections with particular historical periods, such as the poetry of the Tang Dynasty. Its existence was documented at least as early as the publication of the Classic of Poetry. Various combinations of forms and genres exist. Many or most of these were developed by the end of the Tang Dynasty, in 907 CE.
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture. Early "stone age art" dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. After this early period Chinese art, like Chinese history, is typically classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Chinese emperors, most of which lasted several hundred years.
Shi and shih are romanizations of the character 詩 or 诗, the Chinese word for all poetry generally and across all languages.
Han poetry as a style of poetry resulted in significant poems which are still preserved today, and which have their origin associated with the Han dynasty era of China, 206 BC – 220 AD, including the Wang Mang interregnum. The final years at the end of the Han era often receive special handling for purposes of literary analysis because, among other things, the poetry and culture of this period is less than typical of the Han period, and has important characteristics of its own, or it shares literary aspects with the subsequent Three Kingdoms period. This poetry reflects one of the poetry world's more important flowerings, as well as being a special period in Classical Chinese poetry, particularly in regard to the development of the quasipoetic fu; the activities of the Music Bureau in connection with the collection of popular ballads and the resultant development of what would eventually become known as the yuefu, or as the rhapsodic formal style; and, finally, towards the end of the Han Dynasty, the development of a new style of shi poetry, as the later development of the yuehfu into regular, fixed-line length forms makes it difficult to distinguish in form from the shi form of poetic verse, and at what point specific poems are classified as one or the other is somewhat arbitrary. Another important poetic contribution from the Han era is the compilation of the Chuci anthology, which contains some of the oldest and most important poetic verses to be preserved from ancient China, as well as the transmission of the Shijing anthology.
Jian'an poetry, or Chien'an poetry (建安風骨), refers to those styles of poetry particularly associated with the end of the Han dynasty and the beginning of the Six Dynasties era of China. This poetry category is particularly important because, in the case of the Jian'an poetic developments, there is a special difficulty in matching the chronology of changes in poetry with the usual Chinese dynastic chronology based on the political leadership of the times. For example, according to Burton Watson, the first major poet of the new shi style that emerged at this time was Cao Zhi, one of the sons of Cao Cao, a family which came into power at the end of Han and developed further during the Three Kingdoms era of the Six Dynasties period.
Six Dynasties poetry refers to those types or styles of poetry particularly associated with the Six Dynasties era of China. This poetry reflects one of the poetry world's more important flowerings, as well as being a unique period in Classical Chinese poetry, which, over this time period, developed a poetry with special emphasis on romantic love, gender roles, and human relationships. The Six Dynasties era is sometimes known as the "Age of Fragmentation", because China as a whole through this period lacked unification as a state, at least for any extended period of time; and, instead, many states rose and fell, often overlapping in existence with other states. Which of the various states and dynasties constituted the "6" dynasties of the Six Dynasties period varies somewhat according to which of the traditional selection criteria is chosen. The Six Dynasties era covers several somewhat overlapping main periods including all of the following: the Three Kingdoms (220–280), Jin dynasty, the Sixteen Kingdoms, and the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589). Sometimes, chronological discrepancies occur in regard to the turbulent political events of the time, from which these traditional historical-era designations derive, together with the somewhat different chronology of poetic developments. Thus, neither the lives of the poets nor the trends in their poetry fit gently and neatly together with these period dates. Furthermore, conversions to the Common Era dating system can create further complications. However, regardless of the chronological difficulties, major developments of poetry during the Six Dynasties include formalizing the distinction between the Jian'an era regular yuefu and the shi style poetry, further development of the fu, theoretical work on technique, and the preservation of both Six Dynasties and earlier poetry by collecting and publishing many of the pieces which survive today into various anthologies consisting all or in part of poetry.
Gao Bing flourished during the newly established Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) as an author and poetry theorist. Gao Bing collected and arranged Tang poetry-era poems and wrote commentary material upon them in a work published as the Graded Compendium of Tang Poetry, a seminal work using prosodic principles in a systematic method to classify poetry by Classical Chinese poetry forms. It contained 5,769 poems by 620 poets, along with notes and commentary. The Tangshi Pinhui aimed in part to correct what Gao Bing saw as lacking in previous works, particularly those of Song critic Yan Yu and Yuan critic Yang Shihong. Other works would later build upon the Tangshi Pinhui system which would later greatly influence the perception of Chinese poetry: in part because of Gao Bing's explicit nine-rank grading system, by which he evaluated the works of poets such as Du Fu, Li Bai, and Wang Wei.
"Li Sao" is a Chinese poem dating from the Warring States period of ancient China. The early poetic tradition of China survives mainly through two anthologies, one being the Chuci, the other being the formally distinct Classic of Poetry. The poem "Li Sao" is the lead poem and the main inspiration for the Chuci collection. This famous piece was written by the person generally known as Qu Yuan, an aristocrat of the Kingdom of Chu, who died about 278 BCE. In his signature poem "Li Sao", Qu Yuan manifests himself in a poetic character, which is a major landmark in the tradition of Classical Chinese poetry, contrasting with the anonymous poetic voices encountered in the Shijing and the other early poems which exist as preserved in the form of incidental incorporations into various documents of ancient miscellany. The rest of the Chuci anthology is centered on the "Li Sao", the purported biography of its author Qu Yuan, and often its innovative epic poetic lines. In the "Li Sao", the poet despairs that he has been plotted against by evil factions at court with his resulting rejection by his lord and then recounts a series of shamanistic spirit journeys to various mythological realms, engaging or attempting to engage with a variety of divine or spiritual beings, with the theme of the righteous minister unfairly rejected sometimes becoming exaggerated in the long history of later literary criticism and allegorical interpretation. Dating from the time of King Huai of Chu, in the late third century BCE, the poem "Li Sao" is a remarkable example of Chinese poetry.
New Songs from the Jade Terrace is an anthology of early medieval Chinese poetry in the romantic or semi-erotic "palace style" that dates to the late Southern dynasties period (420–589). Most editions of New Songs contain 670 poems by many different authors, mainly comprising pentasyllabic poetry but also some yuefu lyrical verse and other types of poems. New Songs was probably compiled around the early to mid-530s by Xu Ling, an official and scholar who served at the court of Xiao Gang, a crown prince of the Liang dynasty (502–587) who later ascended the throne as Emperor Jianwen of Liang.
Cao Cao (155–220) was a warlord who rose to power towards the final years of the Eastern Han Dynasty and became the de facto head of government in China. He laid the foundation for what was to become the state of Cao Wei (220–265), founded by his son and successor Cao Pi, in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). Poetry, among other things, was one of his cultural legacies.
Du Fu was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty. Along with Li Bai, he is frequently called the greatest of the Chinese poets. His greatest ambition was to serve his country as a successful civil servant, but he proved unable to make the necessary accommodations. His life, like the whole country, was devastated by the An Lushan Rebellion of 755, and his last 15 years were a time of almost constant unrest.
Leung Ping-kwan, whose pen name was Yesi, was a Hong Kong poet, novelist, essayist, translator, teacher, and scholar who received the Hong Kong Medal of Honor (MH) and was an important long-time cultural figure in Hong Kong.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. The introduction of widespread woodblock printing during the Tang dynasty (618–907) and the invention of movable type printing by Bi Sheng (990–1051) during the Song dynasty (960–1279) rapidly spread written knowledge throughout China. In more modern times, the author Lu Xun (1881–1936) is considered the founder of baihua literature in China.
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. While this last term comprises Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Yue Chinese, and other historical and vernacular forms of the language, its poetry generally falls into one of two primary types, Classical Chinese poetry and Modern Chinese poetry.
Qu Yuan was a Chinese poet and minister who lived during the Warring States period of ancient China. He is known for his patriotism and contributions to classical poetry and verses, especially through the poems of the Chu Ci anthology : a volume of poems attributed to or considered to be inspired by his verse writing. Together with the Shi Jing, the Chu Ci is one of the two greatest collections of ancient Chinese verse. He is also remembered in connection to the supposed origin of the Dragon Boat Festival.
Cí is a type of lyric poetry in the tradition of Classical Chinese poetry. Cí use a set of poetic meters derived from a base set of certain patterns, in fixed-rhythm, fixed-tone, and variable line-length formal types, or model examples. The rhythmic and tonal pattern of the ci are based upon certain, definitive musical song tunes. They are also known as Changduanju and Shiyu.
Yuefu are Chinese poems composed in a folk song style. The term originally literally meant "Music Bureau", a reference to the imperial Chinese governmental organization(s) originally charged with collecting or writing the lyrics, later the term yuefu was applied to later literary imitations or adaptations of the Music Bureau's poems. The use of fu in yuefu is different from the other Chinese term fu that refers to a type of poetry or literature: although homonyms in English, the other fu is a rhapsodic poetry/prose form of literature.
The Chu Ci, variously translated as Verses of Chu or Songs of Chu, is an anthology of Chinese poetry traditionally attributed mainly to Qu Yuan and Song Yu from the Warring States period, though about half of the poems seem to have been composed several centuries later, during the Han dynasty. The traditional version of the Chu Ci contains 17 major sections, anthologized with its current contents by Wang Yi, a 2nd-century AD librarian who served under Emperor Shun of Han. The early Classical Chinese poetry is mainly known through the two anthologies, the Chu Ci and the Shi Jing.
The Qu form of poetry is a type of Classical Chinese poetry form, consisting of words written in one of a number of certain, set tone patterns, based upon the tunes of various songs. Thus Qu poems are lyrics with lines of varying longer and shorter lengths, set according to the certain and specific, fixed patterns of rhyme and tone of conventional musical pieces upon which they are based and after which these matched variations in lyrics generally take their name. The fixed-tone type of verse such as the Qu and the ci together with the shi and fu forms of poetry comprise the three main forms of Classical Chinese poetry.
The arts of China have varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods by the ruling dynasties of China and changing technology, but still containing a high degree of continuity. Different forms of art have been influenced by great philosophers, teachers, religious figures and even political leaders. The arrival of Buddhism and modern Western influence produced especially large changes. Chinese art encompasses fine arts, folk arts and performance arts.
Du Fu Thatched Cottage is a 24-acre (97,000 m2) park and museum in honour of the Tang dynasty poet Du Fu at the western outskirts of Chengdu, adjacent to the Huanhua Xi. In 1961 the Chinese government established Du Fu Thatched Cottage as a National Heritage site.
Jueju, or Chinese quatrain, is a type of jintishi that grew popular among Chinese poets in the Tang Dynasty (618–907), although traceable to earlier origins. Jueju poems are always quatrains; or, more specifically, a matched pair of couplets, with each line consisting of five or seven syllables.
Song poetry refers to Classical Chinese poetry of or typical of the Song dynasty of China (960–1279). The dynasty was established by the Zhao family in China in 960 and lasted until 1279.
Classical Chinese poetry forms are those poetry forms, or modes which typify the traditional Chinese poems written in Literary Chinese or Classical Chinese. Classical Chinese poetry has various characteristic forms, some attested to as early as the publication of the Classic of Poetry, dating from a traditionally, and roughly, estimated time of around 10th–7th century BC. The term "forms" refers to various formal and technical aspects applied to poems: this includes such poetic characteristics as meter, rhythm, and other considerations such as vocabulary and style. These forms and modes are generally, but not invariably, independent of the Classical Chinese poetry genres. Many or most of these were developed by the time of the Tang Dynasty, and the use and development of Classical Chinese poetry and genres actively continued up to until the May Fourth Movement, and still continues even today in the 21st century.
Classical Chinese poetry genres are those genres which typify the traditional Chinese poems written in Classical Chinese. Some of these genres are attested to as early as the publication of the Classic of Poetry, dating from a traditionally, and roughly, estimated time of around 10th–7th century BCE, in what is now China, but at that time was composed of various independent states. The term "genres" refers to various aspects, such as to topic, theme, and subject matter, what similes or metaphors were considered appropriate or how they would be interpreted, and other considerations such as vocabulary and style. These genres were generally, but not always independent of the Classical Chinese poetry forms. Many or most of these forms and genres were developed by the Tang Dynasty, and the use and development of Classical Chinese poetry genres actively continued up to until the May Fourth Movement, in 1919, and still continues even today in the 21st century.
Yuan poetry refers to those types or styles of poetry particularly associated with the era of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), in China. Although the poetic forms of past literature were continued, the Yuan period is particularly known for the development of the poetic aspects included in the complex mix of different art forms which characterize Chinese opera, namely the qu or fixed-tone pattern type of verses that were delivered by the actors of these shows. Although the language of Yuan poetry is still generally considered to be Classical Chinese, a certain vernacular aspect reflecting linguistic changes can be seen in some of the fixed-rhythm verse forms, such as Yuan ci and qu. Certain aspects of Yuan poetry can be understood in the context of the social and political changes which took place as part of the process of the Mongol conquest of the Jin and Song Dynasties and their subsequent establishment of the Yuan dynasty.
Xiaoxiang poetry is one of the Classical Chinese poetry genres, one which has been practiced for over a thousand years. It is a poetry of scenic wonders, a poetry of officials exiled for their views and beliefs, and a poetry of dissent against submitting to government control. Xiaoxiang poetry is geographically associated with the Xiaoxiang region, around and south of Dongting Lake. The Xiaoxiang genre of literature is often associated with similarly themed Chinese calligraphy and Chinese painting. Famous poets in this genre include Qu Yuan, Song Yu, Jia Yi, Wang Yi, Yu Xin, Shen Quanqi, Zhang Yue, Li Bai, Du Fu, Han Yu, Liu Zongyuan, and Su Shi.
Sunflower Splendor: Three Thousand Years of Chinese Poetry is an anthology of around 1,000 Chinese poems translated into English, edited by Wu-chi Liu and Irving Yucheng Lo and published in 1975 by Anchor Press/Doubleday. Wu-chi Liu served as the anthology's senior editor. As of 2002 the book had been widely used in Asian literature studies. In 2002 Stacy Finz of the San Francisco Chronicle wrote that the book "was a best-seller".