|Tugu Peringatan Perang Borneo Utara|
|Dedicated to||Those fallen British soldiers during World War I and Australian soldiers during World War II|
The North Borneo War Monument (Malay : Tugu Peringatan Perang Borneo Utara) is a monument that was erected on 8 May 1923 by the North Borneo Chartered Company in Bond Street, Jesselton, British North Borneo. Originally, it was a memorial for the fallen British soldiers during the World War I but later extended to include the Australian soldiers in World War II. The monument stands today in the city park of Kota Kinabalu, the capital of the Malaysian state of Sabah.
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. A language of the Malays, it is spoken by 290 million people across the Strait of Malacca, including the coasts of the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia and the eastern coast of Sumatra in Indonesia and has been established as a native language of part of western coastal Sarawak and West Kalimantan in Borneo. It is also used as a trading language in the southern Philippines, including the southern parts of the Zamboanga Peninsula, the Sulu Archipelago and the southern predominantly Muslim-inhabited municipalities of Bataraza and Balabac in Palawan.
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance. Examples of monuments include statues, (war) memorials, historical buildings, archaeological sites, and cultural assets. If there is a public interest in its preservation, a monument can for example be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
The monument was originally erected in Bond Street (now Gaya Street). Due to the shifting of the KK City Park in the 1970s, the monument had undergone changes in form and height. In addition, the bronze plaque on the obelisk and a plaque at the site of previous gun were extended.
The monument originally consisted of an approximately 2.5-metre-high (8.2 ft) obelisk of granite and a cannon that were placed each on their own narrow rectangular base with semicircular ends. Both bases were mounted on a second common base.
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top. These were originally called tekhenu by their builders, the Ancient Egyptians. The Greeks who saw them used the Greek term 'obeliskos' to describe them, and this word passed into Latin and ultimately English. Ancient obelisks are monolithic; that is, they consist of a single stone. Most modern obelisks are made of several stones; some, like the Washington Monument, are buildings.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar.
The shape of the obelisk was not changed, but the original unit of the base plate is no longer given. The canon base was placed about 3 metres from the obelisk, but without a gun. There is now a plaque instead of the gun.
The original decoration included a carved in the stone relief in the form of a laurel wreath with the inscription, To The Glorious Dead 1914–1918 and a marble slab in the second pyramid stone. The marble plaque lists the names of 13 fallen of the First World War to:
ROLL OF HONOUR
On the opposite side of the marble slab (west) was a bronze plaque mounted with the following inscription:
In Memory Of Those Men
The identical text is in gold lettering on a black plate on the earlier cannon base.
On the north side of the obelisk is a memorial plaque to the victims during the time which was Confrontation attached.
The Indonesian–Malaysian confrontation or Borneo confrontation was a violent conflict from 1963–66 that stemmed from Indonesia's opposition to the creation of Malaysia. The creation of Malaysia was the amalgamation of the Federation of Malaya, Singapore and the crown colony/British protectorates of North Borneo and Sarawak in September 1963. Important precursors to the conflict included Indonesia's policy of confrontation against Netherlands New Guinea from March–August 1962 and the Brunei Revolt in December 1962.
As of 8 May 1923 by 10 o'clock in the morning, the ceremony of the inauguration of the monument was held by Major-general Sir Neill Malcolm. The presence of HMS Hawkins and a guard of honour, consisting the members of the Royal Navy, veterans of the First World War and the British North Borneo Armed Constabulary gave the event a military context. Among the guests were the Governor Sir William Rycroft, Admiral Arthur Leveson, the Bishop of Labuan and Sarawak and Ms Stotter. Bishop Danson dedicated the obelisk and made a speech of greetings on behalf from the representatives of the Catholics, Muslims and Sikhs, along with the speech from Sir Neill Malcolm.
Major-General Sir Neill Malcolm, KCB, DSO was a British Army officer who served as Chief of Staff to Fifth Army in the First World War and later commanded the Troops in the Straits Settlements.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.
As a remembering to the former site of the monument in Bond Street, There was an exhibition been held in 2012, with the theme "Bonding with Gaya Street (BGS)".
Perhaps due to the establishment of the De Fontaine Memorial in 1912, the shape of the North Borneo War Memorial was very similar with it.
The Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial Monument located at 89th Street and Riverside Drive in Riverside Park in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, commemorates Union Army soldiers and sailors who served in the American Civil War. It is an enlarged version of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, and was designed by the firm of Stoughton & Stoughton with Paul E. M. DuBoy. The monument was completed in 1902.
The Lim Bo Seng Memorial is a octagonal pagoda-like war memorial at Esplanade Park, Singapore. It was erected in 1954 in honour of the late Lim Bo Seng for his heroic acts and selfless sacrifice during the World War II. The war memorial is the only structure in Singapore that commemorates an individual’s efforts in World War II and was gazetted as a national monument in 28 December 2010.
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The Gibraltar War Memorial is a First World War monument located on Line Wall Road in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. Also known as the British War Memorial, it was sculpted by Jose Piquet Catoli of Spain and unveiled in 1923. Adjacent to the monument on the esplanade built in 1921 are several memorial tablets, as well as two Russian guns from the Crimean War.
Weeping Mother Memorial is a heritage-listed memorial at Hickey Street, Gatton, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by F. Williams & Co and built in 1922 by the same company. The memorial was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
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Cho Huan Lai Memorial or also known as Keningau War Memorial in the Malaysian town of Keningau in Sabah is a monument dedicated to Chinese Consul General Cho Huan Lai and his colleagues who died on 6 July 1945 after being executed by the Japanese.
The De Fontaine Memorial is a monument built by the North Borneo Chartered Company to remember an incident on 12 May 1885 that led to an ambush attack to the North Borneo Armed Constabulary, in which five members of the police force were killed. The monument stands in the village of Kawang in the Malaysian state of Sabah.
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Lewes War Memorial is a war memorial at the top of School Hill in the centre of Lewes in East Sussex, prominently sited at the junction of High Street and Market Street. It commemorates 251 men from Lewes who died in the First World War, and 126 who died in the Second World War. It was unveiled in 1922 and became a listed building in 1985.
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Cairns War Memorial is a heritage-listed memorial at The Esplanade, Cairns, Cairns Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built in 1925. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
Hove War Memorial is a First World War memorial on Grand Avenue in Hove, East Sussex, on the south-east coast of England. The memorial was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens with sculpture by Sir George Frampton and closely resembles Fordham War Memorial in Cambridgeshire, which was also a collaboration between Lutyens and Frampton. It was unveiled in 1921 and is today a grade II listed building.
John Paul Jones Park is a public park located in Fort Hamilton, Bay Ridge, Brooklyn. The park borders Shore Road, Fourth Avenue, 101st Street, and Fort Hamilton Parkway. The park is currently managed by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, which was acquired from the city of Brooklyn in the year of 1897.
The Boyne Obelisk, a.k.a. King William's Obelisk was an obelisk structure located in Oldbridge, near Drogheda, County Louth, Ireland.
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